Message from the Minister

As Minister of International Development and La Francophonie, I am pleased to present the 2016-2017 Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada’s Official Development Assistance.

In accordance with Canada’s Official Development Assistance Accountability Act, we continue to meet the criteria of the Act and we are proud with our long-standing efforts to reduce poverty around the world, while also taking the perspectives of the poor into account and aligning our efforts with international human rights standards.


Official development assistance at a glance

In 2016-2017, 76% of Global Affairs Canada’s bilateral international development assistance investments either targeted or integrated gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, and over the next five years, it will increase to at least 95%.

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Contributions by department or agency (millions $)

  • Global Affairs Canada: 3,893.02
  • Department of Finance Canada: 492.82
  • Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada: 397.90
  • International Development Research Centre: 146.37
  • Other departments and agencies: 54.50

Areas of action

Canada’s new Feminist International Assistance Policy makes gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls the core driver for all of Canada’s development assistance efforts. The new policy also establishes this as a stand-alone action area. It focuses on specific multi-sectoral issues required to build the foundation for gender equality and achieve progress across all other areas.

Results around the world

Global Affairs Canada provides more extensive information about its development and humanitarian assistance projects on its Project Browser. The Project Browser is part of Canada’s continued commitment to open government and the International Aid Transparency Initiative.

Canada’s official development assistance (ODA) targets long-term development as well as peace and security and humanitarian assistance. It aims to respond to areas of particular need where Canadian experience, expertise and skills can add value.

In line with aid effectiveness principles, Canada provides assistance in collaboration with host country governments and in support of national poverty reduction strategies.

In 2016-2017, Canada delivered ODA to over 100 countries, both through multilateral and bilateral mechanisms, by working with Canadian, international and local partners.

The following map provides an illustrative overview of Canada’s ODA programming and the results that have been achieved in 2016-2017. For the most part, the countries featured on the map are those with which Canada had established country and regional programs. However, the map also includes major recipients of Canadian humanitarian and peace and security assistance.


Afghanistan is a deeply fragile and conflict-affected state. Ongoing conflict for over 35 years has had a destabilizing effect on social cohesion, exacerbating ethnic divisions and weakening government institutions and rule of law. Poverty is deep and widespread, and social indicators are still at very low levels.

Afghan women face huge challenges and violence against women is pervasive. For the vast majority of Afghan women, life is controlled under a strictly patriarchal society. This results in restricted freedom of movement and limited access to education, health care, justice and employment.

The overarching focus on women’s and girls’ rights and empowerment is integrated into all Canadian programming in Afghanistan. Canada supports programming that:

  • empowers and promotes women’s and girls’ rights
  • increases women’s economic opportunities
  • reduces women’s vulnerability to climate change
  • improves women’s health and that of their children
  • promotes reproductive rights
  • increases Afghans’ access to quality basic education

Further, Canada supports the Government of Afghanistan in its efforts to eliminate all known landmines and other explosive remnants of war from Afghanistan by 2023. This is in line with its commitments under the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention.

Association of Southeast Asian Nations Program

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region comprises 10 nations and is home to more than 625 million people. Despite ASEAN’s growing economic importance, it faces significant development challenges with more than 160 million people still living in poverty.

Various factors in the ASEAN region pose real threats to continued progress on poverty reduction and realization of the 2030 Agenda’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These factors include:

  • rising disparities in income, governance and opportunities across the region
  • vulnerability to natural disasters
  • the deterioration of the environment and natural resource base upon which most poor people depend

Canada’s development assistance in the ASEAN region is focused on inclusive growth that works for everyone. It does this by:

  • supporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and disaster risk management
  • supporting inclusive governance
  • promoting and protecting the human rights of vulnerable groups (these groups include women, migrant workers and ethnic minorities)


Bangladesh lies along the world’s most densely populated delta and is extremely vulnerable to natural disasters and climate change. Of the 161 million people in Bangladesh, an estimated 30 million live on less than US$1.90 a day. Gender-based violence is widespread, and Bangladesh has the second-highest rate of child marriage in the world.

Still, Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in poverty reduction, achieving many development goals, such as:

  • expanded health services for the poor, particularly women and girls
  • improved maternal health
  • a reduction in mortality rates among children under five years of age
  • primary school enrolment rates of 97.7%, with gender parity

Canada’s ODA in Bangladesh aims to improve human development through investments in health, education and skills, with a focus on the poorest, specifically women and children. Canada’s development program is helping to strengthen the capacity of both national and local governments to plan, manage, and monitor health and education delivery systems. Canadian assistance is also helping to strengthen the quality of market-responsive technical and vocational education training programs. These programs are accessible to the poorest and most vulnerable, including women, youth and persons with disabilities.


Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world. Poverty reduction is hampered by high population growth. The country ranks 167th out of 188 countries, according to the 2016 Human Development Index published by the UN Development Programme (UNDP). Almost half of the population lives on less than US$1.25 a day.

Significant progress has been made in education, the struggle against HIV/AIDS, reducing under‑five mortality and increasing access to safe drinking water. Benin's economy has enjoyed steady growth rates in recent years. Still, it remains largely dependent on cotton production, the foreign goods re-export sector and subsistence agriculture.

Canada’s development programming in Benin is aimed at supporting the Government of Benin’s 2016-2021 action plan.

Canada’s development priorities are well aligned with this program. One of the program’s three pillars is improving the living conditions of the population. That pillar is consistent with Canada’s programming. It aims to create growth that works for everyone by promoting micro-finance and improving agricultural resilience in the face of climate change. Particular attention is paid to strengthening women’s empowerment so that women become equal participants in the economic lives of their families and communities.


Bolivia is the poorest country in South America. Although classified as middle income, it is at the very low end of the scale. Indigenous people represent approximately 65% of the country’s 10 million people. Bolivia’s diverse and fragile ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change.

Since 2006, the Government of Bolivia has introduced economic and social reforms designed to meet the basic needs of the poorest people. As a result, the rate of poverty has dropped from 59% to 39%, and extreme poverty has dropped from 39% to 17%. Women and girls have not, however, benefited equally from economic growth. They are often marginalized, suffer violence and have limited access to, and control over, productive resources.

