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Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada's Official Development Assistance — 2014-2015
- Message from the Minister
- Official Development Assistance Disbursements by Department for 2014-2015
- Canada’s Leadership: Delivering on Our Commitments
- Canada’s Thematic Priorities for International Assistance
- Appendix I – Canada’s Engagement with Canadian and International Organizations
- Appendix II – Highlights of Official Development Assistance Activities by Department
Message from the Minister
As the new Minister of International Development and La Francophonie, I am pleased to present the seventh annual Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada’s Official Development Assistance.
The 2014–2015 Report highlights the efforts of 16 Government of Canada departments and agencies in the delivery of international development assistance. It also describes the crucial role played by Canadian civil society and our numerous global partners in this effort. It demonstrates that by working together, Canadians can help make the world a better place.
Canada’s newly elected government will fully engage with Canadian and international development communities to guide our approach to reducing poverty and inequality. We will ensure that Canada’s official development assistance will champion the values of inclusivity and peaceful pluralism. Canada will continue to promote respect for human rights, including the rights of women and refugees, as we exercise international leadership.
We know that much work remains to be done in order to achieve the world’s common goal of effectively alleviating poverty and global suffering. This includes fighting climate change, which threatens the achievement of long-term development results. Our government is committed to supporting the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development through both innovative and proven practices.
To achieve this goal, our fundamentals need to be strong. We will ensure that Canada’s resources are allocated and disbursed for maximum effectiveness. We will ensure that our international assistance is driven by evidence-based decision making and outcomes. And throughout, we will ensure accountability to Canadians.
I am delighted to have this opportunity to work with the department, alongside our Canadian and international development partners, to achieve these objectives.
The Honourable Marie-Claude Bibeau, P.C., M.P.
Minister of International Development and La Francophonie
This report is a requirement of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and presents a summary of the Government of Canada’s official development assistance (ODA) activities and initiatives. It describes the collective efforts of 16 federal departments and agencies which—along with key partners of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada—worked to advance Canada’s ODA priorities in 2014-2015.
Poverty alleviation through development assistance is an expression of Canadians’ compassion and generosity for the less fortunate. Canada’s development assistance is reducing global poverty and making the world safer while also advancing Canada’s security, prosperity and values at home and abroad.
In 2014-2015, Canada disbursed a total of $5.37 billion in ODA. This report provides highlights of results achieved. Where available, results specific to 2014-2015 are included. In cases where data for 2014-2015 is not yet available, longer-term development outcomes are referenced. A second report, the Statistical Report on International Assistance, presents a detailed financial report of the Government of Canada’s international assistance expenditures and will be published on the DFATD website in March 2016.
Since 2009-2010, Canada has focused on five thematic priorities for the delivery of its international assistance:
- Stimulating sustainable economic growth;
- Increasing food security;
- Securing the future of children and youth;
- Advancing democracy; and
- Promoting stability and security.
These priorities are making our efforts more effective, focused, stable and efficient, ensuring that Canada’s investments lead to concrete results for the world’s most vulnerable.
In 2014-2015, Canada’s bilateral development assistance was primarily delivered in 25 countries. The number of development countries of focus increased from 20 to 25 in 2014 and as a result, increased the proportion of Canadian bilateral assistance these countries receive from 80 to 90 percent. New countries added to the list of development countries of focus are Benin, Burkina Faso, Burma, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Jordan, Mongolia and the Philippines.
Countries of Focus :
- Burkina Faso
- Caribbean Region
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- South Sudan
- West Bank and Gaza
Canada has demonstrated international leadership in improving maternal, newborn and child health and reducing the number of preventable deaths of mothers, newborns and children under the age of five in developing countries. Furthermore, again last year, Canada provided significant contributions in response to global humanitarian needs, to alleviate suffering, and maintain the dignity of those touched by tragedies.
To tackle the last barriers to development and bring people out of poverty in the developing world, Canada works with a variety of partners. A diverse toolkit maximizes Canada’s ability to improve the lives of poor and vulnerable people and produce timely and effective results. The government worked with Canadian and international non-governmental organizations to engage their development expertise and initiative, as well as with key partners from the private sector. Canada also supported a number of multilateral development institutions, global initiatives and international humanitarian assistance organizations to fulfill its international development mandate of helping people living in poverty. Working closely with these partners, Canada responded quickly to humanitarian crises and pressing global development challenges. Canada also worked to ensure that these institutions and the multilateral system function effectively, deliver strong results and remain viable mechanisms for building consensus on important global issues. The Government of Canada is committed to increasing transparency and accountability as part of its Aid Effectiveness Agenda, and provides regular reports to Canadians on its international development plans, activities and results throughout the year. This includes making available information on more than 3,000 international development projects funded by the Government of Canada. Since 2011, Canada has been a member of the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI), which has developed an international standard to make information about international assistance-spending by donor countries, developing-country governments and non-governmental organizations easier to find, use and compare.
The Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (ODAAA) came into force in 2008. Its purpose is to ensure that all Canadian ODA is focused on poverty reduction and is consistent with aid effectiveness principles and Canadian values. The Act applies to all federal departments and agencies providing ODA, and it requires the Government of Canada to report annually to Parliament on its development assistance activities.
In the context of the Act, ODA is defined as international assistance that is administered with the principal objective of promoting the economic development and welfare of developing countries, or that is provided for the purpose of alleviating the effects of a natural or artificial disaster, or other emergency, occurring outside Canada.
The Act establishes three conditions that must be satisfied for international assistance to be considered ODA. Assistance must:
- contribute to poverty reduction;
- take into account the perspectives of the poor; and,
- be consistent with international human rights standards.
The Act requires that a report containing the total amount spent on ODA and a summary of eligible activities be tabled in Parliament annually by the Minister of International Development on behalf of the Government of Canada.
ODA-related terms and definitions used in this report are consistent with international reporting standards agreed upon by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC).
Official Development Assistance Disbursements by Department for 2014-2015
Sixteen Canadian federal government organizations disbursed ODA funds in 2014-2015. Final financial information and additional details will appear in the Statistical Report on International Assistance, to be posted on DFATD’s website by the end of March 2016.
|Department||DisbursementsFootnote 3 (CAD millions)|
|Compiled by DFATD on behalf of the Government of Canada|
|Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada||3,618.61|
|Department of Finance Canada||1,344.42|
|International Development Research Centre||193.67|
|Citizenship and Immigration Canada||126.66|
|Royal Canadian Mounted Police||25.93|
|Public Health Agency of Canada||20.28|
|Employment and Social Development Canada (Labour Program)||1.00|
|Canada Revenue Agency||0.68|
|Canadian Intellectual Property Office||0.05|
|Services supporting DFATD activitiesFootnote 4||19.01|
Canada’s Leadership: Delivering on Our Commitments
Improving Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
Improving the health of mothers, newborns and children around the world is one of Canada’s top development priorities. As part of a global community, Canada has delivered on the promise to support global efforts to end the preventable deaths of mothers, newborns and children younger than age five. Between 1990 and 2013, the number of women who died each year during pregnancy or childbirth decreased from 523,000 to 289,000, and the number of children younger than age five who died each year decreased from 12.7 million to 6.3 million.
Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (2010-2015)
At the 2010 G-8 Summit, Canada launched the Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health to accelerate progress in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) four (reduce child mortality) and five (improve maternal health). G-8 members and other partners committed US$7.3 billion to improve maternal and child health in the world’s poorest countries between 2010 and 2015, including Canada’s commitment of $2.85 billion. At the end of fiscal 2014-2015, Canada had fully disbursed its commitment.
Through Canada’s support to global and Canadian partners, the following results were achieved between 2010 and 2014:
- More than 14.5 million bed nets distributed to protect families from malaria;
- More than 190,000 health workers trained;
- More than 1.5 million people—over 80 percent of whom are women and children—provided with access to water and sanitation services;
- More than 85,000 HIV-positive pregnant women provided with treatment to prevent the transmission of HIV to their newborns;
- More than 177 million children provided with two annual doses of vitamin A; vitamin A is not only a key nutritional element important for healthy development, immunity and eyesight, but it also helped to save over 600,000 child lives by reducing their risk of disease and death from severe infections;
- More than 5.8 million children received life-saving vaccinations against leading diseases;
- Nearly 3.7 million pregnant women received iron and folic acid supplements for healthier pregnancies; and
- More than 18.1 million treatments for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea were provided through integrated community case management, which reaches families who may not have access to health facilities.
Through the Muskoka Initiative, Canada identified 10 countries of focus and, in partnership with these countries, realized significant gains in child and maternal health. Since 2010, these gains include the following:
- In South Sudan, 2,739,025 children received treatment for deadly diseases such as diarrhea and pneumonia. In addition, 562 primary health-care facilities and 15 hospitals are now operational, increasing the availability of basic health-care services for women and children.
- In Ethiopia, 1,600,340 severely malnourished children were treated.
- In Tanzania, more than 10,000 community health workers were provided with training, and made household visits to promote better maternal, newborn and child health.
- As the largest donor to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in Afghanistan, Canada has contributed to the vaccination of over 8 million children.
- In Haiti, health-care services have been provided to more than 74,000 pregnant women and 223,000 children under the age of five, contributing to an overall reduction in maternal and child mortality.
Complementing Canada’s focus on accountability for results and improved maternal, newborn and child health, the Muskoka Initiative Consortium Knowledge Management Initiative, a project involving CARE Canada, Plan Canada, Save the Children Canada, and World Vision Canada, along with the following partners: the Centre for Global Child Health at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto, are collaborating to contribute to global evidence on best practices in maternal, newborn and child health interventions, and use data from 10 projects in seven developing countries to assess the collective impact of some of Canada’s investment in maternal, newborn and child health.
Combined results show that in selected project communities:
- 712,262 women received essential health care before, during or after childbirth;
- 21 percent more women were assisted by a skilled birth attendant;
- 14 percent more pregnant women received four prenatal checkups;
- 50 percent more mothers received postnatal care for themselves or their babies; and
- 70,461 community health and health facility workers were trained.
The information resulting from analysis of project data will contribute not only to global evidence but will also provide concrete strategies and recommendations for improved programming in maternal, newborn and child health around the world.
With support from the Government of Canada, the Canadian Network for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (CAN-MNCH)—a collaboration of over 80 organizations working to save the lives of vulnerable women, newborns and children in the developing world—supported Canada’s MNCH objectives through the promotion of best practices and the dissemination of results achieved in this area. In 2014-2015, CAN-MNCH organized, in tandem with key global MNCH events, a communications campaign, #Canada Cares, through which 16.9 million Canadians received key messages about Canada’s MNCH efforts in developing countries. CAN-MNCH also held a speakers series promoting exemplary practices in monitoring and evaluation and distributed hundreds of information kits to Canadian Members of Parliament and their constituents to help them better understand MNCH activities undertaken by Canadian organizations.
Canada’s Forward Strategy on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (2015-2020)
Despite the progress being made in improving the health of women, newborns and children, significant gaps remain: the annual numbers of women who die during pregnancy or child birth and children who die of preventable causes before their fifth birthday are still unacceptably high.
In recognition of this global challenge, Canada hosted the Saving Every Woman, Every Child Summit in May 2014, calling on existing and new partners to renew their support and ensure that maternal and child health is central to the international development agenda beyond 2015.
