Consolidated TPP Text – Chapter 18 – Intellectual Property

Section A: General Provisions

Article 18.1: Definitions

1. For the purposes of this Chapter:

Berne Convention means the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, as revised at Paris, July 24, 1971;

Budapest Treaty means the Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure (1977), as amended on September 26, 1980;

Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health means the Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (WT/MIN(01)/DEC/2), adopted on November 14, 2001;

geographical indication means an indication that identifies a good as originating in the territory of a Party, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin;

intellectual property refers to all categories of intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 through 7 of Part II of the TRIPS Agreement;

Madrid Protocol means the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks, done at Madrid, June 27, 1989;

Paris Convention means the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, as revised at Stockholm, July 14, 1967;

performance means a performance fixed in a phonogram unless otherwise specified;

with respect to copyright and related rights, the term right to authorise or prohibit refers to exclusive rights;

Singapore Treaty means the Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks, done at Singapore, March 27, 2006;

UPOV 1991 means the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, as revised at Geneva, March 19, 1991;

WCT means the WIPO Copyright Treaty, done at Geneva, December 20, 1996;

WIPO means the World Intellectual Property Organization;

for greater certainty, work includes a cinematographic work, photographic work and computer program; and

WPPT means the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, done at Geneva, December 20, 1996.

2. For the purposes of Article 18.8 (National Treatment), Article 18.31(a) (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications) and Article 18.62.1 (Related Rights):

a national means, in respect of the relevant right, a person of a Party that would meet the criteria for eligibility for protection provided for in the agreements listed in Article 18.7 (International Agreements) or the TRIPS Agreement.

Article 18.2: Objectives

The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations.

Article 18.3: Principles

1. A Party may, in formulating or amending its laws and regulations, adopt measures necessary to protect public health and nutrition, and to promote the public interest in sectors of vital importance to their socio-economic and technological development, provided that such measures are consistent with the provisions of this Chapter.

2. Appropriate measures, provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Chapter, may be needed to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology.

Article 18.4: Understandings in Respect of this Chapter

Having regard to the underlying public policy objectives of national systems, the Parties recognise the need to:

through their respective intellectual property systems, while respecting the principles of transparency and due process, and taking into account the interests of relevant stakeholders, including right holders, service providers, users and the public.

Article 18.5: Nature and Scope of Obligations

Each Party shall give effect to the provisions of this Chapter. A Party may, but shall not be obliged to, provide more extensive protection for, or enforcement of, intellectual property rights under its law than is required by this Chapter, provided that such protection or enforcement does not contravene the provisions of this Chapter. Each Party shall be free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of this Chapter within its own legal system and practice.

Article 18.6: Understandings Regarding Certain Public Health Measures

1. The Parties affirm their commitment to the Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health. In particular, the Parties have reached the following understandings regarding this Chapter:

2. Each Party shall notify, if it has not already done so, the WTO of its acceptance of the Protocol amending the TRIPS Agreement, done at Geneva on December 6, 2005.

Article 18.7: International Agreements

1. Each Party affirms that it has ratified or acceded to the following agreements:

2. Each Party shall ratify or accede to each of the following agreements, if it is not already a party to that agreement, by the date of entry into force of this Agreement for that Party:

Article 18.8: National Treatment

1. In respect of all categories of intellectual property covered in this Chapter,Footnote 3 each Party shall accord to nationals of another Party treatment no less favourable than it accords to its own nationals with regard to the protectionFootnote 4 of intellectual property rights.

2. With respect to secondary uses of phonograms by means of analog communications and free over-the-air broadcasting, however, a Party may limit the rights of the performers and producers of another Party to the rights its persons are accorded within the jurisdiction of that other Party.

3. A Party may derogate from paragraph 1 in relation to its judicial and administrative procedures, including requiring a national of another Party to designate an address for service of process in its territory, or to appoint an agent in its territory, provided that such derogation is:

4. Paragraph 1 does not apply to procedures provided in multilateral agreements concluded under the auspices of WIPO relating to the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights.

Article 18.9: Transparency

1. Further to Article 26.2 (Publication) and Article 18.73.1 (Enforcement Practices with Respect to Intellectual Property Rights), each Party shall endeavour to make available on the Internet its laws, regulations, procedures and administrative rulings of general application concerning the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights.

2. Each Party shall, subject to its law, endeavour to make available on the Internet information that it makes public concerning applications for trademarks, geographical indications, designs, patents and plant variety rights.Footnote 5, Footnote 6

3. Each Party shall, subject to its law, make available on the Internet information that it makes public concerning registered or granted trademarks, geographical indications, designs, patents and plant variety rights, sufficient to enable the public to become acquainted with those registered or granted rights.Footnote 7

Article 18.10: Application of Chapter to Existing Subject Matter and Prior Acts

1. Unless otherwise provided in this Chapter, including in Article 18.64 (Application of Article 18 of the Berne Convention and Article 14.6 of the TRIPS Agreement), this Chapter gives rise to obligations in respect of all subject matter existing at the date of entry into force of this Agreement for a Party and that is protected on that date in the territory of a Party where protection is claimed, or that meets or comes subsequently to meet the criteria for protection under this Chapter.

2. Unless provided in Article 18.64 (Application of Article 18 of the Berne Convention and Article 14.6 of the TRIPS Agreement), a Party shall not be required to restore protection to subject matter that on the date of entry into force of this Agreement for that Party has fallen into the public domain in its territory.

3. This Chapter does not give rise to obligations in respect of acts that occurred before the date of entry into force of this Agreement for a Party.

Article 18.11: Exhaustion of Intellectual Property Rights

Nothing in this Agreement prevents a Party from determining whether or under what conditions the exhaustion of intellectual property rights applies under its legal system.Footnote 8

Section B: Cooperation

Article 18.12: Contact Points for Cooperation

Further to Article 21.3 (Contact Points for Cooperation and Capacity Building), each Party may designate and notify under Article 27.5.2 (Contact Points) one or more contact points for the purpose of cooperation under this Section.

Article 18.13: Cooperation Activities and Initiatives

The Parties shall endeavour to cooperate on the subject matter covered by this Chapter, such as through appropriate coordination, training and exchange of information between the respective intellectual property offices of the Parties, or other institutions, as determined by each Party. Cooperation may cover areas such as:

Article 18.14: Patent Cooperation and Work Sharing

1. The Parties recognise the importance of improving the quality and efficiency of their respective patent registration systems as well as simplifying and streamlining the procedures and processes of their respective patent offices for the benefit of all users of the patent system and the public as a whole.

2. Further to paragraph 1, the Parties shall endeavour to cooperate among their respective patent offices to facilitate the sharing and use of search and examination work of other Parties. This may include:

3. In order to reduce the complexity and cost of obtaining the grant of a patent, the Parties shall endeavour to cooperate to reduce differences in the procedures and processes of their respective patent offices.