Canada’s development program focuses on:

  • diversifying local economies
  • strengthening the technical education system
  • reducing maternal and child mortality
  • promoting women’s rights, particularly sexual and reproductive health and rights
  • encouraging the participation of women in all spheres of society

Global Affairs Canada’s programming in Bolivia targets vulnerable populations—Indigenous populations in particular. Programming is anchored in the needs of communities. It integrates the perspectives of the poor, promoting participation in decision making, notably through cooperatives and the development of municipal health plans. In 2016-2017, in addition to International Assistance Review consultations, Canada held scores of meetings with organizations and associations. It did so to gather information on the needs and perspectives of communities.

Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso remains one of the poorest countries in the world. In 2015, more than 55% of its 18 million people lived below the national poverty line, and the country ranks 185th out of 188 countries on the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. Burkina Faso’s ranking on the UNDP Gender Development Index has deteriorated in recent years, placing the country 146th out of 159 countries assessed in 2015.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) considers Burkina Faso to be in the group of fragile countries. Burkina Faso achieved only modest results with respect to the UN Millennium Development Goals. However, it has made significant progress in basic education, access to safe drinking water and the struggle against HIV/AIDS.

For Canada, Burkina Faso is an important country for international development. Canada’s development priorities in Burkina Faso are to support the Burkina Faso National Plan for Social and Economic Development 2016-2020. This plan’s goal is to:

  • develop the human capital of the country
  • reform institutions and administration
  • revitalize the sectors driving the economy and employment

These pillars are consistent with Canada’s programming. It aims to help protect and maintain human dignity, among other things, through better access to quality education for girls and by strengthening governance of the education sector. Canadian investments are also helping to create growth that works for everyone. As well, investments are supporting income-generating activities for the most vulnerable populations, including women, and improving their access to energy and water.

Caribbean Regional Program

The countries that make up the Caribbean are disproportionately affected by global economic, financial and environmental crises. Their small island economies are often unable to cope with global economic downturns or extreme weather events such as hurricanes.

High debt levels and sluggish growth have resulted in increasing poverty and inequality, and have negatively impacted social development. Marked gender disparities exist in education, health and income. There is weak representation of women in leadership, and high rates of gender-based violence.

Canada has long-standing and strongly anchored links with the Caribbean, based on shared values, cultures and personal ties. Through international assistance, Canada contributes to human dignity, growth that works for everyone, environment and climate action, and inclusive governance in the region.

To address the Caribbean’s development needs, Canada is working with government institutions and civil society organizations to create a more competitive, productive and gender-equitable workforce and private sector. It is doing this by providing technical assistance to support micro, small and medium-sized enterprises and to increase access to training opportunities.

Canada is committed to inclusive governance in the region by strengthening the management of public finances, institutions and official statistics. Canada also works to improve the administration of, and access to, justice in the Caribbean region. Canada supports efforts to build regional capacity in climate change adaptation and mitigation. It also supports capacity-building efforts toward the response to, and management of, natural disasters. In addition, Canada is working to increase access to clean and renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies.


Colombia is a growing middle-income country, and an important political, development and commercial partner for Canada.

In 2016, the Government of Colombia concluded a historic peace agreement with the country’s largest guerrilla group (FARC). This ended a 50-year internal armed conflict that displaced over six million people internally. The conflict also resulted in one of the highest numbers of landmine casualties in the world. Despite promising progress toward peace and stability, challenges remain. These relate to poverty, violence, trafficking of illegal drugs and human rights abuses, which continue to be pervasive in some rural areas with limited state presence.

Canada has supported development, humanitarian assistance, peace and security initiatives in Colombia for more than 40 years. It has worked to ensure respect for human rights and respond to the challenges faced by Colombia’s most vulnerable populations. These vulnerable populations include:

  • Indigenous peoples and other minorities
  • child victims of violence and exploitation
  • internally displaced people
  • small farmers
  • landmine-affected communities
  • underprivileged youth

Canada’s development assistance focuses on three areas:

  • growth that works for everyone
    • there is particular emphasis on agricultural development, youth employment and entrepreneurship, and improved natural resources governance
  • human dignity through improved access to quality education for children and youth in conflict-affected rural areas
  • support for Colombia’s peace and post-conflict reconstruction efforts

All initiatives address gender equality and promote the empowerment of women and girls.

In 2016-2017, Canada announced $78.4 million in new international assistance funding to support Colombia’s peacebuilding and reconstruction efforts. This includes new projects in:

  • humanitarian demining
  • education
  • rural credit
  • transitional justice
  • human rights protection
  • reparations for victims

This programming will make a difference in the lives of thousands of conflict-affected women, men and children.


Cuba leads the Caribbean region in life expectancy, gender equality, education, health, social spending and disaster preparedness. Nevertheless, Cuba faces many development challenges.

At least 70% of its food is imported, wages are low, shortages of basic goods are chronic, and a dual-currency economy results in unequal access to goods and services. Cuba is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In recent years, it has experienced a greater frequency and severity of drought and hurricanes.

Cuba initiated broad reforms in 2007 and 2011 in an effort to modernize, diversify and decentralize its economy. Canadian development programming in Cuba aims to bolster agricultural production, strengthen food value chains and improve agricultural sector management. It will focus on supporting small farmers in particular, both women and men. Projects in sustainable economic growth include:

  • training and certifying workers in energy and industry
  • bolstering workplace safety
  • creating opportunities for women in non-conventional jobs

Canada is training and equipping Cuba’s auditors, improving economic governance through stronger public financial management. These initiatives support the implementation of Cuba’s economic and social reforms aimed at protecting social development. Reforms are also helping to lay the foundations for decentralization, modernization, diversification and improved productivity in the Cuban economy.

Democratic Republic of Congo

The Democratic Republic of Congo ranks 176th out of 188 countries in the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. Of a total population of 76.9 million, 87.7% live on less than US$1.25  a day. The under-five mortality rate and maternal mortality rate are among the highest in the world. One in seven children dies before the age of five and 13 out of every 1,000 women die in childbirth.

Early marriages are common. According to a World Bank report on child marriage, 40% of adult women are married before the age of majority —11% of them before the age of 15. A significant proportion of births are by adolescent mothers, with 4% bearing children before the age of 15 and 23% between the ages of 15 and 19.