Following the Summit, Canada hosted a series of consultations as part of the commitment to deepen and expand existing and new partnerships aimed at advancing Canada’s MNCH Forward Strategy. In addition, Canada worked closely with the Office of the UN Secretary-General for the renewal of the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health to serve as a roadmap for improving maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health through 2030.
In May 2014, a new whole-of-government initiative—the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program—was launched, bringing together DFATD, IDRC and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. The $36-million investment over seven years will harness knowledge to improve the health of women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. Twenty research teams, linking African and Canadian researchers and African decision-makers, will develop practical, cost-effective solutions to health system challenges in 14 countries, with a focus on reducing maternal, newborn and child mortality.
In November 2014, Canada launched the Partnerships for Strengthening Maternal, Newborn and Child Health call for proposals, designed to fund initiatives from Canadian partners that contribute to improving maternal, newborn and child health. The call for proposals closed in January 2015 and 107 applications were received. As a result of this process, 36 initiatives—awarded a total DFATD contribution of up to $421 million—were selected for their proposed work in 31 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
Also in November 2014, Canada announced an early and increased pledge of $500 million to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, for its 2016-2020 Strategy, which aims to immunize 300 million more children by 2020, saving as many as 6 million more lives. This significant contribution helped ensure Gavi reached its $7.5 billion target during its last replenishment conference in January 2015. At the conference, Canada announced an additional $20 million to support La Francophonie countries, further demonstrating the importance of immunization to the delivery of Canada’s forward agenda for MNCH.
Furthermore, at the end of November 2014, Canada renewed its commitment to the Micronutrient Initiative by providing $150 million from 2014 to 2019. This investment is expected to support the delivery and administration of an estimated 200 million vitamin A and zinc supplements twice per year to children under the age of five, as well as increase the production of iodized salt to reach an estimated 120 million people each year. This support will also allow the Micronutrient Initiative to administer iron and folic acid supplements to approximately 80 percent of pregnant women in the regions targeted by the initiative, primarily sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
Improving civil registration and vital statistics systems (CRVS) across the developing world is critical to ensuring the health of newborns and children, and an important component of the Muskoka Initiative. By strengthening national CRVS registries, countries can improve the planning and delivery of maternal, newborn and child health-related services. A legal identity and a birth certificate for each child helps reduce their risk of being exploited, provides access to education and, later in their lives, helps them to get jobs and exercise their democratic rights. However, despite the importance of CRVS, more than 100 developing countries still lack well-functioning CRVS.
At the United Nations General Assembly in September 2014, Canada joined the World Bank Group, Norway and the United States in announcing the Global Financing Facility (GFF) in Support of Every Woman Every Child. Canada then announced a contribution of $200 million to the GFF. The GFF was officially launched in July 2015 at the Financing for Development conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The goal of the Global Financing Facility is to accelerate efforts to end preventable newborn, child, adolescent and maternal deaths and improve the health and quality of life of women, adolescents and children. The GFFwill focus on strengthening national-level systems to collect the data development planners and businesses need to design effective programs and services in health, education and economic growth, and could prevent up to 3.8 million maternal deaths, 101 million child deaths and 21 million stillbirths in 63 high-burden countries by 2030. The Global Financing Facility will include specific support for civil registration and vital statistics systems in developing countries, to which $100 million of Canada’s total contribution will be dedicated.
The Story Behind the Results: When the Child Is Healthy, the Mother Is Happy
Syeda Sultana Roushan Jahan, a 40-year-old mother of two, has visited the Bangladesh headquarters of the World Health Organization’s Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Dhaka many times. It is where she came to get her first child immunized and now, on this warm and sticky morning, she has come back to start vaccinations for her second baby. With the calm of an experienced mother, she watches as the doctor holds part of the baby’s thigh and slowly inserts the needle. The child starts to wail and Syeda laughs and bends her head down to kiss his tears. She knows the vaccine will help to build up her baby’s immune system and protect him from deadly diseases. “When the child is healthy, the mother is happy,” she says with a smile.
Syeda is one of a dozen mothers at the clinic. The EPI, which was introduced by Bangladesh’s government in 1979 with the help of UNICEF, is one of the country’s biggest success stories. As recently as 1985, only about 2 percent of Bangladeshi children were vaccinated against preventable diseases. Today, that percentage has reached 82 percent—and is still rising.
The EPI’s objective is to eradicate vaccine-preventable diseases. With the support of donors like Canada, the EPI is credited with preventing approximately 200,000 deaths a year in Bangladesh. Its success in achieving and maintaining polio-eradication status, and in staying on course to eliminate measles by 2016, is widely acknowledged all over the country.
“EPI is doing good things in our country,” says Syeda. “Everyone is quite pleased with this program because, so far, in the rural areas everyone is completing these free vaccinations. We rarely see someone suffering from polio or tuberculosis, so we are doing well.”
Canada’s $12 million multi-year contribution to the EPI (2011-2015) supported the procurement and installation of equipment, such as cold rooms and ice-lined refrigerators, to ensure the proper storage and safe handling of vaccines. This has increased the percentage of children under two who receive all vaccines with the right antigens, at the right time, from 79 percent to 82 percent.
In Bangladesh, as in any country with a high population density, the battle against preventable and infectious diseases is hard-fought. Initiatives such as the EPI contribute greatly to levelling the playing field.
Responding Quickly and Effectively to International Humanitarian Crises
The past 10 years have seen a growing need for humanitarian assistance due to the increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters and the civilian impact of ongoing conflicts around the world. The period 2014-2015 was no exception. Global humanitarian needs reached even higher levels. This was mainly due to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa as well as the intensification of conflict in Syria, Iraq, South Sudan and the Central African Republic that led to global levels of displacement not seen since the Second World War.
In 2014-2015, Canada provided humanitarian assistance in response to complex emergencies (including conflict, food insecurity and non-recurrent health epidemics) in 52 countries and responded to 23 natural disasters.
Canada worked through partners, such as Canadian civil society organizations and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, which have the mandate and capacity to respond to priority needs and are able to reach those who need help the most. With the support of Canada and other donors, the International Committee of the Red Cross assisted 7.7 million internally displaced persons in 2014.
Canada also supported humanitarian agencies of the United Nations, as these organizations can have a significant global reach. For example, with the support of Canada and other donors, the World Food Programme provided emergency food assistance to 80 million people, while the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees assisted over 43 million displaced people and refugees throughout the world.
|Country||Humanitarian Assistance ($ millions)|
|* Assistance was provided as part of Canada’s response to the Syrian refugee crisis.|
|Democratic Republic of Congo||19.15|
|Central African Republic||18.61|
Canada, via researchers at the Public Health Agency of Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory, announced a donation of 800 vials of its experimental Ebola vaccine, VSV-EBOV, to the WHO. The vaccine was delivered to the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève for storage and to conduct clinical trials in Europe and Africa. In March 2015, DFATD, IDRC, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Public Health Agency of Canada announced their joint support for Phase III clinical trials of the vaccine in Guinea.
Health Canada also assisted the WHO and African countries affected by Ebola in the review of vaccine clinical trials and other regulatory activities associated with the approval of potential therapies and vaccines.
The Fight Against Ebola
The Ebola crisis in West Africa, which began in 2014, was one of the largest epidemics in recent history. By the end of March 2015, the disease had claimed over 10,000 lives. The outbreak took a terrible toll on the most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Apart from the thousands killed, the epidemic affected livelihoods, disrupted basic services and undermined national economies. With the support of Canada and the international community, the epidemic was brought under control. However, significant ongoing attention is required to eradicate Ebola and to assist the most affected countries to recover.
In 2014-2015, Canada’s whole-of-government response addressed the health, humanitarian and security implications of the crisis in West Africa. Canada also made in-kind contributions to the effort to contain the Ebola outbreak.
For example, the Public Health Agency of Canada deployed Canadian public health experts to provide laboratory, emergency management, epidemiology and border health expertise. Such deployments were facilitated through partnerships with various international partners, including Doctors Without Borders/ Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DFATD’s Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) also deployed a Canadian civilian expert to the UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response in support of the mission’s crucial work to meet local populations’ immediate needs and coordinate the international response to the crisis.
Canadian Armed Forces Support of Canada’s Response to the Ebola Outbreak in Sierra Leone
On December 20, 2014, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) deployed a team of 37 personnel to Sierra Leone to work alongside their U.K. military colleagues in the Kerry Town Treatment Unit, Sierra Leone, in support of Canada’s whole-of-government response to the Ebola outbreak. This facility was established to treat suspected and confirmed cases of Ebola in foreign and local health-care workers, U.K. Ministry of Defence and other U.K. government personnel, U.K. citizens and other international staff. In February 2015, with the reduction in capacity of the facility due to the reduced requirement, the CAF contingent was reduced to approximately 25 personnel and remained at this level until June 2015.
The CAF also provided strategic airlift assistance to the U.K.’s Department for International Development and Ministry of Defence to deploy personnel, vehicles and equipment from the United Kingdom to Sierra Leone. The CAF also provided strategic airlift assistance to DFATD and the Public Health Agency of Canada to deliver urgently required personal protective equipment (128,000 face shields) to the WHO in Sierra Leone in October 2014.
In addition, in November 2014, the CAF developed an interim aeromedical evacuation capability for Ebola-infected patients that provided the Government of Canada with the required assurance to allow an increased deployment of Canadian health-care workers and specialist personnel to the region.
The deployment of CAF personnel and the provision of strategic airlift to Canada and the United Kingdom directly contributed to the ability of local and international health-care workers to continue to deliver health services to the affected populations.
Canada’s in-kind contribution also supported Ebola treatment efforts. In 2014-2015, through the Public Health Agency of Canada, the government donated personal protective equipment to the WHO to help protect health-care workers on the front line of the Ebola outbreak. Over 260,000 protective face shields were shipped to Sierra Leone and Liberia.
To reduce associated threats to health and security posed by Ebola, Canada provided financial support to the WHO to assist other countries in the region, namely Mali, Senegal and Burkina Faso, in strengthening preparedness efforts to prevent the spread of the disease. This included ensuring that countries were ready to effectively and safely detect, investigate and report potential Ebola cases and mount an effective response.
Finally, Canada provided financial support to humanitarian partners playing a critical role in gaining the upper hand against the epidemic. For example, UNICEF organized 50,000 volunteers, health workers and teachers to sensitize and mobilize communities to adopt safe behaviours and prevent the disease from spreading, and trained 100,000 teachers to do so within their schools and communities. Canadian support also enabled Doctors Without Borders to operate 17 Ebola treatment centres and transit centres in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone through the course of the outbreak. As of May 28, 2015, MSF had admitted and treated more than 9,626 patients, of whom 5,179 were confirmed cases of Ebola. Close to 2,450 patients have survived.
Canada’s Response to the Situation in Syria
The conflict in Syria is entering its fifth year and the humanitarian situation continues to deteriorate. At the end of 2014, over 12 million people inside Syria were in need of humanitarian assistance and close to 4 million Syrians had fled to neighbouring countries, making this the largest displacement crisis in the world.
In 2014, Canada provided more than $150 million in assistance to support the humanitarian response to the Syrian crisis. Through Canada’s support, our humanitarian partners provided drinking water to 16 million people, food assistance to 4.1 million people and emergency relief supplies to more than 3.2 million people.