4. The Parties recognise the importance of giving due consideration to ratifying or acceding to the Patent Law Treaty, done at Geneva, June 1, 2000; or in the alternative, adopting or maintaining procedural standards consistent with the objective of the Patent Law Treaty.

Article 18.15: Public Domain

1. The Parties recognise the importance of a rich and accessible public domain.

2. The Parties also acknowledge the importance of informational materials, such as publicly accessible databases of registered intellectual property rights that assist in the identification of subject matter that has fallen into the public domain.

Article 18.16: Cooperation in the Area of Traditional Knowledge

1. The Parties recognise the relevance of intellectual property systems and traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources to each other, when that traditional knowledge is related to those intellectual property systems.

2. The Parties shall endeavour to cooperate through their respective agencies responsible for intellectual property, or other relevant institutions, to enhance the understanding of issues connected with traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources, and genetic resources.

3. The Parties shall endeavour to pursue quality patent examination, which may include:

Article 18.17: Cooperation on Request

Cooperation activities and initiatives undertaken under this Chapter shall be subject to the availability of resources, and on request, and on terms and conditions mutually agreed upon between the Parties involved.

Section C: Trademarks

Article 18.18: Types of Signs Registrable as Trademarks

No Party shall require, as a condition of registration, that a sign be visually perceptible, nor shall a Party deny registration of a trademark only on the ground that the sign of which it is composed is a sound. Additionally, each Party shall make best efforts to register scent marks. A Party may require a concise and accurate description, or graphical representation, or both, as applicable, of the trademark.

Article 18.19: Collective and Certification Marks

Each Party shall provide that trademarks include collective marks and certification marks. A Party is not obligated to treat certification marks as a separate category in its law, provided that those marks are protected. Each Party shall also provide that signs that may serve as geographical indications are capable of protection under its trademark system.Footnote 10

Article 18.20: Use of Identical or Similar Signs

Each Party shall provide that the owner of a registered trademark has the exclusive right to prevent third parties that do not have the owner’s consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs, including subsequent geographical indications,Footnote 11, Footnote 12 for goods or services that are related to those goods or services in respect of which the owner’s trademark is registered, where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion. In the case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services, a likelihood of confusion shall be presumed.

Article 18.21: Exceptions

A Party may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark, such as fair use of descriptive terms, provided that those exceptions take account of the legitimate interest of the owner of the trademark and of third parties.

Article 18.22: Well-Known Trademarks

1. No Party shall require as a condition for determining that a trademark is well-known that the trademark has been registered in the Party or in another jurisdiction, included on a list of well-known trademarks, or given prior recognition as a well-known trademark.

2. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to goods or services that are not identical or similar to those identified by a well-known trademark,Footnote 13 whether registered or not, provided that use of that trademark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the trademark, and provided that the interests of the owner of the trademark are likely to be damaged by such use.

3. Each Party recognises the importance of the Joint Recommendation Concerning Provisions on the Protection of Well-Known Marks as adopted by the Assembly of the Paris Union for the Protection of Industrial Property and the General Assembly of WIPO at the Thirty-Fourth Series of Meetings of the Assemblies of the Member States of WIPO September 20 to 29, 1999.

4. Each Party shall provide for appropriate measures to refuse the application or cancel the registration and prohibit the use of a trademark that is identical or similar to a well-known trademarkFootnote 14, for identical or similar goods or services, if the use of that trademark is likely to cause confusion with the prior well-known trademark. A Party may also provide such measures including in cases in which the subsequent trademark is likely to deceive.

Article 18.23: Procedural Aspects of Examination, Opposition and Cancellation

Each Party shall provide a system for the examination and registration of trademarks which includes among other things:

Article 18.24: Electronic Trademarks System

Each Party shall provide:

Article 18.25: Classification of Goods and Services

Each Party shall adopt or maintain a trademark classification system that is consistent with the Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks, done at Nice, June 15, 1957, as revised and amended (Nice Classification). Each Party shall provide that:

Article 18.26: Term of Protection for Trademarks

Each Party shall provide that initial registration and each renewal of registration of a trademark is for a term of no less than 10 years.

Article 18.27: Non-Recordal of a Licence

No Party shall require recordal of trademark licences:

Article 18.28: Domain Names

1. In connection with each Party’s system for the management of its country-code top-level domain (ccTLD) domain names, the following shall be available:

2. In connection with each Party’s system for the management of ccTLD domain names, appropriate remediesFootnote 17 shall be available at least in cases in which a person registers or holds, with a bad faith intent to profit, a domain name that is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark.

Section D: Country Names

Article 18.29: Country Names

Each Party shall provide the legal means for interested persons to prevent commercial use of the country name of a Party in relation to a good in a manner that misleads consumers as to the origin of that good.

Section E: Geographical Indications

Article 18.30: Recognition of Geographical Indications

The Parties recognise that geographical indications may be protected through a trademark or sui generis system or other legal means.

Article 18.31: Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications

If a Party provides administrative procedures for the protection or recognition of geographical indications, whether through a trademark or a sui generis system, that Party shall with respect to applications for that protection or petitions for that recognition:

Article 18.32: Grounds of Opposition and CancellationFootnote 20

1. If a Party protects or recognises a geographical indication through the procedures referred to in Article 18.31 (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications), that Party shall provide procedures that allow interested persons to object to the protection or recognition of a geographical indication, and that allow for any such protection or recognition to be refused or otherwise not afforded, at least, on the following grounds:

2. If a Party has protected or recognised a geographical indication through the procedures referred to in Article 18.31 (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications), that Party shall provide procedures that allow for interested persons to seek the cancellation of a geographical indication, and that allow for the protection or recognition to be cancelled, at least, on the grounds listed in paragraph 1.  A Party may provide that the grounds listed in paragraph 1 shall apply as of the time of filing the request for protection or recognition of a geographical indication in the territory of the Party.Footnote 22

3. No Party shall preclude the possibility that the protection or recognition of a geographical indication may be cancelled, or otherwise cease, on the basis that the protected or recognised term has ceased meeting the conditions upon which the protection or recognition was originally granted in that Party.

4. If a Party has in place a sui generis system for protecting unregistered geographical indications by means of judicial procedures, that Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to deny the protection or recognition of a geographical indication if any of the circumstances identified in paragraph 1 has been established.Footnote 23  That Party shall also provide a process that allows interested persons to commence a proceeding on the grounds identified in paragraph 1.

5. If a Party provides protection or recognition of a geographical indication through the procedures referred to in Article 18.31 (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications) to the translation or transliteration of that geographical indication, that Party shall make available procedures that are equivalent to, and grounds that are the same as, those referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 with respect to that translation or transliteration.