The Democratic Republic of Congo is recovering from decades of dictatorship and civil war that led to the deaths of up to five million people. The country remains a fragile state and existing government structures are unable to meet the needs of the population.

Despite the national elections of 2006 and 2011, inclusive and accountable governance, peaceful pluralism and respect for human rights, including women’s rights, are precarious. The country continues to face an uncertain democratic transition. The humanitarian emergency is ongoing and sexual violence remains high.

The four focal areas of Canada’s country programming in the Democratic Republic of Congo are gender equality and empowerment of women and girls, human dignity, inclusive governance, and peace and security.


Egypt is a lower middle-income country that has been undergoing significant political changes since 2011. The country’s economic growth rate fell sharply following the Arab Spring protests that year. The state of the Egyptian economy is of ongoing concern.

Approximately 28% of the population lives below the poverty line, with poverty rates as high as 60% in rural Upper Egypt. Unemployment was at 12.5% in mid-2016, with higher rates among youth and women. A high population growth rate is placing additional pressure on infrastructure and services. Egypt has also been affected by the crisis in Syria. An estimated 120,154 Syrian refugees registered in Egypt in February 2017, according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

Canada’s current development programming in Egypt supports the country’s efforts to create employment through economic reforms, stimulate investment and promote private sector participation in the economy. In doing so, Canada is emphasizing the employment of youth and women and is supporting the growth of SMEs. Canadian assistance is also helping to strengthen the quality and range of Egypt’s market-responsive vocational, technical and professional training programs.

In addition, Canada is helping to improve the ability of the Government of Egypt and the country’s host communities to mitigate the impact of the Syrian refugee crisis. It is working with the Ministry of Education to provide quality education opportunities and services to vulnerable Egyptian and Syrian children. It is also strengthening social cohesion within host communities.


Ethiopia, with a population of approximately 100 million, is one of the world’s poorest nations. It ranks 174th out of 188 countries in the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. Despite this, Ethiopia has made major development strides. Poverty rates have fallen by one third since 2000 and Ethiopia met seven of the eight UN Millennium Development Goals.

Food security and malnutrition remain Ethiopia’s largest development challenges. Over 80% of Ethiopians rely on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods and more than 10 million people require emergency or developmental food assistance annually. While development results have been strong overall, important challenges remain. This includes challenges in terms of civic and democratic space and women’s and girls’ empowerment.

Canada has supported development and humanitarian assistance in Ethiopia for over 30 years, working to address the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable Ethiopians. Canada’s development assistance in the country is focused on:

  • gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls;
    • particularly through women’s economic empowerment and support to entrepreneurs
  • human dignity
    • with a focus on maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition
  • environment and climate action
  • growth that works for everyone
    • by improving food security
  • democracy and governance

Canada has been supporting flagship national programs that build resilience, improve agricultural productivity and enhance sustainable, climate-smart land management.


Despite achieving lower middle-income country status in 2010, Ghana ranks 139th out of 188 countries on the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. Pockets of vulnerability and poverty remain in many parts of the country, including northern Ghana, where 54% of the population lives below the poverty line.

Gender equality remains a concern. Ghana ranks in the “worst performing” category of countries in the UNDP’s 2016 Gender Development Index. Agriculture is Ghana’s largest employer, yet 80% of farmers live below the poverty line. More than 2.2 million Ghanaians cannot afford to feed themselves an adequate number of caloriesper day.

Similarly, only 15% of Ghanaians have access to adequate sanitation services. This factor significantly contributes to poor health outcomes and child mortality due to diarrhea-related illnesses. Unsustainable natural resource management practices, partly in response to climate-related stress, are affecting water availability and land productivity.

To address these needs, Canada focuses on the poorest and most vulnerable communities and seeks to address growing inequalities. Programming supports agriculture as an engine for inclusive growth, as well as an important area of investment to address the needs of Ghana’s poorest families. It supports climate-smart, resilient agriculture, specifically targeting women farmers.

Canada also supports improved access to water in underserved areas, as well as sanitation and hygiene services as a means of advancing the dignity of the poorest and vulnerable. Canada also contributes to improved health and nutrition indicators. Programming across all sectors targets women and aims to address the key barriers to the attainment of their full rights.


Although Guatemala's economy is relatively strong, 59% of the population lives below the poverty line and 24% live in extreme poverty. Poverty is particularly prevalent in rural areas with large Indigenous populations, and it disproportionately affects women and youth. Guatemala has one of the highest levels of income inequality in Latin America.

It also has one of the highest levels of chronic malnutrition in the world and is negatively affected by climate change. Further, inequality, insecurity and impunity are pervasive. This limits the country’s potential.

Canada’s development efforts in Guatemala support gender equality and inclusive governance. It does this through work on food security, climate change and the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala. Canada is engaged in programming that builds capacity and supports women leaders. This programming also ensures that gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls are integrated into all programming initiatives.


One of the world’s poorest countries, Haiti faces serious challenges around political governance, the rule of law, and social and economic development. Despite significant contributions in international assistance over recent years, its socio-economic indicators remain the lowest in the Americas.

The country has a population of 10.4 million and is ranked 163rd out of 188 countries on the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. Nearly 60% of the population still lives below the poverty line. The government’s limited institutional capacities and corruption add to the country’s difficulties and negatively impact Haiti’s long‑term development.

Haiti is particularly vulnerable to climate change, given its geographic location and limited level of development. It also has to contend with the additional challenges that arose in the wake of Hurricane Matthew on October 4, 2016. These challenges relate to food insecurity and the spread of cholera.

The February 7, 2017, inauguration of Jovenel Moïse as president of Haiti marked the country’s return to constitutional order following a period of interim governance. It represents a major step in strengthening the democratic process. With this in mind, extensive sectoral consultations were held in 2016-2017 with Canada’s support for the Haiti Consensus Roadmap project. This helped mobilize more than 500 people from the government as well as NGOs, businesses, multilateral organizations, and donors and scholars. Together, they worked to identify specific solutions to Haiti’s development challenges.

A list of development priorities in Haiti has been prepared, and among the 10 interventions with the greatest impact, three are directly related to Canadian co‑operation in Haiti (maternal and newborn health, access to contraception, and skilled birth attendance).