In January 2014, Canada announced $50 million in humanitarian funding to the No Lost Generation initiative. Canada provided an additional $63.2 million in fiscal year 2014-2015, bringing our total support to $113 million. This initiative is helping to ensure that children affected by the crises in Syria and Iraq are provided with a protective environment and learning opportunities. With Canada’s support, No Lost Generation implementing partners reached over 985,000 children with education support and 660,000 children with psychosocial support, and provided 60,000 adolescents with vocational training opportunities.
Canada’s Thematic Priorities for International Assistance
Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth
focusing on sustainable economic growth can generate the financial resources governments in developing countries need to invest in the well-being of their citizens, while building resilience to social, economic and environmental shocks. A dynamic, growing economy will increase revenue generation and create employment, leading to higher continued personal and household incomes that can benefit the most impoverished.
Canada announced the establishment of the Canada-Asia Trade and Investment for Growth Program (TRIGR). The program is designed to reduce poverty through sustainable economic growth using capacity building initiatives to increase trade and investment-related economic activity in Asia.
In 2014-2015, Canada’s sustainable economic growth initiatives focused on: building economic foundations; growing businesses; and investing in people.
Building Economic Foundations
Canada provided support to the governments of developing countries so they would be able to create the right conditions and implement the institutional frameworks needed to build foundations that promote investment, innovation and economic growth. Canada helped strengthen developing countries’ ability to implement financial and economic management that is sound and transparent, and to establish public policies that encourage private investment and reduce corruption.
In 2014-2015, Finance Canada managed the provision of $400 million in two low-interest concessional loans to help Ukrainians stabilize their economy and promote social development. The loans, provided under the Minister of Finance’s authority under the Bretton Woods and Related Agreements Act, were disbursed by Export Development Canada acting as the government’s agent. Canada’s support to Ukraine was provided as part of a broad package of international support, including from the International Monetary Fund, to restore the country’s macroeconomic stability and promote robust growth over the medium term. Both loan agreements included accountability mechanisms to ensure that the funds are used in a manner consistent with Canadian development priorities.
Through the International Monetary Fund, Canada supported technical assistance activities to help countries build capacity in addressing public debt, balance of payments and financial sector crises. For example, in Suriname, the country’s central bank is well on the way to adopting real-time gross settlement and automated clearing house systems for the country’s payments system, and the accuracy, consistency and timeliness of data from the central bank have improved as a result. In Haiti, the architecture of the accounting function has been designed, and its establishment in government is ongoing. As well, Haiti’s Ministry of Economy and Finance and central bank have endorsed the country’s updated Treasury Single Account implementation strategy.
In 2014-2015, in Ghana, a more predictable and effective local tax and revenue generation system was developed and piloted in three local government districts. This resulted in the assessment and integration into the property tax system of 3,244 businesses and 18,157 residential properties, setting the stage for increased government revenues.
In Senegal, strengthening the Court of Auditors—the equivalent of the Office of the Auditor General of Canada—and the National Office for the Fight Against Fraud and Corruption (Office national de lutte contre la fraude et la corruption, OFNAC) helped the government of Senegal to fight corruption. The Court of Auditors is now able to handle cases more effectively and OFNAC will publish its first annual report, which is already gaining considerable attention from local media and civil society.
Despite recent progress, more than one quarter of Latin America’s population lives in poverty. To address this challenge, the Graduation Program—a new collaboration between the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Colombia-based Fundación Capital, and the Ford Foundation—will help governments in the region assess, fine-tune and roll out successful approaches that help households “graduate” from poverty. The project will shed light on the cost effectiveness of new measures such as savings and financial literacy programs and livelihoods training.
The Story Behind the Results: Women Honey Producers in Casamance (Senegal) Become Self-sufficient Through Innovation
Initially, there were 25 women. Today, there are only seven. But those who remained were right to persevere. Because of their tenacity, fearlessness and enthusiasm for their work, and also thanks to the Canada-funded Economic Development of Casamance Programme (2009-2018), they have turned their village, Saré Souma, into a hot spot for honey production in Senegal.
The beekeepers of the Groupement de promotion féminine [women’s advancement collective] of Saré Souma, in the Kolda region, produce a honey known throughout Senegal and beyond. They produce several varieties of honey and also collect beeswax, which is used to make candles.
While their production quintupled in less than 10 years—from 1,463 kg in 2004 to 7,961 kg in 2013—and their revenue increased sevenfold over the same period—from 1.4 million CFA francs (approximately $3,000) to 9.8 million CFA francs ($21,000)—their journey was not an easy one, even though they benefited from constant support from the Government of Canada in Senegal!
In the village, beekeeping had been practiced using traditional hives, hung in trees, but it was reserved for “caste” members* and elderly persons. In addition, it was considered inappropriate for a woman to practice beekeeping. The budding beekeepers not only chose to break taboos, they also opted to introduce a more modern type of hive that offers significant technological advances. At the same time, the collective benefited from the construction of a honey processing facility, which improved both the quality of the product—the honey met Canadian standards—and the financial viability of the activity.
In 2011, thanks to the program and the women’s involvement, the restructured beekeeping facility increased its processing capacity to nearly 15 tonnes per harvest.
In addition to equipment, the members of the collective benefited from capacity-building sessions focused on harvesting techniques, honey processing and packaging, the use of raw wax, and administrative and financial management. The women also took leadership training. But they obviously had determination, since they stuck with it in spite of resistance. Their former detractors are now the first to encourage the women of Saré Souma. The increase in their incomes has translated into a marked improvement in household living conditions. In reality, all of Saré Souma is benefiting from the vitality of the women beekeepers. For example, the women financed the rehabilitation of the village’s well and provided the school with tables and benches.
“Beekeeping has had positive and encouraging results in our community, helping to increase incomes and create jobs,” said the president of the collective, Fatoumata Niamadio. “It has also allowed members to establish solid and productive social relationships. The social position of women has clearly improved in terms of marital harmony and access to basic social services.”
The success of the women of Saré Souma has had a ripple effect in Casamance. The program is currently supporting eight other, mainly women’s, collectives’ that want to set up beekeeping facilities. It contributes to the economic empowerment of women and to gender equality in one of the most disadvantaged regions of Senegal. Nearly 3,000 women have received support from the program.
*Several West African societies are structured according to a caste system that determines certain hereditary professions, especially craft-related ones.
Developing countries must equip themselves in order to increase the financial sustainability, productivity and competitiveness of their micro, small and medium-sized businesses, and thereby create more jobs for the poor, including women and youth. They must also strengthen financial products and services, and make them available to their population.
In 2014-2015, Canada’s contribution to the Agriculture Finance and Insurance System project in Haiti helped agro-entrepreneurs in 20 communities gain improved access to agricultural financing through grants of over 12,000 agricultural credits, for a total of $15.7 million. Since 2013, Haitian agro-entrepreneurs have received over 21,700 agricultural credits (23 percent of which went to women), for a total of $28 million.
In Ethiopia, the World Bank’s Women Entrepreneurship Development project, supported by Canada, helped 2,500 women access larger individual loans by reducing collateral requirements and other barriers that limit women’s access to finance.
During the 2014-2015 reporting period, the Community Infrastructure Improvement Project, implemented by Care Canada and funded by Canada, supported 2,070 female workers in Pakistan transition from road maintenance jobs to securing livelihoods in agriculture, retail and other service-oriented businesses.
Promoting growth that benefits the poor is also an ongoing IDRC focus. In 2014-2015, to empower women in small business, IDRC announced a $560,000 grant to WEConnect International to give 500 women-owned businesses in India greater access to global markets. The grant is helping women entrepreneurs succeed in global value chains by registering and certifying them, and linking them to overseas buyers. This pilot project will eventually help to promote women entrepreneurs from 17 other countries.
Investing in People
Whether in the workplace or through skills training, it is important that people in developing countries develop their skills and knowledge in order to access jobs and reap the economic benefits.
To that effect, Canada provided $5.5 million to Jordan’s Business Development Center to scale up and improve the delivery of skills development programs for youth, such as human resource management, sales and interpersonal relations. In 2014-2015, 2,179 young women and men graduated from these skills development programs.
In Bangladesh, Canada worked through the World Bank to provide stipends for technical and vocational education and training programs for students from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds. Over two years, the project reached 96,329 students, including 14,082 women, surpassing the target of 82,000 students. Canada is also collaborating with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association to provide training to 10,000 low skilled or unskilled garment workers, including women and people with disabilities. In 2014-2015, 840 garment workers (92 women and 748 men) were trained, with 84 percent employed within three months.
In the Philippines, through the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development, an initiative supported by Canada and implemented by the Canadian Urban Institute and Colleges and Institutes Canada, more than 8,600 people, 55 percent of whom were women, improved their skills to align with industry needs and develop more profitable businesses. These included micro and small entrepreneurs, smallholder farmers and low-skilled workers in the tourism and agribusiness sectors.
In Colombia, between 2010 and 2015, through the Sustainable Development for Youth in Rural Nariño project with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Canada helped 2,643 vulnerable youth living in regions affected by armed conflict improve their business management capacity and skills for employment. This project also helped 1,837 youths participate in 57 micro businesses established by the project, improving their entrepreneurial skills.
Since 2008, IDRC has managed the Think Tank Initiative, a major funding partnership that is building strong and independent policy research institutions in the developing world. Thanks to commitments from IDRC, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Norwegian government, 43 organizations are now supported by roughly $100 million in new funding—an amount additional to a similar amount made available in the Initiative’s first phase.
Increasing Food Security
In many parts of the world, food insecurity and malnutrition threaten the livelihoods and health of hundreds of millions of people. Today, close to 800 million people face chronic hunger and 2 billion people suffer from hidden hunger, also known as micronutrient deficiency. For these men, women and children, the lack of access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food remains one of the major obstacles to escaping poverty.
In 2014-2015, Canada mobilized engagement on global food security, nutrition and sustainable agricultural development. In Southeast Asia, Canada provided $4.5 million to support Grow Asia, a regional platform developed by the World Economic Forum and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Secretariat, to facilitate new public-private partnerships and mobilize investments for agricultural development. On nutrition, Canada continues to support the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement and other key partners in global efforts to improve the nutrition of women, newborns and children. For a second year in a row, Canada exceeded its $250-million minimal annual commitment under the Food Assistance Convention, an international treaty whose objective is to ensure quality food aid is available on a predictable basis to help meet the food needs of developing countries.
In 2014-2015, Canada’s food security initiatives focused on: sustainable agricultural development; food assistance and nutrition; and research and development.
Sustainable Agricultural Development
Canada’s investments in sustainable agricultural development helped smallholder farmers increase their agricultural productivity, improve resilience to extreme climate conditions, improve agricultural value chains and assist partner governments to develop effective agricultural policies.
Canada’s support to the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) provided training to 3.5 million people in crop production practices and technologies, and 1.2 million people in business and entrepreneurship. In addition, over 25 million people benefited from improved access to rural financial services.
In Ukraine, up to 11,364 farmers received support from Canada through the International Finance Corporation for training and implementation of post-harvest handling innovations and storage solutions. In addition, they obtained greater access to agricultural finance in order to address the significant losses of grain that result from underdeveloped storage infrastructure, lack of new technologies and limited access to finance.