Article 18.33: Guidelines for Determining Whether a Term is the Term Customary in the Common Language

With respect to the procedures in Article 18.31 (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications) and Article 18.32 (Grounds of Opposition and Cancellation), in determining whether a term is the term customary in common language as the common name for the relevant good in the territory of a Party, that Party’s authorities shall have the authority to take into account how consumers understand the term in the territory of that Party. Factors relevant to such consumer understanding may include:

Article 18.34: Multi-Component Terms

With respect to the procedures in Article 18.31 (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications) and Article 18.32 (Grounds of Opposition and Cancellation), an individual component of a multi-component term that is protected as a geographical indication in the territory of a Party shall not be protected in that Party if that individual component is a term customary in the common language as the common name for the associated good.

Article 18.35: Date of Protection of a Geographical Indication

If a Party grants protection or recognition to a geographical indication through the procedures referred to in Article 18.31 (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications), that protection or recognition shall commence no earlier than the filing dateFootnote 25 in the Party or the registration date in the Party, as applicable.

Article 18.36: International Agreements

1. If a Party protects or recognises a geographical indication pursuant to an international agreement, as of the applicable date under paragraph 6, involving a Party or a non-Party and that geographical indication is not protected through the procedures referred to in Article 18.31 (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications)Footnote 26 or Article 18.32.4 (Grounds of Opposition and Cancellation), that Party shall apply at least procedures and grounds that are equivalent to those in Article 18.31(e) (Administrative Procedures for the Protection or Recognition of Geographical Indications) and Article 18.32.1 (Grounds of Opposition and Cancellation), as well as:

2. In respect of international agreements referred to in paragraph 6 that permit the protection or recognition of a new geographical indication, a Party shall:Footnote 27,Footnote 28

3. For the purposes of this Article, a Party shall not preclude the possibility that the protection or recognition of a geographical indication could cease.

4. For the purposes of this Article, a Party is not required to apply Article 18.32 (Grounds of Opposition and Cancellation), or obligations equivalent to Article 18.32, to geographical indications for wines and spirits or applications for those geographical indications.

5. Protection or recognition provided pursuant to paragraph 1 shall commence no earlier than the date on which the agreement enters into force or, if that Party grants that protection or recognition on a date after the entry into force of the agreement, on that later date.

6. No Party shall be required to apply this Article to geographical indications that have been specifically identified in, and that are protected or recognised pursuant to, an international agreement involving a Party or a non-Party, provided that the agreement:

Section F:  Patents and Undisclosed Test or Other Data

Subsection A:  General Patents

Article 18.37: Patentable Subject Matter

1. Subject to paragraphs 3 and 4, each Party shall make patents available for any invention, whether a product or process, in all fields of technology, provided that the invention is new, involves an inventive step and is capable of industrial application.Footnote 30

2. Subject to paragraphs 3 and 4 and consistent with paragraph 1, each Party confirms that patents are available for inventions claimed as at least one of the following: new uses of a known product, new methods of using a known product, or new processes of using a known product. A Party may limit those new processes to those that do not claim the use of the product as such.

3. A Party may exclude from patentability inventions, the prevention within their territory of the commercial exploitation of which is necessary to protect ordre public or morality, including to protect human, animal or plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to nature or the environment, provided that such exclusion is not made merely because the exploitation is prohibited by its law. A Party may also exclude from patentability:

4. A Party may also exclude from patentability plants other than microorganisms. However, consistent with paragraph 1 and subject to paragraph 3, each Party confirms that patents are available at least for inventions that are derived from plants.

Article 18.38: Grace Period

Each Party shall disregard at least information contained in public disclosures used to determine if an invention is novel or has an inventive step, if the public disclosure:Footnote 31, Footnote 32

Article 18.39: Patent Revocation

1. Each Party shall provide that a patent may be cancelled, revoked or nullified only on grounds that would have justified a refusal to grant the patent. A Party may also provide that fraud, misrepresentation or inequitable conduct may be the basis for cancelling, revoking or nullifying a patent or holding a patent unenforceable.

2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, a Party may provide that a patent may be revoked, provided it is done in a manner consistent with Article 5A of the Paris Convention and the TRIPS Agreement.

Article 18.40: Exceptions

A Party may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.

Article 18.41: Other Use Without Authorisation of the Right Holder

The Parties understand that nothing in this Chapter limits a Party’s rights and obligations under Article 31 of the TRIPS Agreement, any waiver or any amendment to that Article that the Parties accept.

Article 18.42: Patent Filing

Each Party shall provide that if an invention is made independently by more than one inventor, and separate applications claiming that invention are filed with, or for, the relevant authority of the Party, that Party shall grant the patent on the application that is patentable and that has the earliest filing date or, if applicable, priority date,Footnote 33 unless that application has, prior to publication,Footnote 34 been withdrawn, abandoned or refused.

Article 18.43: Amendments, Corrections and Observations

Each Party shall provide a patent applicant with at least one opportunity to make amendments, corrections and observations in connection with its application.Footnote 35

Article 18.44: Publication of Patent Applications

1. Recognising the benefits of transparency in the patent system, each Party shall endeavour to publish unpublished pending patent applications promptly after the expiration of 18 months from the filing date or, if priority is claimed, from the earliest priority date.

2. If a pending application is not published promptly in accordance with paragraph 1, a Party shall publish that application or the corresponding patent, as soon as practicable.

3. Each Party shall provide that an applicant may request the early publication of an application prior to the expiration of the period referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 18.45: Information Relating to Published Patent Applications and Granted Patents

For published patent applications and granted patents, and in accordance with the Party’s requirements for prosecution of such applications and patents, each Party shall make available to the public at least the following information, to the extent that such information is in the possession of the competent authorities and is generated on, or after, the date of the entry into force of this Agreement for that Party:

Article 18.46: Patent Term Adjustment for Unreasonable Granting Authority Delays

1. Each Party shall make best efforts to process patent applications in an efficient and timely manner, with a view to avoiding unreasonable or unnecessary delays.

2. A Party may provide procedures for a patent applicant to request to expedite the examination of its patent application.

3. If there are unreasonable delays in a Party’s issuance of patents, that Party shall provide the means to, and at the request of the patent owner shall, adjust the term of the patent to compensate for such delays.Footnote 36

4. For the purposes of this Article, an unreasonable delay at least shall include a delay in the issuance of a patent of more than five years from the date of filing of the application in the territory of the Party, or three years after a request for examination of the application has been made, whichever is later. A Party may exclude, from the determination of such delays, periods of time that do not occur during the processingFootnote 37 of, or the examination of, the patent application by the granting authority; periods of time that are not directly attributableFootnote 38 to the granting authority; as well as periods of time that are attributable to the patent applicant.Footnote 39

Subsection B:  Measures Relating to Agricultural Chemical Products

Article 18.47: Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data for Agricultural Chemical Products

1. If a Party requires, as a condition for granting marketing approvalFootnote 40 for a new agricultural chemical product, the submission of undisclosed test or other data concerning the safety and efficacy of the product,Footnote 41 that Party shall not permit third persons, without the consent of the person that previously submitted such information, to market the same or a similarFootnote 42 product on the basis of that information or the marketing approval granted to the person that submitted such test or other data for at least 10 yearsFootnote 43 from the date of marketing approval of the new agricultural chemical product in the territory of the Party.