In Haiti, 2016-2017 was a year of prolonged political uncertainty and transition. After the presidential elections were postponed, an interim government was in place from February 2016 until February 2017, when President Moïse took office. While the interim government was in place, Canada limited the development of new initiatives supporting the Haitian government.

Canada nonetheless continued its commitment to vulnerable populations in the following priority areas:

  • gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls
  • growth that works for everyone
  • inclusive governance
  • peace and security

Haiti is the poorest country in the Americas and faces significant challenges in all areas. It continues to be a priority country for Canada. Global Affairs Canada is pursuing its dialogue with the new Haitian authorities to determine how best to address the country’s priorities.


Honduras remains one of the poorest countries in the region, with over 60% poverty rates. There are high levels of inequality and social exclusion, plus high levels of violence, corruption and impunity. These factors make Hondurans—and especially women, youth and other minorities—highly vulnerable to poverty, crime and human rights violations. The lack of economic opportunities, violence and internal displacement have led to significant levels of irregular migration toward North America. 

Canada’s development program in Honduras now focuses on growth that works for everyone, environment and climate action, human dignity and inclusive governance. It works to reduce poverty by targeting communities and beneficiaries in the vulnerable and remote Dry Corridor in southern Honduras. In addition, the program works to address human rights issues, including corruption and impunity, faced by the poorest and most vulnerable in Honduras.


With a population of 258 million, Indonesia is the world’s fourth most populous country. It is one of Asia’s most stable democracies and economies, and a voice for moderate Islam, pluralism and diversity.

Despite strong economic growth, an estimated 100 million Indonesians (or 40%) live on less than US$2 per day and the growth of one in three children is stunted. Income inequality here is the highest in Asia—Indonesia’s four richest men own more than the poorest 100 million.

Gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights are also significant challenges in Indonesia:

  • one in four girls marries before the age of 18
  • 305 maternal deaths occur per 100,000 live births (this is the fourth-highest maternal mortality rate globally in absolute numbers)
  • 2.5 million cases of unsafe abortion take place every year
  • 49% of girls under age 12 have undergone some form of female genital mutilation and cutting
  • rates of gender-based violence are increasing

Women continue to be concentrated in low-wage, low-value segments of the economy. With the rise of religious conservatism, women and religious minorities are further marginalized.

While Indonesia is one of the world’s top biodiversity nations, it also has one of the highest deforestation rates in the world. Indonesia is among the top 10 emitters of greenhouse gases, largely due to dependence on fossil fuels and the mismanagement of forests and land, including carbon-rich peatlands.

Canada is a long-standing development partner to Indonesia, having provided nearly $2 billion in assistance since 1954. Canada’s ODA in Indonesia aims to achieve sustainable and gender-equitable economic growth. It is doing this through investments in economic development, skills for employment and sustainable natural resource management. Canada’s ODA also aims to promote inclusive governance, human rights and pluralism.

The Inter-American Program

The Inter-American Program supports regional development activities in most of the countries that make up Latin America and the Caribbean. This region has the highest levels of inequality in the world—both in terms of wealth distribution and access to basic services and opportunities. Ten of the 15 most unequal countries in the world can be found in Latin America.

Persistent economic and social inequality disproportionately affect the poorest and most vulnerable, including Indigenous populations, Afro-descendants, women, children and youth. Violence and organized crime are increasing in parts of Latin America and the Caribbean. Despite the fact that this region has less than one tenth of the world’s population, one third of the world’s annual 450,000 murders take place here. Crime and violence are serious impediments to inclusive economic growth, and contribute to regional instability and irregular migration flows.

The Inter-American Program aims to tackle inequalities in the region with a specific focus on vulnerable populations, such as women, Indigenous people and children. The areas of focus are:

  • gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls
  • inclusive growth that works for everyone
  • human dignity
  • inclusive governance

The program focuses on issues best addressed at the regional or multi-country level, where economies of scale can be achieved. These issues include the strengthening of institutions, the creation of legal frameworks and the alignment of sectoral standards with international practices.

The program provides a mechanism to engage and create partnerships with multilateral, regional, and Canadian organizations and institutions. The program has, for example, worked to strengthen the capacity of key regional institutions to become more efficient and results-oriented. These include institutions such as the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Pan American Health Organization.


Iraq faces vast challenges: the ongoing conflict with Daesh, weak and divided state institutions, and a UN Level 3 humanitarian emergency, which has displaced some 4.5 million people. Level 3 is the highest level on this UN scale.

Canada has a three-year strategy from 2016-2019 for comprehensive security, stabilization, humanitarian and development assistance in response to the crises in Iraq and Syria, and their impact on Jordan and Lebanon. As part of this, Canada is working with Iraqi authorities to support a stable and more prosperous country.

In pursuing this goal, Canada’s main development programming priorities are in the areas of:

  • inclusive and accountable governance;
  • a stabilized and equitable economy through support for technical and vocational education and training; and
  • social services, particularly for women and girls.

Iraq’s decentralization efforts make Canada’s experience with federal-provincial relations particularly relevant. Canada is one of the few donors with a longer-term development assistance program for Iraq.


Since the onset of the Syrian conflict, Jordan has provided refuge to over 1.2 million Syrians, 655,000 of whom are registered as refugees. Of these, approximately 15% reside in camps while the vast majority live in rural and urban communities. This influx of people is straining the Government of Jordan’s ability to meet the needs of its citizens in critical sectors. This includes health, education, water and municipal service delivery.

Canada has a three-year strategy for comprehensive security, stabilization, humanitarian and development assistance in response to the crises in Iraq and Syria, and their impact on Jordan and Lebanon. In line with Jordan’s national plans, Canada’s programming in Jordan is strengthening the resilience and capacity of government, communities and people in:

  • education
  • economic growth, with a focus on women’s economic empowerment
  • municipal service delivery


Despite an impressive recent economic growth record, Kenya ranks 146th out of 188 countries on the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. Two out of five Kenyans still live on less than US$1.25 a day.