In Ethiopia, support through the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) more than doubled the number of households using sustainable land management practices such as rehabilitation of degraded watersheds, terracing hillsides and building water harvesting systems. Additionally, in Honduras, Canada’s food security efforts through support to Oxfam Québec helped train 4,100 smallholder farmers in sustainable agricultural production and soil and water management, enabling families to increase their annual incomes by 46 percent over four years, from US$1,100 in 2010 to US$1,460 in 2014.
In addition, Canada’s agriculture programming improved the lives of women. For example, in Ghana, Mennonite Economic Development Associates (MEDA) helped 3,937 women farmers to increase soybean production, strengthen their market opportunities by launching a new soybean processing plant, and improve their knowledge about nutrition, including on new soy-based products such as milk, tofu and yogurt. Additionally, in South Sudan, a total of 58,920 households were employed in the DFATD-funded World Food Programme’s food-for-work and cash-for-work activities (75 percent of those employed were women). These activities resulted in the construction and rehabilitation of 361 km of community roads, the production of 2.5 million seedlings, and the clearing and conversion of 15,121 ha for cereal farming. These activities benefited 412,000 rural poor.
In 2014-2015, the Department of Finance provided $10 million towards AgResults via the World Bank Group. AgResults is an innovative, results-based initiative aiming to enhance smallholder farmer well-being and food security in the developing world. Specifically, AgResults uses pilot projects that incentivize the adoption and/or the development of demand-driven solutions in order to address important agricultural and food security challenges. Through a pay-for-results format, AgResults leverages private sector investment and innovation, all the while stimulating increased food security and sustained economic growth. The World Bank Group manages the financial intermediary fund through which donors make their contributions towards this initiative.
Since AgResults was launched in 2012, significant progress has been made in implementing pilot projects. For example, in Nigeria, AgResults is implementing a project that focuses on addressing aflatoxin contamination of maize by providing economic incentives for the adoption by smallholder farmers of Aflasafe, a new biocontrol technology. The project is designed to incentivize the adoption of this technology through results-based payments that are tied to the number of kilograms of maize treated with Aflasafe collected from maize aggregators. As at December 31, 2014, more than 3,400 farmers and nine maize aggregators were participating in the program, representing more than 5,100 ha of land. Since the beginning of the project, an estimated 19,000 metric tons of maize have been aggregated and tested for Aflasafe (an estimated 95 percent of which is Aflatoxin-free), yielding an estimated US$240,000 in premium results-based payments. In 2014-2015, AgResults partners also worked on developing new pilot project ideas focused on innovative solutions to global agricultural and food security challenges.
Food Assistance and Nutrition
Canada responded to vulnerable populations affected by conflicts, natural disasters and situations of food insecurity by providing emergency food assistance and nutritional interventions. In addition, Canada provided food assistance and nutrition programming in developing countries to help improve the food security, health and nutritional well-being of populations affected by chronic poverty.
In 2014, Canada provided an estimated $375 million in food assistance funding to 17 partners, including support for in-kind food commodities, cash-based programming, nutritional interventions and livelihoods programming (i.e. the provision of seeds and tools). With the help of Canada’s support and other donors, the UN’s World Food Programme reached 80 million beneficiaries in 82 countries throughout 2014. Countries suffering from chronic food insecurity and those experiencing conflict or protracted crisis, or hosting refugees—such as Ethiopia, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo—were among the top recipient countries of Canada’s food assistance funding.
Canada’s support to nutrition provides life-saving nutrition supplements and improves nutrition-sensitive agricultural approaches. Through Canada’s support, the Micronutrient Initiative (MI) reached over 150 million children under five with two doses of vitamin A; 750,000 pregnant women received iron and folic acid supplements; 1.4 million metric tons of salt was adequately iodized for potential consumption by approximately 370 million people; and 327,000 children under five with diarrhea received treatment with zinc and oral rehydration solution. Canada’s support to Helen Keller International also saved an estimated 128,000 child lives due to twice-yearly receipt of vitamin A supplementation and an additional 55,000 lives due to the twice-yearly receipt of deworming tablets.
DFATD’s support to the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health contributed to the development and release of new varieties of iron-fortified beans that help to reduce iron deficiency. By the end of 2014, nine new varieties were released in Rwanda, reaching about 800,000 households, and 10 new varieties were released in the Democratic Republic of Congo, reaching about 350,000 households.
Research and Development
Canada supported agricultural innovation by funding research partnerships and strengthening national and regional research systems that develop and deliver new practices and technologies to smallholder farmers.
For example, Canada’s support to Ghana’s Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development helped to fund 27 innovative community projects implemented by Ghanaian organizations. One of these projects developed new onion production methods that increased onion yield by 33 percent—from 9 tonnes per acre to 12 tonnes per acre—decreased post-harvest losses from 41 percent to 27 percent, and earned farmers a price increase of up to 500 percent.
In 2014-2015, support to a regional project of the Africa Rice Center improved the capacity of local rice farmers, processors and marketers in applying new technologies and innovations for producing high-quality rice that meets market demand in eight countries of the region, including Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal. A notable success was the development of a new user-friendly, efficient and locally built rice thresher machine that mechanically separates rice grains from panicles without damaging the grains.
Through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint DFATD-IDRC initiative, Canada has helped to sustainably enhance yields, nutrition and food security among 383,000 smallholder farmers in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. In CIFSRF’s first phase of research, which ended in March 2015, Canadian and developing-country experts participated in 21 projects, testing some 144 innovations and practices such as new livestock vaccines, high-yielding and nutritious crop varieties, and tools that empower women farmers. For example, researchers working in South Africa and Canada completed the laboratory testing of three potential candidates for a first-ever vaccine against African swine fever, a devastating disease that is endemic to Africa. CIFSRF’s second phase, now underway, focuses on scaling up market-ready innovations for greater global food security impact.
In 2014-2015, DFATD and IDRC, together with the Australian Government, helped to test strategies for responding to the emergence of infectious diseases—including avian flu, severe dengue and others—under the Ecohealth Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Initiative. The findings from 17 research teams in China and Southeast Asia have shaped policies that reduce disease transmission and improve food safety management. For example, these solutions are now enabling families to raise poultry under safer conditions, enrich family diets and generate extra income.
The Story Behind the Results: Focusing on Nicaragua’s Next Generation of Farmers
Although the world’s food is grown in rural areas, people living in these areas are not free from malnutrition, a condition that affects young children in particular. There are many challenges involved in increasing food security, including low productivity, high costs and gaps in modern techniques and technologies. By targeting the men and women farmers of the future in northern Nicaragua, Solidarité Union Coopération (SUCO) is helping the next generation to overcome these challenges and ensure the future success and sustainability of rural farmers.
Since 2010, with support from Canada, SUCO’s PROGA-Jeunes project has helped more than 1,000 Nicaraguan young people improve production yields on their experimental agricultural plots. In addition, 107 ha have been cultivated using agro-ecological farming practices, 36 facilitators and technicians have been trained, 502 young people and their families have received training on gender equality, and 140 environmental protection and 614 productive infrastructure projects have been implemented.
One of these young farmers-in-the-making, 20-year-old Duglas Mendez Espinoza, runs a farm near San Andrés together with his parents and four brothers. Through training and technical guidance provided by PROGA-Jeunes, Duglas and his family have increased their farm revenues by 80 percent by diversifying crops, adopting agro-ecological practices and marketing part of their production.
“I didn’t know how to farm effectively,” said Duglas. “Traditional methods were very expensive. At first, my family and I were not convinced that agro-ecological methods would be successful, especially since our neighbours told us we would face crop diseases and pests.”
One such infrastructure project is also a source of pride for 16-year-old Dimas Ramón Olivas Sánchez: a rearing pond for tilapia he built himself that can hold 200 fish. Thanks to this pond and the knowledge Dimas acquired from the PROGA-Jeunes project, the family farm has tripled the number of its income-generating food products, from 5 to 15. “With all of these products, my family has access to food for at least 10 months of the year,” said Dimas.
Securing the Future of Children and Youth
Our world is home to nearly 2.2 billion children and 1.8 billion youth, nearly half of the world’s population. Among them, more than 90 percent live in the developing world. While great strides have been made to ensure that children and youth are provided with the right care, education and protection, millions still face obstacles that hinder them from becoming active and productive members of their societies.
November 20, 2014 was the 25th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The UNCRC is strong and unambiguous: all children have the right to survive and develop to their full potential, free from violence, exploitation, abuse and discrimination. In 2014-2015, Canada made numerous investments in the well-being and empowerment of children, including renewing commitments to maternal, newborn and child health; increasing support for the Global Partnership for Education; and joining the Together for Girls partnership to end violence against children, especially sexual violence against girls.
Canada has worked throughout the year to uphold and safeguard the rights of children. This includes supporting girls and boys, and young men and women to reach their full potential and become healthy, educated and productive citizens.
In 2014-2015, Canada’s children and youth programming focused on: improving child survival, including maternal, newborn and child health; improving equitable access to quality education and learning opportunities for children and youth, with a special focus on girls; and ensuring that children and youth live lives free from violence, exploitation and abuse, including the harmful practice of child, early and forced marriage.
Improving Child Survival, Including Maternal Health
Scaling up efforts on child survival is a vital necessity at a time when over 6 million children under the age of five are dying every year, mostly from preventable and treatable conditions. Many more become sick, sometimes with life-long consequences, or fail to thrive due to a lack of appropriate health care. Diarrhea, malaria and respiratory infections are some of the biggest killers of children under the age of five. In addition, every minute of every day, a woman dies in pregnancy or childbirth, increasing further the risk of her child dying as well.
A woman’s safe and healthy pregnancy and delivery can be ensured through antenatal care and assisted delivery by skilled and properly equipped health professionals (physician, nurse or midwife). Preventing and treating major childhood illnesses through high-impact interventions (e.g. immunization, malaria bed nets, micronutrient supplements, safe drinking water, basic sanitation and hygiene programs, prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV) are crucial to ensuring children survive beyond the age of five. As a prerequisite to child and maternal health, national health systems must be strengthened with sufficient human and financial resources. This will make it possible to provide reliable and safe basic health programming that meets the needs of mothers and their children.
Canada has advanced efforts to end child, early and forced marriage (CEFM) and in building international momentum to end this practice. CEFM is a widespread and harmful practice that threatens the lives and futures of girls around the world. CEFM denies girls their right to childhood, disrupts their access to education and jeopardizes their health. Moreover, it hinders development. When girls are not able to reach their full potential, everyone suffers—girls, their families, communities and countries.
Globally, between 2004 and 2014, an estimated 100 million girls were forced to marry before their 18th birthday. One in every three girls in the developing world is married by the age of 18. One in nine marries before the age of 15.There are many factors that contribute to CEFM, including poverty, gender inequality, traditional or religious pressures, girls’ lack of access to education, limited economic empowerment for women and humanitarian crises.
On December 18, 2014, the UN General Assembly adopted by consensus a resolution led by Canada and Zambia, with 116 co-sponsors, on child, early and forced marriage, reaffirming the need to protect young girls, and secure their futures.
The Story Behind the Results: Making Schools Safe and Sanitary in Mozambique
Imagine risking your health and dignity to use the toilet at school. That was the case for many of the approximately 200 students of Coluhane Primary School in Inhambane province, Mozambique. Girls were especially affected by the lack of private, clean facilities. Some even dropped out rather than deal with the embarrassment and exposure to disease that the shared, open toilets presented. But now, thanks to Canada’s help, boys and girls can continue their education without worrying about clean and safe toilets.
Through the PASARI project, a DFATD initiative implemented by Cowater International, a Canadian company, Coluhane Primary School is now equipped with separate latrines for boys and girls. The school also benefited from the installation of “tippy taps”—a hands-free tap for washing. Both of these improvements have greatly increased the sanitation and comfort level for students.
Palmira Victorine, a 12-year-old pupil at the school, explained what the construction of the latrines has meant to the students. “I always enjoyed coming to school to learn, but I did not like having to use the toilets,” she said. “When the need came, I used to take a walk and try to hide in a bush about 500 metres from the school. It was very difficult because I was afraid of getting bitten by a snake or insects. It could also be quite embarrassing. Now that we have separate latrines, I feel safe to use them, and I also feel more comfortable coming to school every day. I am very happy because of this.”
In Mozambique, some of the most important health issues—diarrhea, cholera and malaria—often come from poor sanitation. According to Mozambique’s Ministry of Health, when clean water and proper sanitation services are available, there is a 30 percent drop in illnesses. The Canadian project is addressing this issue by encouraging behavioural changes and by strengthening the capacity of Inhambane province to provide gender-sensitive water and sanitation services. The results so far are encouraging: as a consequence of PASARI activities, 66 communities and 74 schools are now using sanitation systems. By building proper water and sanitation facilities in schools, Canada helps children attend school and build a future for themselves.
Improving Access to Quality Basic Education
Education is both a fundamental human right and a key driver of long-term progress in other areas of development, notably maternal, newborn and child health, child protection and sustainable economic growth.
Canada has supported the goals of Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals, which have led to significant progress over the past 15 years. While the number of out-of-school children and youth has been halved, 121 million remain out of school. In 2014-2015, Canada ensured access to quality basic education and provided opportunities for children and youth, especially girls and young women, to build the foundations of lifelong learning.
In Burkina Faso, with Canada’s financial and technical support for the country’s Basic Education Development Plan, targets to increase post-primary enrolment rates (41.7 percent) and lower-grade repetition rates (7.6 percent) have been achieved. Furthermore, gender-parity rates in primary education in Burkina Faso are also increasing. Canada’s funding to the education sector in Burkina Faso also ensures that 106,374 primary school students (including 50,102 girls) receive daily meals and 8,800 girls take home monthly food rations, which encourages parents to keep their daughters in school.
Canada also supported CODE, a Canadian organization that is increasing learning opportunities for 485,000 children and youth in under-served African communities. Since 2012, 1,720 teachers and librarians (including 820 women) were trained, 548,755 books were distributed and 211,250 copies of 122 new books were published.
In Jordan, Canada’s funding enhanced decision-making and resource-planning processes across the education system and helped to train teachers and staff in 2,368 schools. Canada has also assisted the government to implement a school meals program through the World Food Programme, benefiting 320,000 vulnerable children in food-insecure areas of that country.
Canada’s Labour Program negotiates and administers Canada’s labour cooperation agreements (LCAs) and labour chapters of free trade agreements (LCFTAs). LCAs and LCFTAs include commitments to protect internationally recognized labour rights and principles and to enforce domestic labour laws. By protecting workers’ basic rights and improving working conditions and standards of living in the signatory countries, these agreements ensure fair competition for Canadian industry in a globalized economy. Canada’s latest generation of LCAs and LCFTAs contains mechanisms to receive and investigate complaints and impose penalties, where warranted.
In addition to negotiating and implementing LCAs and LCFTAs, the Labour Program provides technical assistance to developing countries. This assistance funds capacity-building projects that support the modernization of labour policy and administration. Such projects foster better enforcement of national labour laws and greater respect for internationally recognized labour rights.
Through its technical assistance program, the Labour Program seeks to strengthen institutions of democratic governance, promote economic growth while respecting workers’ rights and improve the quality of working conditions in partner countries.
In 2014-2015, Canada supported the International Labour Organization (ILO) to build the capacity of key institutions in Colombia responsible for the development of the National Strategy for the Prevention and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour and Protection of Young Workers 2015-2025.
The Labour Program also provided funding to the ILO’s Better Work program in Vietnam to improve the technical competencies of program staff to identify and advise factories on appropriate remediation of child labour and to strengthen the ability of factory managers and line supervisors to identify and take appropriate action to reduce sexual harassment in the workplace. In Peru, Canada supported the ILO to design an information and registration system for identifying, monitoring and providing care to children and adolescents involved in child labour.
Canada’s support to UNICEF has helped 405,167 indigenous and rural Peruvian children improve reading in both their native languages and in Spanish as a second language. Since 2009, Spanish reading comprehension rates have risen from 2.2 percent to 7.7 percent in the Awajun community, and from 19.2 percent to 24.6 percent in the Quechua Collao community. This initiative has also stimulated increased government support to rural and bilingual education—from $2.8 million (2009) to $24.2 million (2014).
Over the 2014-2015 period, the $11.5-million Strengthening Teacher Education Project implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation Canada in Pakistan has helped to improve the teaching and learning quality of head teachers and district education authorities, with 93 percent of teacher supervisors reporting an increased ability to focus on administrative and academic matters such as teacher and student attendance, punctuality and student’s learning outcomes.
Ensuring the Safety and Security of Children and Youth
Canada has worked to strengthen national systems to protect children and youth, particularly girls, from violence, exploitation and abuse, including stopping the practice of child, early and forced marriage (CEFM). Canada also worked to ensure that schools are safe and secure child-friendly learning environments, as well as providing opportunities for youth-at-risk to reach their full potential and find alternatives to violence and crime.
Canada leveraged the expertise of Canadian organizations to help achieve results for children and youth around the world. Canada’s support to the Canadian Bar Association aims to improve legal services for children and youth in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda so that they have access to legal protection when they need it. For example, in Tanzania, 104 community paralegals and police officers participated in gender-sensitive skills training programs related to children’s rights and/or juvenile justice.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada helped improve justice systems for children and youth. For example, in 2014, 1,410 female survivors of sexual and gender-based violence obtained access to legal aid services. Additionally, of the 264 cases of sexual violence submitted to the courts, 152 were processed and 6 resulted in successful convictions. Canada also contributed to the strengthening of technical and logistical capacities of 20 police and justice institutions (nine units of the special police for combatting sexual violence, five tribunals, three prosecutor’s offices and three courts of appeal).
In 2014-2015, Canada provided $30 million to the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) as part of Canada’s larger contribution to the GPE of $120 million over four years (2015-2018). The GPE is the only multilateral partnership devoted to supporting national education systems in developing countries to deliver quality basic education, focusing on the most vulnerable. The GPE comprises some 60 developing countries, as well as donor governments, international organizations, businesses, teachers and civil society organizations.
With Canada’s support, the GPE has achieved significant results in its partner countries, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected states, in primary school enrolment, literacy and girls’ education. Since 2002, about 64 million more children have been enrolled in primary school; 69 percent of girls have finished primary school, compared to 56 percent before 2002; and 31 countries are close to achieving, or have achieved, gender parity in primary education. The number of children completing primary school in fragile and conflict-affected countries has also increased by 19 percent over this period. Since 2004, the GPE has contributed to the training of over 300,000 teachers, as well as to the building, rehabilitating and equipping of 53,000 classrooms and the distribution of nearly 50 million textbooks.
In 2014-2015, Canada provided $20 million in funding to UNICEF to end CEFM in six countries where Canada supported the development of the CEFM policy and legislative frameworks and a budgeted national action plan for the elimination of child marriage. In addition, Canada’s efforts have helped pave the way for several improvements on the draft amendment to Bangladesh’s Child Marriage Restraint Act (1929), such as the issue of accountability in the verification of the marriageable age and penalty for falsifying the proof of marriageable age.
Democracy has shaped Canada’s history and institutions. Canada believes that democracy leads to a better quality of life, engenders a more equal society, contributes to greater security and stability both nationally as well as globally, and represents the best pathway to prosperity. Democracy is also a cornerstone of lasting development outcomes, resulting from greater inclusion and increased accountability of governments to their citizens.
In the last 30 years, the world has witnessed an unprecedented expansion of freedom and democracy. New democracies arose in Africa and Asia after decolonization; autocratic regimes gave way to democracy in Latin America; the Iron Curtain lifted in Eastern Europe; South Africa abandoned apartheid; and the world entered the digital age, with all the benefits it brings.
Notwithstanding the significant gains of the previous decades, democracy is now under greater threat as recent gains realized in some countries are being outweighed by democratic backsliding in others.
In 2014-15, Canada employed both programmatic and advocacy tools to advance democracy and strengthen international norms and standards. Canada’s efforts were aimed at supporting five elements to sustainable democracy:
- a strong and vibrant civil society;
- independent media and Internet freedom;
- free and fair electoral processes and institutions;
- well-functioning legislatures; and
- well-developed political party systems.
Canada also advanced the protection of human rights and the subordination of power to the rule of law as two essential underlying conditions of democracy.
Civil Society, Independent Media and Internet Freedom
An empowered citizenry helps foster a culture of openness for debate, dissent and diversity, and popular participation in public life and political processes. Civil society organizations form a critical link between people and their elected governments, and are fundamental to any democracy.Canadian supported programs assisted civil society by providing training and technical support, and by working to promote and protect civil society space.
In Ethiopia, in 2014-2015, DFATD contributed over $2 million to a $35-million multi-donor initiative that supported more than 500 Ethiopian civil society organizations, helping them to deliver improved services to community members and to work constructively with local governments to better respond to community needs. The project has supported CSO activities to combat marginalization of women and girls in ethnic minority groups, and CSO-government dialogue on, for example, the impact of restrictive CSO legislation.
In Pakistan, Canada supported an $8 million project with the International Labour Organization that included the delivery of training to 799 journalists. The project resulted in over 300 news reports on women and labour issues, which in turn helped lead to the establishment of a national, online complaints mechanism for workplace harassment.
In 2014-2015, Canada also supported the independence of both traditional and new media and helped to equip people with the information they need to participate in well-informed, democratic decision making.
In January 2015, DFATD and IDRC partnered with the World Bank to create the Open Data for Development program. Part of the Government of Canada’s 2014-2016 Action Plan on Open Government, the program aims to scale up proven approaches and improve coordination among open-data initiatives so that they benefit developing-country citizens.
Electoral Processes and Institutions
In 2014-2015, Canada supported the ability of citizens to participate in the electoral cycle and build local capacity to monitor electoral processes. For instance, in the lead up to the 2015 presidential elections in Sri Lanka, Canada supported the training of long-term domestic election observers.
As well, in 2014-2015, Canada supported the deployment of 645 international and Canadian election observers and more than 2,000 domestic election observers to observe elections in Afghanistan, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, Moldova, Tunisia and Ukraine.
Through Canada’s support, Kenya’s independent electoral commission not only improved its data management and sharing with other government bodies so that more citizens could be registered to vote, it strengthened monitoring and reporting of election results. The project also evaluated what worked to encourage youth, women and persons with disabilities to vote in the 2013 elections.
Canada supported a project with the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) that is helping Indonesia to enhance its legal and regulatory framework and build Indonesia’s capacity to run more effective, credible and inclusive elections. Two post-election surveys and evaluations conducted by IFES following Indonesia’s 2014 Legislative (April) and Presidential (July) elections will help the Indonesian Electoral Commission to better prepare for future balloting, including regional elections slated for December 2015. The project is also equipping civil society organizations with tools to better research and advocate for improvements in human rights, the fight against corruption, transparency and accountability in elections.
Legislatures and Political Party Systems
The development of legislatures as effective bridges between citizens and their governments are fundamental to democratic progress as they give a voice to constituents through elected representatives. To that end, Canada funded projects that strengthen legislatures and encouraged exchanges of knowledge and expertise between Canadian parliamentarians and legislators in other countries.
For example, in 2014-2015, Canada supported 24 female parliamentarians and their staff in Burma by providing training related to their roles as legislators and by sharing international experience in dealing with the challenges of being female parliamentarians and in establishing and running women’s caucuses.
Canada promotes human rights, pluralism and tolerance throughout the world. The Government of Canada’s Office of Religious Freedom promotes and defends religious freedom abroad through financing projects outside Canada to assist members of religious communities who are facing violations of their basic right to freedom of religion. In 2014-2015, the Office supported 10 projects qualifying as official development assistance in seven countries for a total value of $2.1 million.
Human Rights and the Rule of Law
Canada advanced human rights abroad by enhancing the ability of citizens to realize their rights and by strengthening human rights institutions and processes, including in multilateral forums.
In 2014-2015, through Canada’s support to the Human Rights Protection in Colombia initiative, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) registered 577 cases of human rights violations, which were referred to the Government of Colombia. In addition, with Canada’s support to the OHCHR, human rights advocacy work contributed to the increased effectiveness of state reparation measures for human rights victims, ensuring their link with current peace and reconciliation processes in the departments of Cesar, Córdoba, Magdalena and Chocó.
Statistics Canada’s development initiatives focus on governance through support to accountable public institutions—specifically, to national statistical offices and other key components of national statistical systems in developing countries.
The vast majority of Statistics Canada ODA activities are demand-driven and ad hoc, usually taking the form of study visits where delegates from developing countries spend one to five days at Statistics Canada, improving their knowledge of statistical methods and practices or statistical organization governance. In 2014-2015, these countries included Botswana, Cabo Verde, China (Shanghai), India, Mexico and Senegal. In 2014-2015, Statistics Canada also provided technical expertise via two international workshops in the Caribbean and in Colombia.
Statistics Canada also provides support to the Partnership in Statistics for Development in the 21st Century (PARIS21), a unique initiative that aims to improve the use and production of statistics throughout the developing world. In 2014-2015, a special PARIS21 task team chaired by Statistics Canada produced new guidelines for the development of national statistical development strategies. These guidelines offer a strategic framework for medium- to long-term planning in statistical activities that can help countries respond to the statistical needs of their national development plans.
In 2014-2015, Statistics Canada also participated in the 2014 meeting of the Working Group on Labour-Market Indicators of the Statistical Conference of the Americas of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. This meeting allowed participants to share experiences in terms of the statistical measures of labour and labour indicators, enabling progress in regional harmonization.
By strengthening the statistical capacity of developing countries, Canada is building the foundation for more evidence-based policy decisions for improved economic growth and socio-economic living conditions for women and men, boys and girls.
Canada promoted respect for the rule of law and encouraged legal and judicial reforms that contribute to the establishment of independent, unbiased and accessible judicial systems and governments bound by law. Beyond these efforts, Canada also supported activities that seek to professionalize organs of government designed to uphold the law and provide effective legal oversight of police and corrections. For example, Canada has supported the Public Prosecution Service of the Palestinian Authority since 2009 by providing equipment, technical assistance and legal training, and has established specialized units on gender equality and human rights at the Office of the Attorney General and Public Prosecution Service. Canada’s support has contributed to promoting a fair and effective criminal justice system that protects human rights.
Promoting Stability and Security
More than 20 countries have experienced armed conflict since 2000, and there are many others where criminal violence is common. The consequences of conflict for development are profound. Equally, without development, enduring peace is difficult to achieve.
To advance the security and stability of fragile, failing or conflict-affected states, Canada provided funding, deployed experts and contributed to the development of international norms and policies in support of the reform of security systems.
Canada participated in international efforts to assist countries reform their security system and enabled transitional justice in order to ensure accountability, serve justice and achieve reconciliation. Through these efforts, Canada contributed to the protection of vulnerable populations, signaling in particular the human rights and well-being of women and children in situations of conflict and state fragility.
In 2014-2015, Canada’s stability and security programming supported security system reform, enabled transitional justice and reconciliation, and protected vulnerable populations, including women and children.
Supporting Security System Reform
Effective and accountable security institutions can make an important contribution to peace and stability. The international community is often called upon to provide assistance, particularly in the case of fragile and conflict-affected states. Through DFATD’s Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force, Canada contributed to building peace and security in fragile and conflict-affected states throughout the world.
In 2014-2015, Canada contributed $27.5 million to the UNDP-managed Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan (LOTFA) to increase the capacity of Afghanistan’s police forces. Funds were used to improve direct electronic transfer systems, build infrastructure such as police checkpoints, and support the professionalization of police officers—with a special focus on the professionalization of women in the force.
Also in 2014-2015, Canadian civilian expertise was deployed to fragile states (including Cambodia, Haiti, Iraq, the Philippines and the West Bank and Gaza), as well as to relevant international institutions, thereby bolstering Canada’s ability to contribute to policy and programming initiatives in support of fragile and conflict-affected states and regions.
The Canada Fund For Local Initiatives (CFLI) supported 38 projects that focused on entrenching the rule of law and combatting the destabilizing impact of crime and corruption, including through security sector capacity building. Projects included support for law enforcement, promoting transparency in government, and strengthening the judicial branch of government in Afghanistan, Colombia, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Senegal, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela.
Enabling Transitional Justice and Reconciliation
Transitional justice mechanisms help to lay the foundation required for long-term peace and stability in areas that have experienced violent conflict and authoritarianism.
In 2014-2015, three Canadian police investigators were deployed to Cambodia to work with the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. Through their investigative expertise, including in the area of sexual and gender-based violence, the officers contributed to the tribunal’s important work in investigating and prosecuting crimes against humanity committed during the Khmer Rouge regime.
Additional projects that were focused on transitional justice and reconciliation in Colombia, Mali, Somalia and Sri Lanka were also supported through the CFLI.
Protecting Vulnerable Populations, Including Women and Children
State fragility and conflict have different impacts on women and men, girls and boys, based on their gender and their roles and responsibilities within their communities. Although women and girls are frequently victims of today’s conflicts, they are also combatants, participants, leaders, negotiators, peacemakers and activists.
In 2014-2015, Canada ensured the full integration of core principles of the resolutions into programming initiatives, under Canada’s Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security, and as party to the United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security.
Also in 2014-2015, Canada contributed to combatting sexual and gender-based violence and related human rights abuses in areas affected by the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), working with multilateral, international, and local organizations throughout the region.
Through the CFLI, approximately 170 projects were also supported that promote women’s and girls’ rights in fragile states and ensure that the differential impact of conflict on women and girls is recognized and addressed. Approximately 150 projects were also focused on the prevention of sexual violence and early forced marriage.
Canada provided international development assistance to countries in need to remove the threat of landmines, cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war, and to assist the survivors of mine and explosive remnants of war incidents. This assistance was provided in support of the Ottawa Convention, the Convention on Cluster Munitions—ratified by Canada in March 2015—and the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.
In 2014-2015, as a small part of a broader envelope of support for mine action programs around the world, START supported the Cooperative Orthotic and Prosthetic Enterprise in Laos with a contribution that is helping create an innovative mobile clinic to bring rehabilitation services to victims of explosive remnants of war living in remote areas of the country.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), on behalf of the Government of Canada, deploys police officers to peace operations around the world. Canadian police assist in building and strengthening law-enforcement capacity in countries at risk. By building the capacity of foreign police to maintain law and order, Canadian police, in cooperation with international partners, help create a safer and more stable global environment. This in turn paves the way for long-term development and also prevents illicit activities from spilling across borders into other countries, including Canada.
The decision to deploy Canadian police is made within the framework of the Canadian Police Arrangement (CPA), a partnership between DFATD, Public Safety Canada and the RCMP. Under the CPA, the RCMP is responsible for all operational activities.
In 2014-2015, the RCMP managed the deployment of over 90 police officers to peace operations in Haiti, the West Bank and Gaza, the UN Standing Police Capacity in Brindisi, Italy and the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations, and Canada’s Permanent Mission to the UN, both in New York City.
Canadian police also worked with the UN and various countries to help them increase the number of female police deployed to peace operations worldwide. To assist the UN in its goal of increasing female police participation in UN missions, Canadian police officers and their UN counterparts travelled to Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Rwanda to oversee training in a variety of skills including communication, firearms and driving in advance of testing by the UN candidate selection team. As at January 2015, the project had contributed to an increase in pass rates from 37 percent to 71 percent for female candidates destined for deployment to unarmed UN missions and an increase in pass rates from 30 percent to 45 percent for deployment to armed UN missions. To date, 111 out of a total of 244 female candidates who passed the Selection Assistance and Assessment Team testing were in the process of being deployed to UN peacekeeping operations.
In 2014-2015, approximately 85 Canadian police officers were also deployed to the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) to help enhance the capacity of the Haitian National Police. The concept of three Canadian-led specialized teams within MINUSTAH—a community policing team, a management advisory team and a serious crime support unit—was supported by the UN. The Canadian police also worked with Norwegian police officers on projects relating to sexual and gender-based violence.
Appendix I – Canada’s Engagement with Canadian and International Organizations
Engaging Canadians and Canadian Organizations in International Development
Significant contributions are made by Canadians who are actively seeking to improve the lives of those living in poverty in developing countries. Development objectives can be better achieved by leveraging the expertise and networks that Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) have built over years of working in international development.
In 2014-2015, the Government of Canada took steps to clarify its framework for collaboration with CSOs, including its commitment to enhance the operating environment in which CSOs work. In February 2015, the government announced DFATD’s Civil Society Partnership Policy, which provides a framework for engaging traditional and emerging CSOs.
The Government of Canada currently has partnerships with 360 Canadian organizations, including NGOs, colleges and universities, municipalities, professional associations, cooperatives and the private sector. Each is helping the government find creative solutions to pressing international development challenges and deliver concrete results for those most in need, especially women and children.
More than 220 Canadian organizations responded to DFATD calls for proposals in 2014-2015, putting forward a high volume of initiatives to advance priority areas such as securing the future of children and youth, including maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH); and stimulating sustainable economic growth. Through the calls for proposals, a total of $741 million was awarded and will be disbursed through a range of Canadian and local implementing partners over the coming years.
Innovative Partnerships for Development with Canadian Civil Society Organizations
The Government of Canada works in partnership with civil society organizations in innovative ways that complement the roles and functions of government, the private sector and multilateral organizations in pursuing effectiveness in international development. Innovation in this context is about building on new approaches, business models, processes, technologies, systems or delivery mechanisms/tools to achieve sustainable development results.