2. If a Party permits, as a condition of granting marketing approval for a new agricultural chemical product, the submission of evidence of a prior marketing approval of the product in another territory, that Party shall not permit third persons, without the consent of the person that previously submitted undisclosed test or other data concerning the safety and efficacy of the product in support of that prior marketing approval, to market the same or a similar product based on that undisclosed test or other data, or other evidence of the prior marketing approval in the other territory, for at least 10 years from the date of marketing approval of the new agricultural chemical product in the territory of the Party.

3. For the purposes of this Article, a new agricultural chemical product is one that containsFootnote 44 a chemical entity that has not been previously approved in the territory of the Party for use in an agricultural chemical product.

Subsection C: Measures Relating to Pharmaceutical Products

Article 18.48: Patent Term Adjustment for Unreasonable Curtailment

1. Each Party shall make best efforts to process applications for marketing approval of pharmaceutical products in an efficient and timely manner, with a view to avoiding unreasonable or unnecessary delays.

2. With respect to a pharmaceutical productFootnote 45 that is subject to a patent, each Party shall make available an adjustmentFootnote 46 of the patent term to compensate the patent owner for unreasonable curtailment of the effective patent term as a result of the marketing approval process.Footnote 47, Footnote 48

3. For greater certainty, in implementing the obligations of this Article, each Party may provide for conditions and limitations, provided that the Party continues to give effect to this Article.

4. With the objective of avoiding unreasonable curtailment of the effective patent term, a Party may adopt or maintain procedures that expedite the processing of marketing approval applications.

Article 18.49: Regulatory Review Exception

Without prejudice to the scope of, and consistent with, Article 18.40 (Exceptions), each Party shall adopt or maintain a regulatory review exceptionFootnote 49 for pharmaceutical products.

Article 18.50: Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other DataFootnote 50

1.

2. Each Party shall:Footnote 55

3. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2 and Article 18.51 (Biologics), a Party may take measures to protect public health in accordance with:

Article 18.51: BiologicsFootnote 58

1. With regard to protecting new biologics, a Party shall either:

2. For the purposes of this Section, each Party shall apply this Article to, at a minimum, a product that is, or, alternatively, contains, a protein produced using biotechnology processes, for use in human beings for the prevention, treatment, or cure of a disease or condition.

3. Recognising that international and domestic regulation of new pharmaceutical products that are or contain a biologic is in a formative stage and that market circumstances may evolve over time, the Parties shall consult after 10 years from the date of entry into force of this Agreement, or as otherwise decided by the Commission, to review the period of exclusivity provided in paragraph 1 and the scope of application provided in paragraph 2, with a view to providing effective incentives for the development of new pharmaceutical products that are or contain a biologic, as well as with a view to facilitating the timely availability of follow-on biosimilars, and to ensuring that the scope of application remains consistent with international developments regarding approval of additional categories of new pharmaceutical products that are or contain a biologic.

Article 18.52: Definition of New Pharmaceutical Product

For the purposes of Article 18.50.1 (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data), a new pharmaceutical product means a pharmaceutical product that does not containFootnote 61 a chemical entity that has been previously approved in that Party.

Article 18.53: Measures Relating to the Marketing of Certain Pharmaceutical Products

1. If a Party permits, as a condition of approving the marketing of a pharmaceutical product, persons, other than the person originally submitting the safety and efficacy information, to rely on evidence or information concerning the safety and efficacy of a product that was previously approved, such as evidence of prior marketing approval by the Party or in another territory, that Party shall provide:

2. As an alternative to paragraph 1, a Party shall instead adopt or maintain a system other than judicial proceedings that precludes, based upon patent-related information submitted to the marketing approval authority by a patent holder or the applicant for marketing approval, or based on direct coordination between the marketing approval authority and the patent office, the issuance of marketing approval to any third person seeking to market a pharmaceutical product subject to a patent claiming that product, unless by consent or acquiescence of the patent holder.

Article 18.54: Alteration of Period of Protection

Subject to Article 18.50.3 (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data), if a product is subject to a system of marketing approval in the territory of a Party pursuant to Article 18.47 (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data for Agricultural Chemical Products), Article 18.50 or Article 18.51 (Biologics) and is also covered by a patent in the territory of that Party, the Party shall not alter the period of protection that it provides pursuant to Article 18.47, Article 18.50 or Article 18.51 in the event that the patent protection terminates on a date earlier than the end of the period of protection specified in Article 18.47, Article 18.50 or Article 18.51.

Section G: Industrial Designs

Article 18.55: Protection

1. Each Party shall ensure adequate and effective protection of industrial designs and also confirms that protection for industrial designs is available for designs:

2. This Article is subject to Articles 25 and 26 of the TRIPS Agreement.

Article 18.56: Improving Industrial Design Systems

The Parties recognise the importance of improving the quality and efficiency of their respective industrial design registration systems, as well as facilitating the process of cross-border acquisition of rights in their respective industrial design systems, including giving due consideration to ratifying or acceding to the Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs, done at Geneva, July 2, 1999.

Section H: Copyright and Related Rights

Article 18.57: Definitions

For the purposes of Article 18.58 (Right of Reproduction) and Article 18.60 (Right of Distribution) through Article 18.70 (Collective Management), the following definitions apply with respect to performers and producers of phonograms:

broadcasting means the transmission by wireless means for public reception of sounds or of images and sounds or of the representations thereof; such transmission by satellite is also “broadcasting”; transmission of encrypted signals is “broadcasting” if the means for decrypting are provided to the public by the broadcasting organisation or with its consent;

communication to the public of a performance or a phonogram means the transmission to the public by any medium, other than by broadcasting, of sounds of a performance or the sounds or the representations of sounds fixed in a phonogram;

fixation means the embodiment of sounds, or of the representations thereof, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated through a device;

performers means actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret, or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore;

phonogram means the fixation of the sounds of a performance or of other sounds, or of a representation of sounds, other than in the form of a fixation incorporated in a cinematographic or other audio-visual work;

producer of a phonogram means a person that takes the initiative and has the responsibility for the first fixation of the sounds of a performance or other sounds, or the representations of sounds; and

publication of a performance or phonogram means the offering of copies of the  performance or the phonogram to the public, with the consent of the right holder, and provided that copies are offered to the public in reasonable quantity.

Article 18.58: Right of Reproduction

Each Party shall provideFootnote 64 to authors, performers and producers of phonogramsFootnote 65 the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit all reproduction of their works, performances or phonograms in any manner or form, including in electronic form.