Significant obstacles to sustainable social, environmental and economic development remain in Kenya. These include:

  • regional insecurity;
  • resource-based conflict
  • cyclical drought
  • under-investment in natural resources
  • high unemployment and skills gaps among youth

Barriers to women’s empowerment continue to exist. Women have fewer opportunities for employment in both the public and private sectors. Complications from pregnancy and childbirth remain one of the main causes of death for women. Sexual and gender-based violence is a serious problem for women and girls in Kenya and transcends social and economic boundaries.

Canada’s development assistance in Kenya is addressing these issues by focusing on the poorest and most vulnerable groups. In particular, it is focusing on women, children and youth living in marginalized, drought-prone regions. Funding supports the following three areas:

  • human dignity
    • this is particularly through access to safe, quality basic education
  • growth that works for everyone
    • this is through improved SME development and enhanced technical vocational education and training
  • inclusive governance
    • this is through focusing on improved civic and political engagement and voter registration


Lebanon now hosts the highest number of refugees per capita in the world as a result of the ongoing Syrian conflict. This dramatic population influx, concentrated in the country’s poorest municipalities, has severely affected Lebanon’s capacity to deliver and maintain basic public services.

In order to address these challenges, the Government of Lebanon is working closely with the international community to shift the focus from a humanitarian response to a different approach. This new approach builds the resilience of individuals, communities and systems, and fosters longer-term sustainable development.

Canada has a three-year strategy from 2016-2019 for comprehensive security, stabilization, humanitarian and development assistance in response to the crises in Iraq and Syria, and their impact on Jordan and Lebanon. As part of that strategy, Canada has recently re-established its development programming in Lebanon. It focuses on efforts to provide inclusive, quality education as well as training and employment opportunities that benefit the most vulnerable.


Mali remains one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 179th out of 188 countries on the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. An estimated half of Mali's population (15.8 million) lives on less than US$1.25 per day and half of the population is under the age of 15.

The country has an illiteracy rate of about 66% among adults. Infant and maternal mortality rates, as well as malnutrition rates, are among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2012, Mali was plunged into an unprecedented multidimensional crisis following a coup d’état. The depth of the crisis has since exposed the fragility of the Malian state and the country’s socio-political challenges.

A peace and reconciliation agreement was signed in Mali in June 2015. But the country is still faced with spreading insecurity and major development challenges. These relate to health and education, economic growth, climate change, human rights and inclusive governance.

In 2016-2017, Canada was the second-largest bilateral donor to Mali. Canada’s ODA in Mali supports:

  • access to health and education, with a focus on the poorest
  • inclusive economic growth and women’s economic empowerment
  • inclusive governance, human rights and women’s rights


Landlocked Mongolia has made significant progress since its shift to a market-based open economy in 1990. Half of Mongolia’s three million people live in or around Ulaanbaatar, the capital city. More than one in five Mongolians still struggles to live on less than US$1.25 per day, and the country ranks 92nd out of 188 countries on the UNDP's 2016 Human Development Index.

Despite progress made over the last decade, there are persistent inequalities in social development and economic opportunities, particularly for women. In addition, the mining-driven economic growth has a significant environmental footprint that is unsustainable. Mongolia is also highly vulnerable to climate risks because of its geographic location, extreme weather and fragile ecosystems.

Canada's international development country program in Mongolia is closely aligned with Mongolia's development priorities, which focus on ensuring human development, improving economic competitiveness and decreasing rural-urban disparities. The goal of Canada's assistance is to help the country meet its human dignity and poverty reduction targets. Canada aims to do this by:

  • advancing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls
  • strengthening public service capacity
  • fighting corruption, particularly in the management of natural resources


Morocco is currently one of the most stable countries in North Africa and an emerging country as well. It is implementing numerous sectoral strategies, a number of infrastructure programs and an aggressive trade policy with sub-Saharan African countries.

Although it has, so far, not been touched by the turmoil seen elsewhere in the region, Morocco continues to face major economic, political, social and security challenges. The main challenge will be to address social, economic and geographic inequalities. This is necessary to answer numerous citizen expectations regarding youth unemployment, poverty and education.

The ultimate objective of Canada’s programming in Morocco is to help foster greater prosperity and a better future for young Moroccans, especially the most disadvantaged. The current programming focuses on human dignity and growth that works for everyone. Canada’s projects help to:

  • improve education and youth employability; and
  • meet labour market needs and support women’s economic empowerment, the opening of markets and the green economy.

Gender equality is a major theme, and all projects must directly address women’s rights issues.


Despite years of solid progress and growth, Mozambique continues to rank near the bottom of the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index, ranking 181st out of 188 countries. In Africa, Mozambique is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change, and it remains dependent on international assistance.

Gender inequalities are entrenched and hamper progress. Maternal mortality remains stubbornly high, compounded by gender-based violence, child marriage, a shortage of sexual reproductive health services and social inequalities. There is, however, a commitment by the Government of Mozambique to improve gender equality. The government plans to do this by addressing important drivers of child, early and forced marriage. It also plans to assure the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women and girls, including access to safe abortion.

To help address these challenges, Canada continued to seek lasting, systemic change and improvement of the delivery of services to Mozambicans. Canada continued to have a strong presence in the health sector. It helped promote excellence in maternity hospitals, update civil registration and vital statistic systems, and improve water and sanitation services in the province of Inhambane.

Canada was also a trusted partner in supporting Mozambique’s priorities, outlined in its five-year plan. This was especially the case in human and social development, addressed through a contribution to the health and education sector pooled funds. In order to support inclusive economic opportunities for Mozambicans, Canada has promoted skills training, especially for women. It has also promoted access to finance and business know-how for small businesses.


Though rich in natural resources, Myanmar continues to be a fragile new democracy that has only recently opened up to the world after decades of isolation and military rule. It has one of the highest levels of poverty in southeast Asia and suffers from ongoing human rights issues, high levels of corruption and macroeconomic instability.

Myanmar is also vulnerable to climate change and is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the region. Its long history of ethnic conflict has also seriously undermined the country’s institutions in all areas, including governance, the economy and social service delivery.