Beyond working with partners in new ways to augment the impact of Canadian contributions in development, increased focus has been placed on incubating innovative ideas—testing promising initiatives and scaling up those with potential for widespread impact and effectiveness. For instance, in 2014-2015, DFATD worked with Grand Challenges Canada to test and scale up innovations that address persistent health challenges for low- and middle-income countries. This partnership has so far supported six innovations, including a diagnostic smartphone application to cheaply and effectively measure the blood pressure of pregnant women and an artificial leg for people with disabilities made from a 3D printer. Such low-cost innovations have the potential to be scaled up quickly to reach vulnerable populations around the world.
Highlighting their shared interest in poverty reduction, DFATD and The MasterCard Foundation signed a five-year collaborative agreement in 2014-2015 to jointly develop and finance the new African Leaders of Tomorrow Scholarship Program. The program, which was created in honour of Nelson Mandela, is designed to provide young professionals from sub-Saharan Africa with grants to access high-quality academic and professional training in Canada, allowing the next generation of African leaders to exchange knowledge and build new connections in a globalized world.
As part of stimulating economic growth and increasing access to financial services to small entrepreneurs, a microfinance project by Développement international Desjardins supported the development of financial business centres in Panama, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. By providing easy access to banking services for thousands of small businesses, such centres support job creation in their communities. The business centre in Zambia is now one of the top-ranking microfinance institutions in the country, serving 26,000 clients and employing more than 200 Zambians.
Canadian values of democracy, human rights and rule of law have been promoted this past year through partnerships with organizations such as Equitas, the Canadian Bar Association and Horizons of Friendship. Through these partners, Canada has fostered safer, more equitable communities with greater respect for human rights and participatory decision-making that have benefited an estimated 820,000 men, women, boys and girls in East and West Africa; improved legal services and administration of justice for children and youth in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda by providing legal training to 601 legal professionals and community representatives; and contributed to labour reforms in El Salvador and Nicaragua that better address violence against women and protect marginalized groups, including workers in the informal sector.
Engaging Canadians in International Development
The 2015 Civil Society Partnership Policy builds on existing initiatives, notably the Global Citizens Program, which supports active Canadian participation in development through public awareness, education and knowledge exchange, and youth participation.
Over the past five years, the Volunteer Cooperation Program has funded a number of Canadian volunteer cooperation agencies, resulting in the mobilization of approximately 11,000 volunteers (the vast majority of them Canadian) in support of Canada’s development priorities overseas. International volunteering has enabled Canadians to share their knowledge, experience and values with developing-country actors and learn from their counterparts in return. These exchanges have also led to increased awareness in Canada of the challenges and results being achieved across the developing world. A new Volunteer Cooperation Program call for proposals worth $300 million was launched in 2014-2015, leading to approval of funding for 12 new volunteer cooperation initiatives.
This past year, DFATD’s International Youth Internship Program and International Aboriginal Youth Internships initiative collectively funded 759 internships with 22 Canadian organizations. These programs provide Canadian youth with employment experience in international development and an opportunity to develop skills in order to motivate them to continue their studies, gain employment in the field and/or continue their engagement in international development. Two new calls for proposals, worth more than $16 million, were conducted in 2014-2015, generating over 60 proposals. Twenty-seven of these proposals have been approved and will start receiving funding in 2015-2016.
Canada’s support for the eight provincial and regional councils for international cooperationFootnote 6 helps reach more than a million Canadians every year through a range of public engagement activities that are aimed at increasing awareness of, and involvement in, international development. In 2014-2015, the councils reached Canadians through International Development Week 2015 and other outreach activities. In 2014-2015, DFATD provided funding for the councils until 2019, including its most recent partner, the Northern Council for Global Cooperation, which ensures that Canadians in the North working in international development have a voice.
Canada’s Engagement in Multilateral Organizations
Multilateral organizations play a key role in fostering international development cooperation. Canada’s involvement in several international governing bodies enables us to advocate for and promote effective delivery and positive results. Additionally, our participation contributes to effective consensus building on critical issues and provides opportunities to promote commonly shared values such as democracy and respect for human rights.
Below is a summary of some of Canada’s whole-of-government key contributions to these organizations. Other results achieved are highlighted throughout the thematic priorities chapters above.
Canada’s Contribution to the World Bank
In 2014-2015, Canada provided a total of $934.4 million in grant support to the World Bank Group to achieve results in all of the government’s development priority areas. The World Bank Group is one of Canada’s most important international development partners and is ranked among the top multilateral organizations by several independent reports. Canada’s continued support to the World Bank Group is an integral part of our commitment to enhance our aid efficiency and accountability.
A significant portion of this contribution ($883.2 million) was provided as core support to the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank Group institution focused on helping the world’s poorest countries. IDA offers grants and concessional loans to low-income countries and provides grants to fragile and conflict-affected states and other countries at risk of debt distress. All IDA funding is provided to governments with appropriate environmental, financial and human rights safeguards in place.
Canada’s contribution in 2014-2015 consisted of two separate payments to IDA:
- In April 2014, the last of three payments ($441.6 million) was made under the IDA16 Replenishment process.
- In January 2015, the first of three annual payments ($441.6 million) was made under the IDA17 Replenishment process.
Canada’s annual contribution to IDA has not changed. The total increase in the government’s contribution to IDA reflects a change in the timing of Canada’s annual payments from April to January. This change in payment timing has no budgetary impact. Once the 2014-2015 transition year is over, the DFATD’s contribution to IDA will return to $441.6 million per year for the rest of the IDA17 Replenishment period.
IDA is currently in its 17th operating cycle, with the current work program running from July 2014 until June 2017. The latest replenishment negotiations, held last year, were an important opportunity for Canada to shape the World Bank’s priorities and work program in the poorest countries. The negotiations resulted in outcomes that align with Canadian priorities. For instance, IDA has been increasing its focus on the most challenging frontier areas and is working toward greater private sector mobilization and stronger, more targeted investments in gender equality. In addition, the IDA17 policy package negotiated by Canada includes a range of policy and performance commitments. The policy package explicitly aligns IDA’s activities and results monitoring with the World Bank Group Strategy; enhances the focus on outcome and quality indicators, including tracking IDA’s operational effectiveness and organizational efficiency; strengthens IDA’s accountability to clients and shareholders through greater use of beneficiary feedback and public disclosure; and places greater attention on managing and reporting the costs of delivering results. IDA17 funds, including Canada’s contributions, will help IDA countries in a variety of areas, including providing electricity for an estimated 15 to 20 million people, life-saving vaccines for 200 million children, microfinance loans for more than one million women, and basic health services for 65 million people.
The Story Behind the Results: One Little Iron Fish is Making a Big Difference
Christopher Charles and Gavin Armstrong from Guelph, Ontario
Christopher Charles spent five years in the villages of Lvea Aem and Preak Khmeng in Cambodia. He saw first-hand the effects of anemia among pregnant women. This deficiency causes premature labour, hemorrhaging during childbirth and the impaired brain development of their babies.
Charles knew that a small chunk of iron added to water could release a life-saving iron supplement, but this idea wasn’t popular with women, who do most of the cooking. They were much more receptive to his idea to use a piece of iron fashioned in the shape of a local fish, which was believed to bring good luck—the “Lucky Iron Fish.” Lo and behold, rates of anemia in the village fell dramatically.
To help put an iron fish in every cooking pot, another Canadian, Gavin Armstrong, formed a social enterprise named The Lucky Iron Fish. With the support of Grand Challenges Canada, this enterprise produced and distributed 6,600 Lucky Iron Fishes in Cambodia as at February 2015, potentially benefiting over 30,000 men, women and children.
The implementation of all IDA commitments is being monitored by the World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard. In 2014, the Corporate Scorecard highlighted results across many investment areas, such as institutions and governance, human development and gender, infrastructure, agriculture and food security, climate change and the environment, and finance, private sector development and trade. Examples of development results achieved through the World Bank Group’s support between 2012-2014, include the following:
- 64.7 million people, microenterprises and small and medium enterprises gained access to financial services.
- 36.7 million people were provided with access to an improved water source.
- 12.5 million people were provided with direct access to electricity.
The Government of Canada, through the Department of Finance Canada, also provided $51.2 million to the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) through the World Bank Group. Debt relief under the MDRI contributes to poverty reduction by freeing up resources, which would otherwise be used to service sovereign debts, for social expenditures. This initiative contributed to decreasing debt service payments in recipient countries and enabled them to increase their poverty-reducing expenditure.
Canada’s Contribution to Multilateral Environmental Organizations
Canada recognizes the significance of international cooperation on environmental issues, and environmental sustainability is an essential element for global economic and social well-being. For developing countries that depend on ecosystem goods and services such as food, water, timber, and air purification for their livelihood, environmental changes caused by over-exploitation of natural resources and environmental degradation harm their most vulnerable populations. However, efforts to preserve and improve the environment in developing countries lead to enhanced fulfilment of basic needs, improved living standards, and a safer, more prosperous future.
In 2014-2015, Environment Canada provided official development assistance mainly through support for multilateral environmental organizations that provide technical cooperation and capacity-building to developing countries to improve environmental conditions and the livelihoods of vulnerable populations in these countries. For example, annual support is provided to the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer, which works to ensure that the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances does not adversely affect the economies of developing countries. In 2014-2015, Environment Canada’s contribution to the Multilateral Fund totaled $1.1 million.
Canada also provides an annual core contribution to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Based in Kenya, UNEP focuses much of its work on environmental issues facing developing countries. Environment Canada also provided financial support to specific purpose funds managed by UNEP, such as the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services (IPBES), where Canada’s contribution supports the participation of developing countries in the IPBES work program.
Canada supports multilateral organizations in advancing environmental research with developing country partners. For example, Canada’s annual contribution to the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research funds research and training in the Americas, while our contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Trust Fund provides travel support for developing country participation in the Trust Fund’s meetings. By enabling their participation in these meetings, Canada is helping to build capacity within developing countries to make informed decisions regarding climate change mitigation and adaptation.
Canada’s Contribution to the Pan American Health Organization
Canada has been an active member of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) since 1971, playing a leadership role in fostering good governance and advancing key program policy issues. Through PAHO, Canada advances multilateral and bilateral relations, provides technical assistance and supports capacity building in a number of areas.
PAHO is an international public health organization that works to improve health and living standards in the countries of the Americas. It is the specialized health agency of the Inter-American System, and serves as the World Health Organization’s (WHO) regional office for the Americas. PAHO’s mission is to lead strategic collaborative efforts among member states and other partners to promote equity in health, combat disease, and improve the quality of life and lengthen the lifespan of peoples of the Americas. Canada’s assessed contribution to PAHO in support of this mission provides Canada with voting rights and allows Canada to advance priorities and influence global health issues.
Canada’s Contribution to the International Telecommunication Union
In 2014-2015, Canada contributed $975,600 to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to support capacity building in development. The ITU is the UN specialized agency responsible for coordinating the global development of telecommunications. Its mandate is to enable the growth and sustained development of telecommunications and information networks and to facilitate universal access in the emerging information society and global economy.
ITU currently has a membership of 193 countries and over 700 private-sector entities and academic institutions. As the global focal point for governments and the private sector, the ITU’s main activities span three core sectors: radio communications, telecommunication standardization and telecommunication development. Industry Canada is Canada’s official representative in the ITU, and Canada has served as an elected ITU governing council member since 1947.
In 2014, the ITU provided assistance for the installation of broadband wireless networks in seven African countries (Burkina Faso, Burundi, Djibouti, Lesotho, Mali, Rwanda and Swaziland), thereby providing free or low-cost digital access for schools and hospitals, and for underserved populations in rural and remote areas.
ITU also worked with 10 countries to implement mobile health projects to combat chronic diseases and their risk factors in the context of the joint ITU–World Health Organization mHealth initiative for non-communicable diseases.
Ensuring environmental sustainability is one of the UN’s eight Millennium Development Goals. Parks Canada’s multilateral funding contributes to the achievement of this goal, as well as to the thematic priorities of Canada’s international assistance, especially securing the future of children and youth and ensuring safety and stability.
In 2014-2015, Parks Canada’s official development assistance was provided to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM). While each of these organizations carries out its work globally, Canada’s funding is earmarked for projects in less-developed countries.
UNESCO’s World Heritage mission is to encourage international cooperation in the conservation of the world’s cultural and natural heritage. Parks Canada’s multilateral funding contributes toward the work of the World Heritage Fund, intended to supplement national efforts for the conservation and management of world heritage sites when adequate resources cannot be secured at the national level. For example, in 2014-2015, the World Heritage Fund provided funding to Rwanda for the preparation of an inventory of sites related to the Rwandan Genocide that would be suitable for inscription on the World Heritage List. Should these sites be inscribed on the World Heritage List, they would constitute Rwanda’s first World Heritage sites.
Environmental sustainability is an important aspect of global economic and social well-being, and as such contributes to the above-noted thematic priorities of Canada’s international assistance. In 2014, Parks Canada, in collaboration with other Canadian and international organizations, was a lead organization of the 2014 IUCN World Parks Congress program stream, “Inspiring a New Generation.” As a result of Parks Canada’s leadership and engagement with IUCN, this initiative is now gaining momentum within the IUCN and with external partners as a foundational approach for ensuring that current and future leaders across all sectors of society care about nature and take action to support its conservation.
In addition, the ITU assisted seven countries in the Americas to design and develop national emergency telecommunications plans (Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama).
At the 2014 World Telecommunication Development Conference, the ITU adopted the Dubai Action Plan which sets the agenda for telecommunication and information and communications technology (ICT) development over the next four-year period (2015-2018). The future direction of ITU remains relevant for Canada as there is a continued need and priority to promote the equitable, affordable, inclusive and sustainable development of telecommunications/ICT networks, applications and services worldwide.
Canada’s Contribution to the International Tax Agenda
As a member of both international and regional tax organizations, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), on behalf of the Government of Canada, leverages this unique opportunity to promote and influence the adoption of international tax standards and principles; promote compliance and address issues of non-compliance; improve tax programs and services; and support the development of sound tax administrations.
Over the past few years, the G-20 international tax agenda influenced the programs and methods of work of the organizations in which Canada engages. This agenda acknowledges the importance of deepening engagement with developing countries and the importance of sharing expertise as a means to help build capacity in tax administration as well as the increasing demands associated with tax and development priorities.
In 2014-2015, the CRA participated in various forums and programs of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), covering a broad range of tax policy and administration topics. The CRA, on behalf of the Government of Canada, has been an active member of organizations such as the Inter-American Center of Tax Administrations, the Commonwealth Association of Tax Administrators and the Centre de rencontres et d’études des dirigeants des administrations fiscales.
In 2014-2015, the CRA also provided on-the-ground technical support to developing countries seeking to build capacity in high-priority areas, such as taxpayer services, audit, transfer pricing, human resources and information technology. Country beneficiaries include China, Côte d’Ivoire, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Mongolia, South Africa and Uganda.
Assessed Contributions to International Organizations
Assessed contributions are payments made by the federal government as a result of Canada’s membership in an international organization. In order to maintain our status as a member in good standing, Canada is required to provide its share of the total operations costs for each organization of which it is a member. This not only fulfills Canada’s obligations as a member of these organizations, but also allows Canada to advance its foreign and development policy priorities in key multilateral forums.
The OECD Development Co-operation Directorate determines the portion of assessed contributions to be considered official development assistance. In 2014-2015, Canada provided ODA-eligible assessed contributions to 23 international organizations, for a total of $154.33 million:
- Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat
- Commonwealth Foundation
- Commonwealth Secretariat
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
- Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture
- International Atomic Energy Agency
- International Labour Organization
- International Network for Bamboo and Rattan
- International Telecommunication Union
- Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol
- International Organization of La Francophonie
- Organization of American States
- OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine
- Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
- UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
- United Nations
- United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations
- United Nations Environment Programme
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
- Universal Postal Union
- World Health Organization
- World Intellectual Property Organization
- World Meteorological Organization
The following information responds to specific requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act regarding Canada’s interactions with the Bretton Woods Institutions.
Summary of Canada at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank 2013-2014 Report*
Information regarding Canada’s 2013-2014 engagement with the Bretton Woods Institutions can be found in the Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2013-2014 report.
Canada’s 2013-2014 objectives at the IMF were to:
- Ensure the IMF has the appropriate tools and governance structure to promote global economic and financial stability;
- Increase the traction of IMF surveillance and policy advice to bolster the economic recovery; and
- Promote effective IMF lending programs and conditionality to address the root causes of instability.
Canada’s 2013-2014 objectives at the World Bank Group were:
- Promote appropriate financial instruments, policies and partnerships that strengthen program delivery within the World Bank Group;
- Uphold the legitimacy of the World Bank Group, including through appropriate governance and accountability structures; and
- Ensure a constructive and progressive replenishment of the International Development Association.
Summary of Representations Made by Canada at the Bretton Woods Institutions*
For Canada’s 2013-2014 voting record at the IMF and World Bank Group, please refer to Annexes 1 and 4 respectively of the Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2013-2014 report.
*Latest report available at the time of tabling of the Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada’s Official Development Assistance 2014-2015. Information regarding the 2014-2015 engagement with, and representations made by, Canada at the Bretton Woods Institutions will be contained in the upcoming Canada at the IMF and World Bank Group 2014-2015 report, which will be available through the Department of Finance Canada website.
Appendix II – Highlights of Official Development Assistance Activities by Department
The following is a sampling of ODA activities undertaken by each of the following departments in 2014-2015.
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada
DFATD provided development assistance in various countries and regions. The department focused its development assistance to achieve the greatest impact, including in 25 development countries.
In 2014-2015, through its global issues and development programs, DFATD contributed to international development and humanitarian efforts by providing financial support to multilateral organizations and helping them shape their policies and programs throughout the world.
The Partnerships for Development Innovation programs aim to leverage Canadians’ development expertise and initiative by funding the best proposals put forward by Canadian organizations to deliver development results on the ground and contribute to poverty alleviation.
Democracy programming focused on promoting: the full participation of citizens in decision making that affects their lives; rules-based governance; respect for human rights; and the emergence of effective and accountable institutions.
The Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) serves as Canada’s centre of expertise for stabilization and reconstruction efforts in fragile and conflict-affected areas throughout the world, including Afghanistan, Haiti, South Sudan and Sudan.
Several programs were delivered in 2014-2015, notably the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) and the International Scholarships Program.
Department of Finance Canada
The Department of Finance provided support to the World Bank Group to achieve results in all of the government’s development priority areas. This included core support to the IDA, the World Bank Group institution focused on offering grants and concessional loans to low-income countries and grants to fragile and conflict-affected states and other countries at risk of debt distress. In addition, the Department provided support to the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative to contribute to decrease debt-service payments in developing countries. In 2014-2015, the Department of Finance Canada provided support to AgResults to enhance smallholder farmer well-being and food security in the developing world and managed the provision of two low-interest concessional loans to Ukraine, totaling $400 million, as part of the government’s efforts to support the Ukrainian people as they work to restore political and economic stability.
International Development Research Centre
Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) invests in knowledge, innovation and solutions to improve lives and livelihoods in the developing world. IDRC’s work focuses on three thematic areas: agriculture and environment, social and economic policy, and technology and innovation. At the end of 2014-2015, IDRC was supporting 732 projects globally carried out by 611 institutions, of which 103 were Canadian.
Citizenship and Immigration Canada
Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) plays a significant role in upholding Canada’s international obligations and humanitarian tradition by engaging both domestic and international stakeholders to develop and implement timely, efficient and effective refugee protection policies and programs. In 2014-2015, CIC funded a variety of settlement services to help immigrants, including refugees and other newcomers, integrate into Canadian society.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
In 2014-2015, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) deployed Canadian police officers to peace operations around the world. Canadian police assisted in building and strengthening law enforcement capacity in countries at risk. By building the capacity of foreign police to maintain law and order, Canadian police, in cooperation with international partners, helped create a safer and more stable global environment.
Public Health Agency of Canada
The Agency’s participation in the Pan American Health Organization contributed to combatting disease, strengthening health systems, and improving people’s quality of life in member states. The Agency also made numerous technical and in-kind contributions to help stop the spread of the Ebola virus disease in West Africa.
In an effort to enhance the livelihoods of vulnerable populations by preserving and improving the environment in developing countries, Environment Canada provided support to various multilateral environmental organizations, including the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization.
The department of National Defence’s ODA activities consist of the provision of Canadian Armed Forces support to Canada’s response to the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, costs associated with the reconstitution of the Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) after its operation in the Philippines, and the cost of Operation PROTEUS, through which the Canadian Armed Forces have continued to build the capacity of Palestinian security forces.
Transport Canada, through Canada Post, contributed to the Universal Postal Union to support the provision of technical assistance in developing countries.
Parks Canada’s official development assistance included its annual core contribution to UNESCO’s World Heritage Fund and membership dues to the International Centre for the Study of Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN).
Employment and Social Development Canada
Employment and Social Development Canada, through the Labour Program, funded activities that promote better enforcement of national labour laws and greater respect for internationally recognized labour rights and principles. For example, it provided funding to the International Labour Organization for the implementation of a project in Colombia to support the development of the new National Strategy for the Prevention and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Officials from 10 leading government departments and institutions, in addition to trade unions, will receive training to develop the new strategy.
In addition, work undertaken since fiscal year 2013-2014 by the Costa Rica-based non-governmental organization Fundación para la Paz y la Democracia has led to upgraded and integrated electronic child labour case management systems in Panama and Honduras. Over 200 officials from both countries were trained on labour rights, child labour and women’s rights.
Industry Canada contributed to universal access to communications and information systems through its involvement with the International Telecommunication Union.
Canadian Revenue Agency
As a member of both international and regional tax organizations, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) promotes and influences the adoption of international tax standards and principles; promotes compliance and addresses issues of non-compliance; improves tax programs and services; and supports the development of sound tax administrations.
Statistics Canada hosted several study visits, during which representatives from Botswana, Cap Verde, China (Shanghai), India, Mexico and Senegal improved their understanding of such topics as census, price indices, quality assurance and time-series surveys. Statistics Canada chaired a task team at PARIS21 that produced new guidelines for national statistical development strategies, to be used by developing countries toward building more robust and accountable statistical systems.
Health Canada has been assisting the World Health Organization and African countries affected by Ebola in the review of vaccine clinical trials and other regulatory activities associated with the approval of potential therapies and vaccines.
Canadian Intellectual Property Office
The Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO) contributed to the World Intellectual Property Organization’s (WIPO) technical cooperation activities. In 2014-2015, CIPO, in partnership with WIPO, organized and delivered specialized training courses in the area of trademarks and patents to senior intellectual property executives in developing countries.
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