Article 18.59: Right of Communication to the Public

Without prejudice to Article 11(1)(ii), Article 11bis(1)(i) and (ii), Article 11ter(1)(ii), Article 14(1)(ii), and Article 14bis(1) of the Berne Convention, each Party shall provide to authors the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit the communication to the public of their works, by wire or wireless means, including the making available to the public of their works in such a way that members of the public may access these works from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.Footnote 66

Article 18.60: Right of Distribution

Each Party shall provide to authors, performers and producers of phonograms the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit the making available to the public of the original and copiesFootnote 67 of their works, performances and phonograms through sale or other transfer of ownership.

Article 18.61: No Hierarchy

Each Party shall provide that in cases in which authorisation is needed from both the author of a work embodied in a phonogram and a performer or producer that owns rights in the phonogram:

Article 18.62: Related Rights

1. Each Party shall accord the rights provided for in this Chapter with respect to performers and producers of phonograms: to the performers and producers of phonograms that are nationalsFootnote 68 of another Party; and to performances or phonograms first published or first fixedFootnote 69 in the territory of another Party.Footnote 70  A performance or phonogram shall be considered first published in the territory of a Party if it is published in the territory of that Party within 30 days of its original publication.

2. Each Party shall provide to performers the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit:

3.

Article 18.63: Term of Protection for Copyright and Related Rights

Each Party shall provide that in cases in which the term of protection of a work, performance or phonogram is to be calculated:Footnote 74

Article 18.64: Application of Article 18 of the Berne Convention and Article 14.6 of the TRIPS Agreement

Each Party shall apply Article 18 of the Berne Convention and Article 14.6 of the TRIPS Agreement, mutatis mutandis, to works, performances and phonograms, and the rights in and protections afforded to that subject matter as required by this Section.

Article 18.65: Limitations and Exceptions

1. With respect to this Section, each Party shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases that do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work, performance or phonogram, and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.

2. This Article does not reduce or extend the scope of applicability of the limitations and exceptions permitted by the TRIPS Agreement, the Berne Convention, the WCT or the WPPT.

Article 18.66: Balance in Copyright and Related Rights Systems

Each Party shall endeavour to achieve an appropriate balance in its copyright and related rights system, among other things by means of limitations or exceptions that are consistent with Article 18.65 (Limitations and Exceptions), including those for the digital environment, giving due consideration to legitimate purposes such as, but not limited to: criticism; comment; news reporting; teaching, scholarship, research, and other similar purposes; and facilitating access to published works for persons who are blind, visually impaired or otherwise print disabled.Footnote 78, Footnote 79

Article 18.67: Contractual Transfers

Each Party shall provide that for copyright and related rights, any person acquiring or holding any economic rightFootnote 80 in a work, performance or phonogram:

Article 18.68: Technological Protection Measures (TPMs)Footnote 82

1. In order to provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures that authors, performers, and producers of phonograms use in connection with the exercise of their rights and that restrict unauthorised acts in respect of their works, performances, and phonograms,  each Party shall provide that any person that:

Each Party shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied if any person is found to have engaged wilfullyFootnote 88 and for the purposes of commercial advantage or financial gainFootnote 89 in any of the above activities.Footnote 90

A Party may provide that the criminal procedures and penalties do not apply to a non-profit library, museum, archive, educational institution, or public non-commercial broadcasting entity. A Party may also provide that the remedies provided for in Article 18.74 (Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies) do not apply to any of the same entities provided that the above activities are carried out in good faith without knowledge that the conduct is prohibited.

2. In implementing paragraph 1, no Party shall be obligated to require that the design of, or the design and selection of parts and components for, a consumer electronics, telecommunications, or computing product provide for a response to any particular technological measure, provided that the product does not otherwise violate a measure implementing paragraph 1.

3. Each Party shall provide that a violation of a measure implementing this Article is independent of any infringement that might occur under the Party’s law on copyright and related rights.Footnote 91

4. With regard to measures implementing paragraph 1:

5. Effective technological measure means any effectiveFootnote 95 technology, device, or component that, in the normal course of its operation, controls access to a protected work, performance, or phonogram, or protects copyright or related rights related to a work, performance or phonogram.

Article 18.69: Rights Management Information (RMI)Footnote 96

1. In order to provide adequate and effective legal remedies to protect RMI:

is liable and subject to the remedies set out in Article 18.74 (Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies).

Each Party shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied if any person is found to have engaged wilfully and for purposes of commercial advantage or financial gain in any of the above activities.

A Party may provide that the criminal procedures and penalties do not apply to a non-profit library, museum, archive, educational institution or public non-commercial broadcasting entity.Footnote 99

2. For greater certainty, nothing prevents a Party from excluding from a measure that implements paragraph 1 a lawfully authorised activity that is carried out for the purpose of law enforcement, essential security interests or other related governmental purposes, such as the performance of a statutory function.

3. For greater certainty, nothing in this Article shall obligate a Party to require a right holder in a work, performance or phonogram to attach RMI to copies of the work, performance or phonogram, or to cause RMI to appear in connection with a communication of the work, performance or phonogram to the public.

4. RMI means:

if any of these items is attached to a copy of the work, performance or phonogram or appears in connection with the communication or making available of a work, performance or phonogram to the public.

Article 18.70: Collective Management

The Parties recognise the important role of collective management societies for copyright and related rights in collecting and distributing royaltiesFootnote 100 based on practices that are fair, efficient, transparent and accountable, which may include appropriate record keeping and reporting mechanisms.

Section I: Enforcement

Article 18.71: General Obligations

1. Each Party shall ensure that enforcement procedures as specified in this Section are available under its lawFootnote 101 so as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this Chapter, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies that constitute a deterrent to future infringements.Footnote 102 These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse.

2. Each Party confirms that the enforcement procedures set forth in Article 18.74 (Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies), Article 18.75 (Provisional Measures) and Article 18.77 (Criminal Procedures and Penalties) shall be available to the same extent with respect to acts of trademark infringement, as well as copyright or related rights infringement, in the digital environment.

3. Each Party shall ensure that its procedures concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights are fair and equitable. These procedures shall not be unnecessarily complicated or costly, or entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted delays.

4. This Section does not create any obligation:

5. In implementing the provisions of this Section in its intellectual property system, each Party shall take into account the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the infringement of the intellectual property right and the applicable remedies and penalties, as well as the interests of third parties.

Article 18.72: Presumptions

1. In civil, criminal and, if applicable, administrative proceedings involving copyright or related rights, each Party shall provide for a presumptionFootnote 103 that, in the absence of proof to the contrary:

2. In connection with the commencement of a civil, administrative or criminal enforcement proceeding involving a registered trademark that has been substantively examined by its competent authority, each Party shall provide that the trademark be considered prima facie valid.