In recent years, Canada’s bilateral development relationship with Myanmar has grown significantly. The two countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding for Effective Development Cooperation in February 2017. The goal of Canada’s development program has been to:

  • strengthen democracy by improving inclusive and accountable governance, which contributes to peace
  • improve the prosperity and well-being of targeted populations, particularly women, the rural poor and young people

Canada’s development program is well aligned with both Canada’s and Myanamar’s priorities on projects that:

  • address the impacts of climate change
  • empower women economically
  • understand federalism
  • promote inclusive governance
  • increase capacity for evidence-based policy making


In spite of significant reductions in poverty in recent years, Nicaragua remains one of the poorest countries in the Americas. It has the second-lowest gross domestic product per capita in the western hemisphere, and 30% of the population lives below the national poverty line. Poverty is concentrated in rural areas, with half of rural residents living below the poverty line.

Agriculture employs a third of the workforce, of which over 60% are subsistence farmers with some of the lowest productivity rates in the region. Productivity is hindered by low levels of basic economic infrastructure—particularly access to electricity and irrigation—and very low use of technology in production and post-production processes. In addition, Nicaragua is highly vulnerable to adverse climate events. This disproportionately affects small-scale subsistence farmers.

Sixty-five percent of the country’s population is under the age of 30. They face significant challenges due to limited job opportunities, low levels of education and skills, and pressure to migrate, particularly for those in rural areas.

Canada’s development program in Nicaragua focuses on inclusive growth and poverty reduction. It targets communities and beneficiaries located in the vulnerable and remote Dry Corridor region of the country. Synergies are built into various projects to support subsistence farmers and small-scale entrepreneurs in the area. By supporting the extension of Nicaragua’s electrical grid, Canada is also helping to bring electricity to poor rural and remote communities. Electricity is a key input for both economic and social development.


Nigeria is a lower income country and ranks 152nd out of 188 countries on the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. Of a population of 182 million people, about 56 million live in extreme poverty.

Nigerian women, girls and children bear the brunt of poverty. Every single day, Nigeria loses approximately 2,300 children under the age of five and 145 women of childbearing age. This makes the country the second-largest contributor to under-five and maternal mortality in the world. One in nine Nigerian children never reach the age of five.

Early pregnancy of malnourished adolescent girls is one of the many factors contributing to the country’s high maternal mortality rates. UNICEF reported the maternal morality rate in 2015 as 814 per 100,000 live births. Sexual and reproductive health and rights of women and girls are a neglected area in Nigeria. Fewer than 20% of health facilities offer emergency obstetric care. UNICEF reported that in 2014, only 35% of deliveries were attended by skilled birth attendants.

Unemployment resulting from lack of livelihoods also fuels violence and makes youth vulnerable to radicalization by terrorist movements such as Boko Haram.

To address these gaps, Canada’s programming focuses on the poorest and most vulnerable, notably in the north of the country. Programming supports community-level health issues, including sexual and reproductive health. Programming also helps reduce the burden of diseases—for example, by supporting polio eradication. Canada supports agriculture as an engine for inclusive growth for unemployed or underemployed youth. Programming across all sectors targets women and aims to address key barriers preventing women from attaining their full rights.


Pakistan, the world's seventh most populous country, faces numerous challenges in poverty, governance, climate change and human rights. A history of military rule and weak civilian management has eroded democratic institutions and limited the provision of quality social services.

Significant human rights challenges exist, and women and girls suffer disproportionally in this regard. Pakistan ranks 147th out of 188 countries in the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index, and 143rd out of 144 countries in the World Economic Forum's 2016 Global Gender Gap Index. 

Canada's development assistance in Pakistan addresses one of the country's main challenges. That is gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, and the protection and promotion of their rights, including sexual and reproductive rights. There are significant ongoing opportunities for Canada to promote women's economic empowerment and political participation. Canada can also help strengthen women's organizations and address the high prevalence of gender-based violence.

In addition, Canada supports polio eradication efforts, a key priority from a global health perspective. Most of the world’s remaining polio cases are found in Pakistan. Despite significant progress, continued transmission in Pakistan and Afghanistan highlights the importance of a concerted effort to ensure:

  • adequate surveillance
  • high levels of immunization coverage
  • rapid outbreak responses

Pan-Africa Regional Program

Africa, the fastest growing continent in the last decade, has experienced strong economic and social progress. The continent has also made some advances on regional integration and collaboration. This is essential for the development of the continent. Its economies are small, it has a number of landlocked countries and transboundary issues are important, including those exacerbated by climate change.

However, Africa faces huge challenges. African countries often still rank among the lowest in many areas of human development. Africa’s development challenges are worsened by the continent’s vulnerability to climate change. This is due to its high susceptibility to dramatic environmental shifts (drought, storms and temperature), poor infrastructure (including water infrastructure) and low adaptive capacity. This worsens food insecurity and increases poverty.

Women and girls often suffer the most in Africa. There are unacceptably high rates of gender-based violence. Almost one out of every two African women have experienced some kind of sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. Women are also often in vulnerable, low-paid jobs, and unable to actively and productively participate in trade at the national and regional level.

Global Affairs Canada’s Pan-Africa Regional Program supports African-wide poverty reduction and development objectives through regional integration and collaboration. As a regional program, the program looks to the priorities of the African Union to help develop programming that is relevant for the continent.

The program has a strong emphasis on inclusive and green economic growth and, in particular, on intra-African trade, infrastructure, natural resources governance and agriculture. More recently, the program has increased its focus on gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, and the environment and climate action.


Peru is a middle-income country that has experienced impressive economic growth rates over the last decade. Poverty declined from 56% in 2005 to 21.8% in 2015.

However, many communities in Peru continue to experience poverty, inequality, environmental degradation and social conflict. Extreme poverty (under US$1.90 a day) declined from 27.6% in 2005 to 9% in 2015. It remains largely concentrated in rural areas, particularly in highland and Amazon regions. Inequality is especially high among Indigenous peoples in rural areas, and women and girls.

Canada’s development program focuses on reducing poverty and inequality. The emphasis is on education, economic diversification and governance to help reduce poverty. Canada supports human rights, including the rights of girls and women, in its programming. The Peru program meets frequently with more than 30 partners on the ground regarding community priorities. The program held consultations on the needs and perspectives of the poor with over 150 individuals and organizations during Global Affairs Canada’s 2016 International Assistance Review.


The Philippines is a lower middle-income county in transition to middle-income status with an important exception—the region of Mindanao. This region is experiencing a high degree of fragility, security challenges and significant poverty.

Despite almost a decade of strong economic growth, there remains a significant issue of inequitable distribution of wealth. In 2016, over 25 million Filipinos were living below the national poverty line (24% of the population). In fact, 12 million people were living in extreme poverty (12.5% of the population).

Canada’s Philippines program is focused on improving opportunities for sustainable and inclusive economic growth for poor women and men in the Philippines. This includes improving the enabling environment for all businesses. There is a specific focus on supporting women micro, small and medium-sized entrepreneurs with financial literacy and links to markets. The program has also worked to help youth improve their chances of landing their first jobs by assisting in life skills training and a job placement program.

Since 2015, the program has helped those affected by 2013’s Typhoon Haiyan to rebuild their livelihoods. This has included the introduction of climate-smart agriculture, value chain development and other climate adaptation efforts. The Philippines has a well-developed women’s rights and gender equity network that will play a key role in future programming to fight poverty and inequality in the Philippines. Recent programming has also focused on growth that works for everyone.


Senegal has acquired a reputation for its vibrant democracy. This follows decades of peaceful political transitions marked by freedom of the press, progress in gender equality and freedom of association. In 2012, the government proposed an ambitious strategy, the Emerging Senegal Plan, which aims to accelerate Senegal’s path to emerging market economy status.

The government has undertaken major reforms and the country is making progress. However, despite recent gains, Senegal still ranks only162nd out of 188 countries in the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index. The low quality of education results in high failure and dropout rates, especially among girls. The large proportion of youth in the population poses a challenge to training and puts pressure on the labour market.

Practices harmful to the health of women and girls persist and continue to undermine the rights of women and girls. This includes early marriages and pregnancies, and limited access to sexual and reproductive health services. Despite a substantial increase in agricultural production, Senegal is struggling with the effects of climate change. These effects are threatening the productivity of the country’s agricultural sector.

To overcome these challenges, Canada’s country program directs its assistance to sectors that meet the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable people. This is based on the vision of the Emerging Senegal Plan. Canada will assist in the areas of:

  • human dignity
    • through education, vocational training, and sexual and reproductive health
  • inclusive governance
    • through public finance management and human rights
  • growth that works for everyone
    • through agriculture and water management

South Africa

Despite a progressive constitution and 23 years of democratic rule, South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world. Key challenges include high levels of poverty, weak public sector capacity and high unemployment. This is coupled with an unskilled labour force and unequal access to basic public services.

The perception of corruption and government inability to provide equitable access to basic public services has eroded public confidence. This perception has worsened in the face of economic challenges. The result has been increasingly violent protests, xenophobia and a fractured social compact.

While South Africa has made strides in establishing a strong legislative and policy environment to support gender equality and empower women, there remain significant challenges. This is particularly true in the area of sexual and gender-based violence and discrimination. South Africa has one of the highest rates of violence against women and children in the world. Few resources are devoted to prevention and prosecution, or support to victims.

Canada’s development assistance in South Africa focuses on inclusive governance. It is helping the Government of South Africa to use its resources transparently and effectively to deliver essential public services to its citizens, particularly vulnerable groups. Current governance programming is supporting improved social housing, local green economic development and enhanced pediatric care services. Ultimately, this helps reduce poverty and inequality.

South Sudan

South Sudan remains one of the poorest and most fragile countries in the world. Protracted armed conflict and ethnic violence, widespread human rights violations and rapid economic decline have continued to increase humanitarian and development needs in recent years. South Sudan ranks 181st out of 188 countries on the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index.

Health indicators are among the worst in the world and the literacy rate among adults is only 27%. Food production has collapsed and food insecurity and malnutrition have reached unprecedented levels. More than one in three people in South Sudan are now thought to be severely food insecure.

Women and girls face particular challenges, including significant levels of sexual and gender-based violence and an extremely high maternal mortality rate. A woman in South Sudan has an approximately one in seven chance of dying in childbirth.

Global Affairs Canada’s South Sudan development program is focused on meeting the basic needs of the poorest and most vulnerable, particularly women and girls. This includes support for the delivery of gender-sensitive basic health services, with a focus on the needs and rights of women and girls. It also includes support for efforts to increase local food production, improve livelihoods and strengthen resilience to hunger.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a lower middle-income country that has made considerable economic progress since the end of the decades-long armed conflict in 2009. Despite relatively good overall health and education standards, though, Sri Lanka's developmental gains are uneven.

There are significant regional disparities with pockets of poverty primarily in the northern, central and eastern provinces. Competitiveness and economic growth prospects remain tenuous. This is due in part to labour issues such as a shortage of skilled labour, low productivity, low female participation in the formal workforce and youth unemployment.

Sri Lanka also faces ongoing and significant challenges for achieving long-term reconciliation, peace and stability. This includes the need to build sound systems of governance and ensure the inclusion of minorities, as well as marginalized and vulnerable groups, in all spheres of life. Women and girls face additional challenges, including the high incidence of sexual and gender-based violence. Women’s rights organizations at the local level also lack the resources to engage effectively in advocacy.

In 2016-2017, Global Affairs Canada’s Sri Lanka development program supported the economic well-being and social integration of the poor and most vulnerable. This includes women and girls and those affected by Sri Lanka’s conflict. Canada’s support helped strengthen:

  • the agricultural production and enterprise development of former internally displaced persons
  • the vocational skills of youth in high-demand trades, such as hospitality and construction


Violence in Syria is ongoing, with little sign of the conflict abating. There are some 6.3 million internally displaced people, and humanitarian needs are increasing. The level of destruction and collapse of social services have impacted the ability of communities to maintain livelihoods, essential services and productive assets.

The conflict has radically reshaped the demographics of a region with an already delicate ethnic and religious balance, and scarce resources. Refugees from Syria and Iraq have poured across the borders of neighbouring states to escape fighting. The majority are being absorbed into local communities in Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan. As a result, the populations of towns that were already hard-pressed to provide essential services doubled and tripled.

Canada has a three-year strategy for comprehensive security, stabilization, humanitarian and development assistance in response to the crises in Iraq and Syria, and their impact on Jordan and Lebanon. As part of that, Canada’s development programming for Syria focuses on:

  • building the resilience of individuals, households, communities and systems so they can better withstand the effects of the crisis
  • enabling the international community and Syrians to prepare for eventual efforts to rebuild the country

Given immediate needs inside Syria and the ongoing challenges to delivering long-term development assistance to the people of Syria, Canada’s support is heavily focused on shorter-term, life-saving humanitarian assistance.


Tanzania is one of the most peaceful and stable countries in Africa. It has enjoyed a decade of high growth and falling poverty rates. Solid gains have been achieved in areas such as health, education, child mortality and water access. That being said, Tanzania still ranks 152nd out of 188 countries on the UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index.

The number of people living in poverty is persistently high and disparity is increasing between rural and urban areas. Several factors risk undermining sustained and inclusive growth, including:

  • a largely unskilled and young population
  • low productivity (particularly in the rural sector where 70% of the population resides)
  • weak institutions
  • an increasingly challenging business environment
  • gender inequalities

Tanzania is committed to reaching targeted SDGs by 2030 and middle-income country status by 2025. It intends to do this in part through policies aimed at industrializing the country’s economy.

In 2016-2017, Canada’s assistance to Tanzania sought to reduce poverty and inequality. It did this by promoting healthier, better educated citizens and supporting policies, programs and projects that will generate growth that works for everyone. Canada’s assistance in health is delivered through enhanced health systems and services, including sexual and reproductive health and rights. Canadian help specifically addresses reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.

Through education programming, Canada supports teacher training as a strategy to increase the quality of education. Inclusive growth has been targeted to supporting SMEs, skills development, and accountable and transparent governance of natural resources, and improving the business environment.


Following Ukraine’s Revolution of Dignity in 2014, Ukraine faced daunting political and economic challenges. Though Ukraine has achieved significant progress, the country’s democratic and economic reform efforts are being heavily impacted by the protracted conflict in eastern Ukraine. It not only poses a threat to the country’s territorial integrity, but also to its social, economic and political development.

Canada increased its development assistance to Ukraine, aiming to reduce poverty in the country by supporting efforts to stabilize the economy and reduce citizens’ vulnerability. Canada’s assistance also aims to strengthen the country’s democracy through increased citizens’ participation, strengthened independent media and judiciary, and promotion of the rule of law. Through its current development programming, Canada is one of the central supporters of Ukraine’s democratic and economic reform efforts, particularly in critical areas such as governance, fiscal and agricultural reforms.


Vietnam has implemented market reforms and achieved significant economic growth and poverty reduction over the past decade. Nevertheless, as Vietnam remains a one-party state, corruption and excessive regulations and state controls continue to constrain development.

Canada has ongoing concerns regarding rights to freedom of expression and association. Significant pockets of poverty remain, concentrated mainly in the northern border areas and central Vietnam. It is also one of the countries most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

Since Vietnam became eligible for Canadian development assistance in 1990, Canada has contributed over $1.3 billion toward projects. In 2015-2016, total Canadian funding to Vietnam was $73.77 million.

Canada’s development program responds to the Government of Vietnam’s demand for specialized technical assistance, and focuses primarily on programming in support of inclusive green growth. All projects also address gender equality. Current projects aim to:

  • strengthen economic foundations
    • this will foster an environment in which the private sector can grow and thrive
  • improve the technical and vocational educational system
    • this will ensure that the private sector can hire the work force they need as Vietnam integrates into and competes in the global economy
  • help grow businesses through improved access to business development services and credit

West Bank and Gaza

Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza face significant governance, economic and humanitarian challenges largely related to the unresolved conflict with Israel and internal Palestinian divisions. Poverty is widespread, food insecurity is a key problem and unemployment is high, especially among women and youth. According to the UN, nearly half of the population living in the West Bank and Gaza requires humanitarian assistance to meet their basic needs. Palestinian refugees are particularly vulnerable, enduring higher unemployment and poverty rates than non-refugees.
To respond to these needs in the West Bank and Gaza, Canada supports efforts to:

  • help advance the peace process
  • promote security and the rule of law
  • stimulate economic growth
  • deliver humanitarian assistance to refugees and non-refugees alike

This assistance reinforces diplomatic efforts to support the goal of a comprehensive, just and lasting peace achieved through a negotiated two-state solution.

Official Development Assistance Disbursements by Department and Agency for 2016-2017

Note: Figures in this table exclude repayments of loans and repayable contributions. All reflows will be reported separately in the Statistical Report on International Assistance (Fiscal Year 2016-2017). All disbursements are preliminary and may change following further verification. Final figures will appear in the statistical report.

Department or AgencyDisbursements (Can$ millions)
Global Affairs Canada$3,893.02
Department of Finance Canada$492.82
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada$397.90
International Development Research Centre$146.37
Royal Canadian Mounted Police$26.03
Environment and Climate Change Canada$16.63
Department of National Defence$4.45
Canada Revenue Agency$1.82
Public Health Agency of Canada$1.04
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada$1.01
Employment and Social Development Canada$0.98
Natural Resources Canada$0.76
Parks Canada$0.68
Canada Post$0.40
Canadian Food Inspection Agency$0.39
Statistics Canada$0.20
Royal Canadian Mint$0.07
Canadian Intellectual Property Office$0.03
Health Canada$0.01
Services supporting Global Affairs Canada activities$18.06

Official Development Assistance Accountability Act

The Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (ODAAA) came into force in 2008 with the purpose of ensuring Canada’s official development assistance (ODA) is provided with a central focus on poverty reduction, and in a manner consistent with Canadian values and aid effectiveness principles. For precise details, read the full text of the ODAAA.

Supporting the Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, world leaders agreed on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—a global action plan to eradicate poverty and build peace around the world. The 2030 Agenda’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and 169 targets are integrated and indivisible, and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: social, economic, and environmental.  Unlike the Millennium Development Goals, this is a universal agenda that applies to and requires action by all countries.

Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy

On June 9, 2017, the Government launched Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy. The policy adopts an integrated approach to development, humanitarian, and peace and security assistance centred on gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls as the most effective way to reduce poverty and build a more inclusive, peaceful, and prosperous world. That commitment will be put into action through six action areas.

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