3. In connection with the commencement of a civil or administrative enforcement proceeding involving a patent that has been substantively examined and grantedFootnote 105 by the competent authority of a Party, that Party shall provide that each claim in the patent be considered prima facie to satisfy the applicable criteria of patentability in the territory of the Party.Footnote 106,Footnote 107

Article 18.73: Enforcement Practices with Respect to Intellectual Property Rights

1. Each Party shall provide that final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application pertaining to the enforcement of intellectual property rights:

2. Each Party recognises the importance of collecting and analysing statistical data and other relevant information concerning infringements of intellectual property rights as well as collecting information on best practices to prevent and combat infringements.

3. Each Party shall publish or otherwise make available to the public information on its efforts to provide effective enforcement of intellectual property rights in its civil, administrative and criminal systems, such as statistical information that the Party may collect for such purposes.

Article 18.74: Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies

1. Each Party shall make available to right holders civil judicial procedures concerning the enforcement of any intellectual property right covered in this Chapter.Footnote 109

2. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order injunctive relief that conforms to Article 44 of the TRIPS Agreement, including to prevent goods that involve the infringement of an intellectual property right under the law of the Party providing that relief from entering into the channels of commerce.

3. Each Party shall provideFootnote 110 that, in civil judicial proceedings, its judicial authorities have the authority at least to order the infringer to pay the right holder damages adequate to compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of an infringement of that person’s intellectual property right by an infringer who knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engaged in infringing activity.

4. In determining the amount of damages under paragraph 3, each Party’s judicial authorities shall have the authority to consider, among other things, any legitimate measure of value the right holder submits, which may include lost profits, the value of the infringed goods or services measured by the market price, or the suggested retail price.

5. At least in cases of copyright or related rights infringement and trademark counterfeiting, each Party shall provide that, in civil judicial proceedings, its judicial authorities have the authority to order the infringer, at least in cases described in paragraph 3, to pay the right holder the infringer’s profits that are attributable to the infringement.Footnote 111

6. In civil judicial proceedings with respect to the infringement of copyright or related rights protecting works, phonograms or performances, each Party shall establish or maintain a system that provides for one or more of the following:

7. In civil judicial proceedings with respect to trademark counterfeiting, each Party shall also establish or maintain a system that provides for one or more of the following:

8. Pre-established damages under paragraphs 6 and 7 shall be set out in an amount that would be sufficient to compensate the right holder for the harm caused by the infringement, and with a view to deterring future infringements.

9. In awarding additional damages under paragraphs 6 and 7, judicial authorities shall have the authority to award such additional damages as they consider appropriate, having regard to all relevant matters, including the nature of the infringing conduct and the need to deter similar infringements in the future.

10. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities, if appropriate, have the authority to order, at the conclusion of civil judicial proceedings concerning infringement of at least copyright or related rights, patents and trademarks, that the prevailing party be awarded payment by the losing party of court costs or fees and appropriate attorney’s fees, or any other expenses as provided for under the Party’s law.

11. If a Party’s judicial or other authorities appoint a technical or other expert in a civil proceeding concerning the enforcement of an intellectual property right and require that the parties to the proceeding pay the costs of that expert, that Party should seek to ensure that those costs are reasonable and related appropriately, among other things, to the quantity and nature of work to be performed and do not unreasonably deter recourse to such proceedings.

12. Each Party shall provide that in civil judicial proceedings:

13. Without prejudice to its law governing privilege, the protection of confidentiality of information sources or the processing of personal data, each Party shall provide that, in civil judicial proceedings concerning the enforcement of an intellectual property right, its judicial authorities have the authority, on a justified request of the right holder, to order the infringer or, in the alternative, the alleged infringer to provide to the right holder or to the judicial authorities, at least for the purpose of collecting evidence, relevant information as provided for in its applicable laws and regulations that the infringer or alleged infringer possesses or controls. The information may include information regarding any person involved in any aspect of the infringement or alleged infringement and the means of production or the channels of distribution of the infringing or allegedly infringing goods or services, including the identification of third persons alleged to be involved in the production and distribution of the goods or services and of their channels of distribution.

14. Each Party shall provide that in relation to a civil judicial proceeding concerning the enforcement of an intellectual property right, its judicial or other authorities have the authority to impose sanctions on a party, counsel, experts or other persons subject to the court’s jurisdiction for violation of judicial orders concerning the protection of confidential information produced or exchanged in that proceeding.

15. Each Party shall ensure that its judicial authorities have the authority to order a party at whose request measures were taken and that has abused enforcement procedures with regard to intellectual property rights, including trademarks, geographical indications, patents, copyright and related rights and industrial designs, to provide to a party wrongfully enjoined or restrained adequate compensation for the injury suffered because of that abuse. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the applicant to pay the defendant expenses, which may include appropriate attorney’s fees.

16. To the extent that any civil remedy can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the merits of a case, each Party shall provide that those procedures conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set out in this Article.

17. In civil judicial proceedings concerning the acts described in Article 18.68 (TPMs) and Article 18.69 (RMI):

Article 18.75: Provisional Measures

1. Each Party’s authorities shall act on a request for relief in respect of an intellectual property right inaudita altera parte expeditiously in accordance with that Party’s judicial rules.

2. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to require the applicant for a provisional measure in respect of an intellectual property right to provide any reasonably available evidence in order to satisfy the judicial authority, with a sufficient degree of certainty, that the applicant’s right is being infringed or that the infringement is imminent, and to order the applicant to provide security or equivalent assurance set at a level sufficient to protect the defendant and to prevent abuse. Such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to those procedures.

3. In civil judicial proceedings concerning copyright or related rights infringement and trademark counterfeiting, each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order the seizure or other taking into custody of suspected infringing goods, materials and implements relevant to the infringement, and, at least for trademark counterfeiting, documentary evidence relevant to the infringement.

Article 18.76: Special Requirements related to Border Measures

1. Each Party shall provide for applications to suspend the release of, or to detain, any suspected counterfeit or confusingly similar trademark or pirated copyright goods that are imported into the territory of the Party.Footnote 116

2. Each Party shall provide that any right holder initiating procedures for its competent authoritiesFootnote 117 to suspend release of suspected counterfeit or confusingly similar trademark or pirated copyright goods into free circulation is required to provide adequate evidence to satisfy the competent authorities that, under the law of the Party providing the procedures, there is prima facie an infringement of the right holder's intellectual property right and to supply sufficient information that may reasonably be expected to be within the right holder’s knowledge to make the suspect goods reasonably recognisable by its competent authorities. The requirement to provide that information shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures.

3. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to require a right holder initiating procedures to suspend the release of suspected counterfeit or confusingly similar trademark or pirated copyright goods, to provide a reasonable security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse. Each Party shall provide that such security or equivalent assurance does not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures. A Party may provide that the security may be in the form of a bond conditioned to hold the defendant harmless from any loss or damage resulting from any suspension of the release of goods in the event the competent authorities determine that the article is not an infringing good.

4. Without prejudice to a Party’s law pertaining to privacy or the confidentiality of information:

5. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities may initiate border measures ex officioFootnote 119 with respect to goods under customs controlFootnote 120 that are:

and that are suspected of being counterfeit trademark goods or pirated copyright goods.

6. Each Party shall adopt or maintain a procedure by which its competent authorities may determine within a reasonable period of time after the initiation of the procedures described in paragraph 1, paragraph 5(a), paragraph 5(b) and, if applicable, paragraph 5(c), whether the suspect goods infringe an intellectual property right.Footnote 124  If a Party provides administrative procedures for the determination of an infringement, it may also provide its authorities with the authority to impose administrative penalties or sanctions, which may include fines or the seizure of the infringing goods following a determination that the goods are infringing.

7. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to order the destruction of goods following a determination that the goods are infringing. In cases in which the goods are not destroyed, each Party shall ensure that, except in exceptional circumstances, the goods are disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid any harm to the right holder. In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient, other than in exceptional cases, to permit the release of the goods into the channels of commerce.

8. If a Party establishes or assesses, in connection with the procedures described in this Article, an application fee, storage fee or destruction fee, that fee shall not be set at an amount that unreasonably deters recourse to these procedures.

9. This Article also shall apply to goods of a commercial nature sent in small consignments. A Party may exclude from the application of this Article small quantities of goods of a non-commercial nature contained in travellers’ personal luggage.Footnote 125

Article 18.77: Criminal Procedures and Penalties

1. Each Party shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of wilful trademark counterfeiting or copyright or related rights piracy on a commercial scale. In respect of wilful copyright or related rights piracy, “on a commercial scale” includes at least:

2. Each Party shall treat wilful importation or exportation of counterfeit trademark goods or pirated copyright goods on a commercial scale as unlawful activities subject to criminal penalties.Footnote 128

3. Each Party shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in cases of wilful importationFootnote 129 and domestic use, in the course of trade and on a commercial scale, of a label or packaging:Footnote 130

4. Recognising the need to address the unauthorised copyingFootnote 131 of a cinematographic work from a performance in a movie theatre that causes significant harm to a right holder in the market for that work, and recognising the need to deter such harm, each Party shall adopt or maintain measures, which shall at a minimum include, but need not be limited to, appropriate criminal procedures and penalties.

5. With respect to the offences for which this Article requires a Party to provide for criminal procedures and penalties, each Party shall ensure that criminal liability for aiding and abetting is available under its law.

6. With respect to the offences described in paragraphs 1 through 5, each Party shall provide the following:

7. With respect to the offences described in paragraphs 1 through 5, a Party may provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order the seizure or forfeiture of assets, or alternatively, a fine, the value of which corresponds to the assets derived from, or obtained directly or indirectly through, the infringing activity.

Article 18.78: Trade SecretsFootnote 136

1. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention, each Party shall ensure that persons have the legal means to prevent trade secrets lawfully in their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others (including state-owned enterprises) without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices.Footnote 137 As used in this Chapter, trade secrets encompass, at a minimum, undisclosed information as provided for in Article 39.2 of the TRIPS Agreement.

2. Subject to paragraph 3, each Party shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties for one or more of the following:

3. With respect to the relevant acts referred to in paragraph 2, a Party may, as appropriate, limit the availability of its criminal procedures, or limit the level of penalties available, to one or more of the following cases in which:

Article 18.79: Protection of Encrypted Program-Carrying Satellite and Cable Signals

1. Each Party shall make it a criminal offence to:

knowing that it has been decoded without the authorisation of the lawful distributor of the signal.

2. Each Party shall provide for civil remedies for a person that holds an interest in an encrypted program-carrying satellite signal or its content and that is injured by an activity described in paragraph 1.

3. Each Party shall provide for criminal penalties or civil remediesFootnote 145 for wilfully:

Article 18.80: Government Use of Software

1. Each Party recognises the importance of promoting the adoption of measures to enhance government awareness of respect for intellectual property rights and of the detrimental effects of the infringement of intellectual property rights.

2. Each Party shall adopt or maintain appropriate laws, regulations, policies, orders, government-issued guidelines, or administrative or executive decrees that provide that its central government agencies use only non-infringing computer software protected by copyright and related rights, and, if applicable, only use that computer software in a manner authorised by the relevant licence. These measures shall apply to the acquisition and management of the software for government use.Footnote 147

Section J: Internet Service ProvidersFootnote 148

Article 18.81: Definitions

For the purposes of this Section:

the term copyright includes related rights; and

Internet Service Provider means:

For greater certainty, Internet Service Provider includes a provider of the services listed above that engages in caching carried out through an automated process.

Article 18.82: Legal Remedies and Safe HarboursFootnote 149

1. The Parties recognise the importance of facilitating the continued development of legitimate online services operating as intermediaries and, in a manner consistent with Article 41 of the TRIPS Agreement, providing enforcement procedures that permit effective action by right holders against copyright infringement covered under this Chapter that occurs in the online environment. Accordingly, each Party shall ensure that legal remedies are available for right holders to address such copyright infringement and shall establish or maintain appropriate safe harbours in respect of online services that are Internet Service Providers. This framework of legal remedies and safe harbours shall include:

2. The limitations described in paragraph 1(b) shall include limitations in respect of the following functions:

3. To facilitate effective action to address infringement, each Party shall prescribe in its law conditions for Internet Service Providers to qualify for the limitations described in paragraph 1(b), or, alternatively, shall provide for circumstances under which Internet Service Providers do not qualify for the limitations described in paragraph 1(b):Footnote 155, Footnote 156

4. If a system for counter-notices is provided under a Party’s law, and if material has been removed or access has been disabled in accordance with paragraph 3, that Party shall require that the Internet Service Provider restores the material subject to a counter-notice, unless the person giving the original notice seeks judicial relief within a reasonable period of time.

5. Each Party shall ensure that monetary remedies are available in its legal system against any person that makes a knowing material misrepresentation in a notice or counter-notice that causes injury to any interested partyFootnote 159 as a result of an Internet Service Provider relying on the misrepresentation.

6. Eligibility for the limitations in paragraph 1 shall not be conditioned on the Internet Service Provider monitoring its service or affirmatively seeking facts indicating infringing activity.

7. Each Party shall provide procedures, whether judicial or administrative, in accordance with that Party’s legal system, and consistent with principles of due process and privacy, that enable a copyright owner that has made a legally sufficient claim of copyright infringement to obtain expeditiously from an Internet Service Provider information in the provider’s possession identifying the alleged infringer, in cases in which that information is sought for the purpose of protecting or enforcing that copyright.

8. The Parties understand that the failure of an Internet Service Provider to qualify for the limitations in paragraph 1(b) does not itself result in liability. Further, this Article is without prejudice to the availability of other limitations and exceptions to copyright, or any other defences under a Party’s legal system.

9. The Parties recognise the importance, in implementing their obligations under this Article, of taking into account the impacts on right holders and Internet Service Providers.

Section K: Final Provisions

Article 18.83: Final Provisions

1. Except as otherwise provided in Article 18.10 (Application of Chapter to Existing Subject Matter and Prior Acts) and paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, each Party shall give effect to the provisions of this Chapter on the date of entry into force of this Agreement for that Party.Footnote 160

2. During the relevant periods set out below, a Party shall not amend an existing measure or adopt a new measure that is less consistent with its obligations under the Articles referred to below for that Party than relevant measures that are in effect on the date of signature of this Agreement. This Section does not affect the rights and obligations of a Party under an international agreement to which it and another Party are party.

3. With respect to works of any Party that avails itself of a transition period permitted to it with regard to implementation of Article 18.63 (Term of Protection for Copyright and Related Rights) as it relates to the term of copyright protection (transition Party), Japan and Mexico shall apply at least the term of protection available under the transition Party’s law for the relevant works during the transition period and apply Article 18.8.1 (National Treatment) with respect to copyright term only when that Party fully implements Article 18.63.

4. With regard to obligations subject to a transition period, a Party shall fully implement its obligations under the provisions of this Chapter no later than the expiration of the relevant time period specified below, which begins on the date of entry into force of this Agreement for that Party.

Annex 18-A

Annex to Article 18.7.2

1. Notwithstanding the obligations in Article 18.7.2 (International Agreements), and subject to paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of this Annex, New Zealand shall:

2. Nothing in paragraph 1 shall preclude the adoption by New Zealand of measures it deems necessary to protect indigenous plant species in fulfilment of its obligations under the Treaty of Waitangi, provided that such measures are not used as a means of arbitrary or unjustified discrimination against a person of another Party.

3. The consistency of any measures referred to in paragraph 2 with the obligations in paragraph 1 shall not be subject to the dispute settlement provisions of this Agreement.

4. The interpretation of the Treaty of Waitangi, including as to the nature of the rights and obligations arising under it, shall not be subject to the dispute settlement provisions of this Agreement. Chapter 28 (Dispute Settlement) shall otherwise apply to this Annex. A panel established under Article 28.7 (Establishment of a Panel) may be requested to determine only whether any measure referred to in paragraph 2 is inconsistent with a Party’s rights under this Agreement.

Annex 18-B

Chile

1. Nothing in Article 18.50.1 or Article 18.50.2 (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data) or Article 18.51 (Biologics) prevents Chile from maintaining or applying the provisions of Article 91 of Chile’s Law No. 19.039 on Industrial Property, as in effect on the date of agreement in principle of this Agreement.

2. Notwithstanding Article 1.2 (Relation to Other Agreements), paragraph 1 is without prejudice to any Party’s rights and obligations under an international agreement in effect prior to the date of entry into force of this Agreement for Chile, including any rights and obligations under a trade agreement between Chile and another Party.

Annex 18-C

Malaysia

1. Malaysia may, for the purpose of granting protection as specified in Article 18.50.1 and Article 18.50.2 (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data) and Article 18.51.1 (Biologics), require an applicant to commence the process of obtaining marketing approval for pharmaceutical products covered under those Articles within 18 months from the date that the product is first granted marketing approval in any country.

2. For greater certainty, the periods of protection referred to in Article 18.50.1 and Article 18.50.2 (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data) and Article 18.51.1 (Biologics) shall begin on the date of marketing approval of the pharmaceutical product in Malaysia.

Annex 18-D

Peru

Part 1: Applicable to Article 18.46 (Patent Term Adjustment for Unreasonable Granting Authority Delays) and Article 18.48 (Patent Term Adjustment for Unreasonable Curtailment)

To the extent that Andean Decision 486, Common Industrial Property Regime, and Andean Decision 689, Adequacy of Certain Articles of Decision 486, restricts Peru’s implementation of its obligations set forth in Article 18.46.3 (Patent Term Adjustment for Unreasonable Granting Authority Delays) and Article 18.48.2 (Patent Term Adjustment for Unreasonable Curtailment), Peru commits to make its best efforts to obtain a waiver from the Andean Community that allows it to adjust its patent term in a way that is consistent with Article 18.46.3 (Patent Term Adjustment for Unreasonable Granting Authority Delays) and Article 18.48.2 (Patent Term Adjustment for Unreasonable Curtailment). Further, if Peru demonstrates that the Andean Community withheld its request for a waiver despite its best efforts, Peru will continue ensuring that it does not discriminate with respect to the availability or enjoyment of patent rights based on the field of technology, the place of invention, and whether products are imported or locally produced. Thus, Peru confirms that the treatment of pharmaceutical patents will be no less favourable than treatment of other patents in respect of the processing and examination of patent applications.

Part 2: Applicable to Article 18.50 (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data) and Article 18.51 (Biologics)

1. If Peru relies, pursuant to Article 18.50.1(b) (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data), on a marketing approval granted by another Party, and grants approval within six months of the date of the filing of a complete application for marketing approval filed in Peru, Peru may provide that the protection specified in Article 18.50.1(b) (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data) and Article 18.51 (Biologics), as applicable, shall begin with the date of the first marketing approval relied on. In implementing Article 18.50.1(b) (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data) and Article 18.51.1(b)(i) (Biologics), Peru may apply the period of protection established in Article 16.10.2(b) of the United States – Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, done at Washington, District of Columbia, April 12, 2006.

2. Peru may apply paragraph 1 to Article 18.50.2 (Protection of Undisclosed Test or Other Data).

Annex 18-E

Annex to Section J

1. In order to facilitate the enforcement of copyright on the Internet and to avoid unwarranted market disruption in the online environment, Article 18.82.3 and Article 18.82.4 (Legal Remedies and Safe Harbours) shall not apply to a Party provided that, as from the date of agreement in principle of this Agreement, it continues to:

2. For a Party to which Article 18.82.3 and Article 18.82.4 (Legal Remedies and Safe Harbours) do not apply pursuant to paragraph 1 of this Annex, and in light of, among other things, paragraph 1(b) of this Annex, for the purposes of Article 18.82.1(a), legal incentives shall not mean the conditions for Internet Service Providers to qualify for the limitations provided for in Article 18.82.1(b), as set out in Article 18.82.3.

Annex 18-F

Annex to Section J

As an alternative to implementing Section J (Internet Service Providers), a Party may implement Article 17.11.23 of the United States – Chile Free Trade Agreement, done at Miami, June 6, 2003, which is incorporated into and made part of this Annex.

Date Modified: