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2012-2013 Progress Report - Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

This is the second annual report on Canada’s implementation of its National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (C-NAP). It covers the period from April 2012 to March 2013, and follows the format of the first annual report to help ensure consistency and underline the continuous flow in implementation from year to year.

In 2010, the Government of Canada developed its National Action Plan to guide and support its implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS). In doing so, Canada affirmed its commitments to human rights, peace and security and to support and protect women and girls in conflict and post-conflict situations through its engagement in peace operations and work in fragile states. The UNSCRs explicitly recognize the differential impact of conflict and post-conflict situations on women and girls as compared to men and boys. Through its commitment to fully implement UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security, Canada further extended its commitment to the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights and to equality within the framework of the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and Canada’s obligations under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other international human rights instruments.

To implement C-NAP, Canada adopted a whole-of-government approach, through which four specific partner government agencies with international operations are responsible for implementing and reporting on progress under the Action Plan. The partners this year are the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). DFAIT and CIDA amalgamated in June 2013 and the next annual report will reflect this new structure.

The empowerment of women, in decision-making processes, including for conflict resolution, is central to Canada’s foreign policy. The broad approach to enhancing the role of women in international peace and security put forward by the Canadian Foreign Minister at the G-8 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in April 2012 led directly to the very strong and encompassing statements by G-8 Leaders at Camp David and leaders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Chicago in June 2012. Minister Baird reiterated the Canadian approach in his speech to the Montreal Council on Foreign Relations on September 14, 2012. Canadian policy development, advocacy and programming has benefitted from this broad-based approach and focus on delivering concrete results for women and girls in the interests of sustainable peace, security and development.

In this second year of C-NAP implementation, the four departments and agencies undertook activities within their respective mandates and resources. Coordination continued primarily through an interdepartmental working group on women, peace and security with the outcomes of its meetings and activities reported to senior management through the Advisory Board for the Stabilization and Reconstruction (START), which has Director-General representation from all implementation partners.

Partners also shared training on taking a gender-based approach to WPS policy and programming as was called for in last year’s report, and officers learned, for example, of the benefits of engaging men and boys in preventing discrimination and sexual violence against women and girls.

Policy and Programming

The government financed interventions in conflict and post-conflict situations that focused on the development of regulations and governing systems such as codes of conduct and internal staff policy on prevention of violence against women and girls. Canada also invested significantly in programs and projects that sought to promote and support women’s active and meaningful participation in peace processes. At the Canadian level, the government paid greater attention to the quality and quantity of international postings offered to women in peace and security operations. It also organized the participation of women police peacekeepers in an international conference on police women with the aim of promoting increased women’s participation in peace operations.

Canada supported women from selected fragile and conflict-affected states to engage regionally and internationally to address their concerns and priorities. In terms of protection, Canada continued to ensure integration of systematic analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women, girls, men and boys in policies, programs and projects to ensure effective protection to support vulnerable groups. The government also supported interventions that addressed the physical and psychological effects of sexual violence on women and girls, while also pursuing perpetrators of violence.

Canada also showed its determination to fight against sexual violence and to holding perpetrators accountable by pledging $18.5 million at the Sommet de la Francophonie in DRC for relief and recovery interventions focused on addressing the needs of women and girls through humanitarian and long-term development initiatives, including education projects and in some contexts livelihood support. Canada also funded initiatives to implement global standards for the protection of girls and boys in humanitarian action.

Capacity-Building

Canada showed a strong performance in aligning and repositioning its training procedures along with the principles of the UNSCRs on women, peace and security. Departments collaborated and coordinated training efforts, primarily to capitalize on their combined synergies and expertise on gender training, specifically as it relates to prevention of violence and protection of women and girls in conflict and fragile contexts. Staff deployed to international missions were offered related training sessions either in person or take online courses. In addition, staff deployment training modules were revised based on the requirements of Canada’s Action Plan on women, peace and security.

Advocacy and Policy Dialogue

Canada continued to stand firm on its message to international partners on the importance of empowering women in decision-making processes, including those related to conflict resolution. Canada also affirmed with partners the need to prevent violence against women and girls in conflict and fragile situations and to provide protection to women and girls, including protection from sexual violence. Canada encouraged and supported new governments in fragile contexts to promote and integrate a greater number of women in key leadership and decision-making positions. These efforts continue to contribute to increased opportunities for women to participate in peace processes. Canada remained a key partner in international networks and groups promoting women, peace and security, allowing Canada to both advocate for and influence partners on WPS, and to stay connected to current issues affecting women’s and girls’ human rights in conflict-affected and fragile situations.

Research projects targeted the area of women, peace and security with the intent of collecting evidence on the links between humanitarian outcomes and equality between women and men.

Reporting of actions and results

C-NAP calls for a distributed and coordinated approach to be taken across the government to ensure cohesive reporting and implementation. While some departments have already implemented comprehensive reporting mechanisms to collect qualitative and quantitative data; others are developing reporting guidelines and mechanisms. Reporting of WPS results is integrated at the planning stages, and as a result there is an improvement in performance and reporting as a result of the experience from last year.

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Acronyms

C-NAP
Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security
CAF
Canadian Armed Forces
CEDAW
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women
CAP
Consolidated Appeals Process
CFLI
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives
CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency
CSO
Civil Society Organization
CSW
United Nations Commission on the Status on Women
DFAIT
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
DFATD
Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada
DMTC
Directorate of Military Training and Cooperation, DND
DND
Department of National Defence
DRC
Democratic Republic of the Congo
ECOSOC
United Nations Economic and Social Council
EVAW
Elimination of Violence against Women law, Afghanistan
GPSF
Global Peace and Security Fund
IASC
Inter-Agency Standing Committee
ICRC
International Committee of the Red Cross
ICGLR
International Conference on the Great Lakes Region
IPD
International Policing Development, RCMP
KNU
Karen National Union, Burma
LOGiCA
Learning on Gender and Conflict in Africa
MTCP
Military Training and Cooperation Program
NAP
National Action Plan
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NGO
Non-governmental Organization
OCHA
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
OHCHR
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
PSEA
Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse
PSTC
Peace Support Training Centre
RCMP
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
SGBV
Sexual and Gender-based Violence
START
Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force, DFAIT
TMAF
Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework
UN
United Nations
UNDP
United Nations Development Program
UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund
UNFPA
United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNSCR
United Nations Security Council Resolution
UN Women
United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
WFP
World Food Program
WLB
Women’s League of Burma
WPS
Women, Peace and Security

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1. Canada’s Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security

Introductory Overview

1.1 The UN Security Council Resolutions

In 2010, the Government of Canada developed a National Action Plan to support its implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS).

UNSCR 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security affirms the essential role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflict and ensure their full participation in the promotion and preservation of peace and security. Based on the foundations of human rights and the rule of law, Resolution 1325 recognizes the impact of women’s participation and equality between women and men in international peace operations and in fragile states.

Complementary resolutions to UNSCR 1325 include UNSCRs 1820, 1888, 1889, and 1960 Footnote 1 . UNSCR 1820 (2008) explicitly recognizes that sexual violence is a tactic of war and a threat to international peace and security and calls on the Security Council to consider these acts when determining and applying sanctions. UNSCR 1888 (2009) was developed to support the implementation of 1820 by mandating peacekeeping missions to protect women and children from sexual violence during armed conflict. In 2009, Resolution 1889 was adopted to encourage greater participation by women in peacemaking and post-conflict recovery and to call for a set of global indicators to monitor implementation. In response to UNSCR 1889, the Secretary-General put forward performance indicators to the Security Council in 2010, thereby highlighting the need for accountability for the implementation of Resolution 1325.

1.2 Canada’s Approach and Role

Canada’s approach in implementing the UNSCRs on women, peace and security (WPS) recognizes that equality is achieved when the concerns and experiences of women and girls are systematically integrated into peace operations and work in fragile states. The empowerment of women and girls is therefore central to establishing and strengthening systems and structures that support equality between men and women, and among women and girls of different status within a community. Canada employs a range of strategies to implement the UN Security Council Resolutions, including advancing international norms and standards, conducting sustained advocacy on a bilateral and multilateral basis; seeking mechanisms for accountability and implementation; and building knowledge and skills for practitioners, among others.

Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (C-NAP) is implemented by the Department of National Defence (DND), the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). DFAIT and CIDA amalgamated in June 2013 and the next annual report will reflect this new structure.

The UNSCRs on women, peace and security and the 2010 Report of the Secretary-General on Women, Peace and Security (S/2010/173) guided the development of Canada’s National Action Plan (C-NAP), which is organized into the following themes:

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2. How this report is organized

This second annual report on Canada’s implementation of its national action plan on Women, Peace and Security covers the period from April 2012 to March 2013, and follows the format of the first annual report to ensure consistency and facilitate yearly comparison.

The report was compiled from data and information provided in departmental reports on WPS actions. The four implementing government departments (CIDA, DFAIT, DND and RCMP) also included in their reports matrices detailing their progress on the C-NAP actions and indicators. A composite matrix of these reports for 2012-2013 can be found in the annex of this report.

There are four sections in the chapter on Canada’s Achievements, based on UNSCR 1325 and C-NAP key themes: prevention: women’s participation, protection, and relief and recovery. Each thematic area looks into actions taken with regard to policy and programming, training, and accountability in that area. The policy and programming sections cover initiatives focusing on policy development (e.g. code of conduct development) and programmatic support provided through various funding mechanisms. Sub-sections on training and accountability address capacity-building efforts at national and international levels, and Canada’s actions to remain accountable to partners and taxpayers. The report, therefore, touches on reporting systems, policy dialogue, and WPS research, as well as advocacy and promotion of WPS to multilateral and bilateral partners. Each section also includes representative anecdotes, examples, and stories.

While efforts were made to report actions by thematic area, the themes are inter-related and in some areas overlap. For example, some protection-related interventions could also fall under the prevention category. Similarly, within each thematic area, certain activities are inter-linked. A training event that may be reported under programming could be about other activities or themes.

C-NAP recognizes the dynamic nature and changing needs and lessons associated with work on state fragility and conflict. While every attempt has been made to track C-NAP Actions and Indicators from the first year to this second implementation year, changes in the international situation and in states of concern sometimes lead to certain Actions and Indicators being more relevant and important in one year than is the case in another year. This report will work to address and explain the impact of changes as they occur.

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3. Canada’s Achievements

3.1 Prevention

In the context of women, peace and security, prevention actions included activities that took into consideration the differential experiences of men and women, boys and girls in conflict situations. In the second year of the Action Plan’s implementation, Canada reinforced efforts to prevent violence, including conflict-related sexual violence against women and girls. Prevention actions continued to focus on policy development and strengthening, training of Canadian personnel and international partners, and advocacy and policy dialogue.

3.1.1 Policy and Programming

As prevention is the primary gateway to the implementation of UN resolutions on women, peace and security, Canada supported humanitarian and long-term development initiatives to prevent and eliminate violence against women and girls.

Media campaign on violence against women, Libya

Canada supported a media campaign in Libya, where 30 billboards bearing messages on respectful relationships, effects of violence on families, and quotes from the Quran were displayed for a period of 6 months. The campaign is reported to have increased the general population’s awareness of violence against women.

The Canadian government continued to require a code of conduct in line with the core principles detailed in the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises from its NGO partners working on humanitarian assistance. CIDA's grant agreements with humanitarian NGO partners include a clause stating that NGOs must have a code of conduct that is consistent with the core principles identified in the IASC Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises. However, the extent to which the codes of conduct are fully consistent with the core principles of the IASC Plan of Action varies from partner to partner. In some cases, the codes of conduct explicitly refer to PSEA principles. Canada also instituted and continued policies on prevention of violence against women and girls, including sexual violence, abuse and exploitation by staff (e.g. civilian government officials, police officers or members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), including when they are deployed on international operations.) Systems were put in place to ensure allegations of violations of human rights by deployed Canadian personnel are all taken seriously. In addition, Canadian military personnel are expected to report and take necessary measures to halt observed incidences of infractions of the Law of Armed Conflict, including violence against women and girls, including sexual violence.

Development and Peace Project, Afghanistan

Through CIDA, Canada sought to strengthen civil society organizations that give voice to the poorest and most marginalized populations. The project focused on establishing local mechanisms for conflict management, working to stimulate democratic life by strengthening the role and influence of women in public institutions and establishing mechanisms for peaceful conflict management. As a part of this project, women and men had access to education, training, assembly and mobilization around issues concerning the socio-economic development of their communities, as well as social justice and human rights, particularly women’s human rights.

3.1.2 Training

The International Level

Gender-based analysis is now incorporated into many terms of reference for deployment, particularly for deployments to help train and develop the training capacity of the host country or organization.

UNSCR 1325 and South Sudan

Through the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) Canada supported a national UNSCR 1325 conference in Juba organized by the Eve Organization for Women’s Development. The conference brought together participants from the South Sudanese government and civil society organizations, giving them the opportunity to collaborate, validate a baseline study and start the preparatory work for a National Action Plan on WPS.

The Government of Canada provides training to member countries of the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP) through the Directorate of Military Training and Cooperation (DMTC). Three long-standing courses – Tactical Operations Staff Course, Junior Command and Staff Course, and Caribbean Junior Command and Staff Course – all incorporate gender approaches in their curricula. For example, the Tactical Operations Staff Course is a three week program that includes training on preventing violence against women and girls, including sexual violence, the role of women in military and police service, and issues related to missions involving both women and men. This course has been conducted in Kenya, Mali, Ghana, and Botswana since 1996.

The National Level

Capacity-building efforts related to women, peace and security played an important role in improving the understanding of Canadian staff working abroad on issues such as violence, sexual exploitation and abuse, and violations of human rights of women and girls. Canadian military and non-military staff were equipped with the tools and knowledge to help them carry out their responsibilities related to the prevention of violence against women and girls.

Canada’s capacity-building actions took the form of specific training on WPS, integration of key WPS issues into ongoing staff training, or mission-specific sessions on the differential impact of conflict on women and girls covering protection issues and child exploitation. Pre-deployment training for Canadian personnel posted to international missions and peace operations included sessions on the code of conduct and ethics, human rights norms and obligations, Law of Armed Conflict and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the protection of vulnerable groups such as women and girls, cultural awareness, and gender perspectives in armed conflict. For example, the CAF’s Peace Support Training Centre provided training for peace support personnel and military observers on the relevance of gender perspectives in armed conflict, including: an introduction to UNSCRs 1325 and 1820 and gender mainstreaming; the differential impact of conflict on women and men; and standards of protection for women. Some of these training initiatives were available online while others were offered in person to staff and international partners (for example, through the DND/CAF Military Training and Cooperation Program).

Peace Support Training Centre

The Peace Support Training Centre (PSTC) is a Joint, Inter-agency, and Multinational defence training establishment in Kingston, Ontario. PSTC supports the intellectual development and training of members of the CAF, people from other government departments as well as international audiences.

As part of the Military Observer Course, the Women and Conflict presentation exposes deploying personnel to the impact of conflict on women. The course is meant to raise awareness about how women become more vulnerable and more exposed to violence in conflict situations. The course is also designed to familiarize deploying personnel with the international standards on equality between women and men and integration, focusing on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security and related resolutions.

Following an evaluation of the Stabilization and Reconstruction Taskforce (START) Gender Training curriculum in Fall 2012, a new course in Gender-Based Analysis was developed and delivered to policy and program officers from DFAIT and other government departments, and civil society organizations (CSOs) working within the context of peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations. The course focused on effective mechanisms to help government and CSO staff prevent violence and protect the human rights of women and girls in the context of peace operations, fragile states, conflict-affected situations and in humanitarian crises or relief and recovery operations. In addition, it aimed to increase policy and program officers’ capacity to identify results and indicators. It also covered key national and international commitments and resolutions, including Resolution 1325, Beijing Platform for Action, CEDAW, the Millennium Development Goals, and C-NAP.

Another key development during the reporting period was the identification and training of Gender Focal Points from each division in START. The Gender Focal Points promoted and integrated women’s and girls’ human rights into START programming and policy work.

Before deployments, justice experts were educated on the effects that conflicts have on women and children.

During the reporting period, CIDA’s Continuous Learning Division offered CIDA development officers two gender equality courses: 1) “Integrating Gender Equality into Programming”, a basic 2-day course, and 2) “Managing for Gender Equality Results”, an intermediate level course. Both courses included a component on Canada’s commitments to international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights, including in fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

3.1.3 Accountability

Advocacy

Canada remained committed in its policy dialogue at multilateral and bilateral meetings on the prevention of sexual violence in humanitarian emergencies. In 2012, Canada raised its concern on the sexual violence in Mali and Syria in its national statements to the UN Security Council Open Debate on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and to the UN General Assembly. In bilateral contexts, the Government of Canada provided advice and support on the implementation of international human rights, crime prevention, and criminal justice standards. Advocacy efforts also focused on promoting the integration of WPS into the mandates of all Canadian-sponsored UN missions for peace operations and work in fragile states and conflict-affected situations. In addition, Canada advocated for Gender Advisors to continue working with the International Security Assistance Force during the drawdown for Afghanistan operations to ensure the rights and protection of women and girls remained a top priority for NATO.

Canada promoted the empowerment and protection of women in its engagement with multilateral partners at a number of venues. These included Executive Board and Committee meetings of the World Food Program (WFP), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Donor Support Group, High Level Meetings and Annual Bilateral Consultations, and Annual Bilateral Consultations of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). Canada also promoted protection in its engagement with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), an important partner as it plays a key role in upholding the Geneva Conventions and protecting civilians affected by armed conflict. Canada also advocated for the inclusion of language on the empowerment and protection of women during negotiations on UN General Assembly resolutions and the annual ECOSOC humanitarian resolution.

Institutional Monitoring

There was a significant effort by government departments responsible for funding implementing partners to monitor the level of gender assessment integration into partner interventions. DFAIT adapted CIDA’s standard Gender AssessmentFootnote 2 tool in combination with the project’s logic model to determine to what extent the perspectives of women and girls were taken into consideration at the planning phase. The same principle was applied to the sole recipient organization of core funding from the GPSF. Average scoring of the assessment criteria showed a general improvement in the percentage of projects integrating equality between women and men and a decline in the percentage of projects where this was not taken into consideration.

Reporting

All relevant government departments have voluntarily committed to report annually on WPS actions and each is responsible for developing its own reporting and learning systems. Some departments had existing monitoring tools in place and did not have to develop new systems to report on WPS initiatives. Other departments, however, had to design and adjust new reporting systems. The development of reporting tools is ongoing as departments implement and adapt new formats.

Canada took steps to track the impact of its training initiatives from deployed staff. For example, many Canadian police officers deployed to peace operations received induction training from hosting multilateral organizations. Through a new reporting format implemented by International Policing Development (IPD) at the RCMP, several deployed officers reported receiving gender training once in mission.

3.2 Participation

Canada continued to work on promoting the full and meaningful participation and representation of women in all decision-making processes, including political, economic and conflict resolution and ensuring the representation of women and local women’s groups in peace and security actions, including peace processes.

3.2.1 Policy and Programming

The International Level

Of Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) programming for women, peace and security issues, the highest allocation of funding supported women’s and girls’ inclusion in phases of peace operations, including peacekeeping, peacebuilding, peacemaking, peace enforcement, conflict prevention, mediation and stabilization and reconstruction. Such programming recognized the disproportionate impact of conflict and post-conflict situations on women and girls and highlighted the importance of their essential participation in the development of stable states and a fuller long-term realization of human rights, peace and security. The types of projects implemented to increase women’s participation included consultation of women’s groups in security system reform, engagement of women’s groups and NGOs in formal peace processes, involvement of women’s groups in the design of projects related to conflict prevention or resolution, and meaningful inclusion of women in project implementation and management.

Memory Boxes in Afghanistan

Canada funded an exhibition titled “Memory Boxes”, comprising artifacts provided by women to share their grief and tell their stories of personal loss as a result of years of conflict and insecurity in Afghanistan, highlighting the different experiences of women and men affected by war.

Partnerships with CSOs are important for Canada to fund community-based interventions on women’s and girls’ human rights and security. For example, in Afghanistan, CIDA provided multi-year institutional support to Afghanistan’s Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) to promote, protect and monitor human rights and to investigate human rights abuses, including helping to ensure that Afghan women’s voices are an active part of decision-making processes. This initiative helped the AIHRC work to prevent the Afghan government from reversing progress made in women’s human rights and strengthened knowledge and understanding of women’s human rights among Afghans.

Empowering Libyan Women to Advocate for Inclusive Political Processes, Libya

The GPSF funded the Building Resources in Democracy, Governance and Elections training project through the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, which included the first-ever gender- and elections-focused training in Tripoli and Sabha. These four day workshops provided the important basis for relationship building between civil society organizations from around the country and the High National Election Commission representatives who participated. The training supported women’s advocates to effectively communicate with newly-formed commissions, transitional bodies, the General National Congress and Civil Society Organizations to discuss and prepare constitutional reforms and new legal frameworks for political and civil rights, and the inclusion of women in the political process at the local and national level. The overall participation of women in the July 2012 General National Congress elections in Libya was higher than initially predicted. Women turned out in numbers to vote and 33 seats out of 200 in the Congress went to women.

Canada continued to promote the importance of women’s participation in peace operations in venues such as the 10th Anniversary of the Canadian International Model United Nations, underlining the importance of the UNSCRs on women, peace and security, and the Canadian Action Plan.

The National Level

Canada made a commitment to increase the visibility of Canadian women in peace operations both in terms of numbers and strategic positions. Female police officers in peace missions play an important role in building and keeping peace with civilian populations, especially with women and girls. Women officers’ presence reassures local populations, reestablishes trust that may have been lost, and creates opportunities for female role models and mentors that may not have been previously possible. Furthermore, enhancing the presence of Canadian women in peace initiatives is effective not only from a quantitative perspective, but also through supporting women to secure high-level and strategic positions in peace missions.

Anecdote from a female RCMP Officer on her experience, UN Operation in Cote d’Ivoire

“My current mission is with United Nations Operation in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) and it is quite the experience. Working as a female police officer in charge of the Public Information Office (PIO) section in an African mission is different from any position I have held in Canada. I encounter men who have the fundamental belief that women are inferior. As a woman, I use my presence in the workplace as a role model to demonstrate that police women and police men are equal.

Overall, my experience as a peacekeeper has helped me develop personally and professionally. For International Women’s Day, I came up with the idea to produce a video on UN police women to talk about what it means to work on a UN peace mission. Police women from several countries participated in the video, available in French at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkEppMP4H1o”

As reported in 2011-2012, Canada is a world leader in terms of the proportion of women in its military and the functions in which they can serve. In fact, all combat occupations in the Canadian Armed Forces have been open to women for more than two decades, with the last barrier (serving on submarines) removed in 2001. Among Canada’s allies, the CAF is regarded as being at the forefront for the integration of men and women.

In line with Canada’s values on women’s equal representation, the RCMP shares the UN’s target of 20 per cent female representation in peace operations. While the percentage of women police officers deployed fluctuated between March 2011 and March 2013, there has been an overall rise in the percentage of women deployed to peace operations. In December 2012, the percentage of women police officers deployed reached 14 per cent from 12 per cent Footnote 3 at the beginning of the fiscal year (see chart below). Note that the percentage of women in the Canadian police is approximately 20 per cent, and police deployed to missions voluntarily apply for deployment opportunities. A significant change in policy that took place within the RCMP during the reporting period was the inclusion of a formal statement in all job bulletins for peace operations to encourage greater women’s participation.

Canada’s efforts to increase police women’s participation on international missions

In September 2012, the RCMP organized the participation of three female police peacekeepers and a civilian in the International Association of Women Police 2012 Training Conference. The group staffed a booth throughout the week; made an official presentation to conference participants on the positive impacts of police women serving on international peace operations both for the mission and for the officers’ personal and professional development; and highlighted the need for more police women to serve on missions. The RCMP, Toronto Police and Calgary Police used a joint social media approach to promote the contributions of their members in the conference.

Stories from the field written by female and male Canadian police peacekeepers are published on the RCMP’s website and social media to increase awareness and promote women’s participation. Stories authored by women or those with a focus on gender issues were promoted on International Women’s Day, but also appear throughout the year. One of the stories featured on International Women’s Day was later reprinted in the UN Police Magazine (July 2013).

3.2.2 Training

Capacity-building for women leaders was a key element of projects seeking to increase women’s meaningful participation and representation in peace and security initiatives. Canada supported the training of traditional women leaders in West Africa, advocacy and information for women and youth on their human and political rights, education on peace and conflict prevention for armed forces and civilians, rural women’s confidence-building to influence decision-making at the local level, and the development of communication and information tools for citizenship building and local democracy promotion. A greater focus was put on inter-community tolerance and dialogue to restore confidence between the military and civilians, giving priority to women leaders’ participation. The African Police for Peace is one such initiative that strives to promote equal access for female and male police officers to peace operations.

Centre of Excellence to Mainstream Women in Democratization Process, Libyan Women’s Forum

DFAIT and the UN supported the Libyan Women’s Forum (LWF) to establish a base of operations and a training program for women from across Libya on embedding women’s human rights in the constitution. The training has had a direct impact on the official and unofficial dialogues concerning the constitution and the role of women. LWF’s programs focus on educating women on the political and constitutional processes and are helping to groom new political activists and future women candidates.

Canada also provided funding to sponsor women professionals from conflict-affected and fragile countries to participate in international conferences such as the annual NATO Communicators’ Conference in Dubai and the 2012 Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan. By participating in such meetings, women were able to voice their concerns about political transition processes in their countries.

Building Social Capital, Burma Border Areas

The CIDA project, Building Social Capital, contributes to the development of civil society organizations in Burma and to building their capacity to identify needs, deliver services, and promote the interests of vulnerable and displaced people

During the reporting period, the project funded the Women’s League of Burma (WLB) to expand the reach of its materials and awareness-raising activities on the prevention of violence against women from a baseline of 12 townships in 2009 to 46. WLB implemented activities to increase women’s participation in the peace process through a signature campaign, meetings with ethnic armed groups and the government’s peace negotiating team, and holding training workshops for its members in peace negotiations.

The project also reached out to ethnic organizations for greater inclusion and representation of women’s human rights issues and has helped support public calls for inclusion of women’s organizations and representatives into peace process negotiations, including direct engagement of ethnic armed groups on this issue.

Through advocacy efforts of the Karen Women’s Organization, the project influenced the Karen National Union (KNU) in re-electing the only women in the top leadership of the KNU as Vice-Chair. The KNU Congress has formally expressed its commitment to “adopt future work plans to increase women’s participation in politics and national affairs.”

In conflict-affected and fragile states, Canada concentrated its focus on building women’s capacity in relation to constitutional and political processes through training of trainers and a series of targeted workshops.

Reflections from a female Canadian Police Officer in Afghanistan

A female police officer from the Toronto Police Service deployed to the European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan shared the following reflections

“Working as a Mentor/Advisor, Human Rights & Gender in Afghanistan, I was involved in mentoring and training female and male police officers. I was also involved in attending the women’s prison, a local orphanage and worked with other international [personnel] on Gender and Rule of Law Boards.

I felt that my presence as a female officer in one of the provinces in Afghanistan had a big impact. My mentee, a young female officer, would tell me how my presence in supporting her and others gave her confidence and encouragement. Wherever I went, the female officers would approach me to shake my hand and share a smile.

My experience with the women in Afghanistan was that they are strong and brave. Respecting their cultures and progress, I realized that having more female officers in [the] mission would continue to give them encouragement. My last meeting with my mentee was tearful and her words to me that she did not want me to leave and called me her sister confirmed for me the impact our presence has in Afghanistan.”

3.2.3 Accountability

Canada encouraged multilateral efforts to involve women in peace and security interventions, including in peace agreement negotiations and mediation processes, particularly as such agreements contribute to the differential experiences of women men, girls and boys, and to the respect and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights. For instance, in all relevant statements at the UN Security Council and within the Group of Friends of Afghanistan, Canada put emphasis on the importance of protecting women’s rights in any political agreement between the Government of Afghanistan and insurgent groups. As a member of the Women’s Caucus in Afghanistan, Canada strongly advocated for greater engagement with and participation by Afghan women in the Afghan Penal Code Reform process. This advocacy led to the appointment of ten female Afghan legal experts to the Ministry of Justice’s Criminal Law Reform working groups. The DFAIT Afghanistan program also advocated for the recruitment of female officers to the Afghan National Police.

The government also passed on congratulatory and supportive messages to fragile states that promoted women’s political participation. In November 2012, Canada welcomed the appointment of women to Somalia’s new cabinet.

3.3 Protection

Canada protected women and girls by supporting projects to defend their human rights; to ensure their safety, physical and mental health, well-being, economic security, and equality; and protect them from violence, including sexual violence.

3.3.1 Policy and Programming

The RCMP developed a “Concept of Operations” (ConOps) for engagement in one international peace operation this year. The ConOps is an internal document that outlines the scope, history and context of a mission. Canadian police personnel are generally deployed to multilateral organizations that have their own mandates, but the Canadian ConOps defined the role of police and the scope, or limit, of the Canadian police personnel’s operations and actions. In addition, the ConOps was aligned with that of the multilateral organization. A section on gender and the protection of women’s and girls’ human right was included in the ConOps.

Similarly, Canada’s Code of Conduct for its armed forces in international operations set the standard for treatment with regard to local civilian populations. The Code of Conduct went a step beyond by making special considerations to protect women, girls and boys, prohibiting discriminatory treatment based on sex, including rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault.

In most cases, programming on the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights was guided by a gender-based analysis to identify and address the differential impacts of conflict on women and girls. Initiatives that sought to protect and promote the rights and safety of women and girls included:

Canada supported projects to address the physical and psychological effects of sexual violence on women by facilitating collaboration between representatives of the police, judicial, psychosocial and medical sectors. Such projects have led to increased access to services for women and girls, and a change in service protocols that have become increasingly sensitive to the needs of victims of violence, including sexual violence. For example, CIDA invested in projects to fight against impunity for the perpetrators of violence and support survivors of sexual violence through reinforcing and expanding judicial services; improving the processes for investigating and prosecuting crimes involving sexual violence; and increasing the knowledge, skills, and independence of judges and court officials.

The government continued to support activities that addressed violence against women and investment in this area will be a priority for future programming. During the reporting period, projects focused on mitigating sexual violence or violence against women in conflict; workshops that addressed sexual violence against women in conflict; access to rule of law services for women and girls who were victims of sexual violence; and the introduction of legislation which recognized and criminalized sexual violence. Canada raised awareness of the prevalence and consequences of child, early and forced marriage at a panel titled “Too Young to Wed” in New York, during the Commission on the Status of Women and to mark International Women’s Day.

Ensuring accountability for conflict-related sexual crimes through international and domestic courts and commissions of inquiry

Canada funded a UN Women project in which a dedicated pool of sexual investigative experts were identified and trained to be deployed to courts and commissions of inquiry to contribute to increasing the number of successful prosecutions of sexual crimes. Through this project, a gender expert was deployed on the second phase of the Commission of Inquiry for Syria. The Commission consequently reported that there are reasonable grounds to believe that rape and sexual assault were perpetrated against men, women and children by government forces and Shabbiha members. It was also found that rape and sexual assault were part of torture in official and unofficial detention centres. These investigations are crucial for future efforts to bring perpetrators to justice. In addition to building individual capacity, UN Women also worked with the existing international and hybrid courts to harmonize manuals on sexual violence prosecutions, consolidate lessons learned and produce training materials for use by future courts, both domestic and mixed.

At the country programming level, the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) supported initiatives on women’s and girls’ human rights, with an explicit focus on protecting women and girls from violence, including sexual violence. Canada also prioritized engagement with and empowerment of women, especially female politicians in fragile states, on barriers to their public participation and in particular, their personal security.

Canada also funded local studies on legal systems, with a particular focus on judicial sentences and how judicial systems treat women. Analyzed cases were used as examples to create awareness among judges on how to better incorporate gender considerations into the legal system.

Other local support included innovative projects in fragile states such as Libya to address the persistent concern of harassment of and violence against women. A national NGO designed a campaign titled “Kul Bint Leebiya Ukhtak”, which translates to “Every Libyan girl is your sister – respect her and respect yourself”. The project engaged women, university and youth groups in the development of the advertising messages. As a result, the project was widely publicized in local media, and helped draw attention to the problem of violence against women. Additionally, the project produced a website using crowd mapping software to enable women to report incidents of harassment and threats online. The website allowed data and statistics collection on the amount of harassment taking place in Libya, creating a record of a widespread practice that was tacitly accepted and used to enhance neighborhood pride, putting the onus on neighborhoods to become safe and secure spaces for women.

Equal Access – Protection of Women’s Human Rights within Islam, Afghanistan

Through the Global Peace and Security Fund, Canada facilitated the implementation of an innovative and dynamic public information campaign to engage religious and community leaders at all levels on women rights issues. The project increased discussion and awareness of women’ rights within families, social and religious networks, and community groups through the creation of listening and dialogue groups, mobile theatre performances and post-performance discussions, and the production and broadcast of radio episodes.

Selected anecdotal testimonials from participants who interacted with the Listening Group coordinators include:

“I listen to your radio program and I got to know that education is very important for girls because there must be women physicians, women nurses, and women teachers in every community for the development of a society.” (A female respondent)

“Early marriage, giving away girls for dispute resolution, forced isolation in the home, exchange marriage are widespread harmful traditions, which should be prevented by the government.” (A male respondent)

“…Also we learned that getting education is necessary for both male and female according to Islam and Afghan Law; no one has the right to prevent women from getting educated. Violence against women is a curse and against the values of Islam; each and every woman should know their rights.” (Respondent details not provided)

3.3.2 Training

Canada frequently raised the need for UN agencies and member states to increase the effectiveness of peace operations, including the protection and promotion of the rights and safety of women and girls through the development of Protection of Civilians doctrine and training. In addition, Canada promoted human rights issues, focusing on the rights of women and girls, and positive change through public information campaigns.

At the community level, activities were held to create awareness among community leaders on the causes and consequences of violence against women and girls, including sexual violence, services available for treating victims, and their role as leaders in preventing and addressing violence. A preliminary survey of these activities shows a change in attitude among some leaders who admit that the campaigns allowed them to recognize forms of violence they had not condemned in the past.

Initial Training and Professional Development of the Haitian National Police’s Managerial Staff

CIDA conducted professional development and training of police office officers, inspectors and commissioners in Haiti. Out of 44 commissioners trained, five were women. To ensure their participation in the training, CIDA put in place special measures to maintain the quality of life of the women commissioners, including the dedication of certain spaces as ‘women-only’ for women commissioners to use if/as needed, creation of a harassment policy, and organization of meetings between women commissioners and the project director. The project supported the development of a new training curriculum and the development and implementation of the organizational and administrative structure for a training institution. The eleven modules that were developed for the Haiti training incorporated gender equality concepts.

Through awareness-raising, Canada sought to improve the human rights record of security forces in selected countries and to support key partners to combat human trafficking and illegal migration. The projects integrated conflict resolution training and brought together civil society and security forces to better understand their respective roles for security and good governance.

3.3.3 Accountability

Canada takes its mandate to protect women and girls in war-affected situations seriously. During the Sommet de la Francophonie in the DRC, Minister for International Cooperation Julian Fantino conveyed a strong message on the need to combat impunity in the context of sexual violence. The meeting was held with the United Nations Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO), the Ministry of Gender, UNDP, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), UNICEF, and the European Union Police Mission. As an indication of Canada’s commitment, the Prime Minister of Canada announced at the summit a five-year $18.5 million project to fight against sexual violence and impunity in the eastern DRC.

Anecdote from a male RCMP Sergeant, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Community Security Initiative, Kyrgyzstan

“Living and working in an isolated region of southern Kyrgyzstan in 2012, I encountered a number of prevailing traditions that served to aggravate ‘gender relations’ and clearly embodied an unequal division of power amongst men and women. The lack of opportunities on the part of women to express themselves and/or be heard was most evident in the traditional practice of ‘bride kidnapping’.

In organizing and conducting English lessons for local high school girls, we created a venue where young women could not only discuss the impact of such an embedded ritual, but also pursue self-empowerment and confidence. Dialogue and consultation with substantive local actors, including the police, in developing strategies to deter ‘bride kidnapping’ soon followed. In this instance, a global seed was planted into a local culture and served to sprout awareness, promote intervention, and ultimately provide a voice to the traditionally silent.”

In Afghanistan, Canada advocated for stronger and more widespread implementation of the Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) law with various interlocutors. As a result, the Government of Afghanistan agreed to report on the application of the EVAW law as part of the commitments it made under the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework (TMAF).Footnote 4

Regular reporting of violations of women’s and girls’ human rights provides an important overview of the effectiveness of protection-related actions over time. The Canadian Mission to Afghanistan’s 2012 Human Rights Report for Afghanistan featured the issue of women’s and girls’ human rights and was made possible by data collected through periodic reporting.

Over the reporting period, the Government of Canada participated in the 2009 NATO Bilateral Strategic Command Directive, “Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Gender Perspectives into the NATO Command Structure including Measures for Protection during Armed Conflict.” The directive aimed to fully incorporate gender perspectives, including the protection of women and girls from sexual violence, into training for, planning, and conduct of operations. Canada contributed to the NATO initiative by participating in the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives, an advisory body to NATO’s Military Committee on gender issues, such as by promoting gender mainstreaming. In 2012, a CAF officer seconded as deputy gender advisor to NATO’s Allied Command Transformation participated at the committee by making a presentation on gender perspectives that was very well received by participants.

3.4 Relief and recovery

Canada actively worked to promote women’s and girls’ equal access to humanitarian and development assistance. It also advocated for aid services to support the specific needs and capacities of women and men, girls and boys in all relief and recovery efforts.

3.4.1 Policy and Programming

Canada supported a range of activities to assist women and girls in humanitarian and development assistance in relief and recovery efforts. These activities aimed to ensure that women’s and girls’ education and health needs are met in conflict and post-conflict situations; respond to the needs of women and girls, including victims of sexual and gender-based violence, ex-combatants, and refugees in relief programs; and address security and the other needs of women and girls through disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and security system reform programs.

The CIDA-funded Girls Education Support Program applied a comprehensive and holistic approach to respond to the diverse physical and cultural barriers limiting girls’ access to education in Afghanistan. During the reporting period, the rates for girls enrolled in classes increased significantly. For middle school (grade 6-7), the progress rate exceeded the 85% target, reaching 99%. Part of the success in increasing girls’ access to education can be attributed to the project’s focus on outreach and peer support groups for parents (male and female) to encourage girls to attend school. In addition, the program included practical and logistical support for girls to attend university entrance exams and supported families to send their girls to study away from home by building a dormitory for 108 female students at a teacher training college.

Learning on Gender and Conflict in Africa (LOGiCA), Great Lakes Region of Africa

CIDA funded the LOGiCA project to support its efforts to increase programming in post-conflict countries in the region, focusing on demobilization and reintegration programming. During the reporting year, the project showed improvements in the capacity of Burundi and Rwanda demobilization and reintegration commissions to implement gender action plans. Consequently, programs have supported the gender-specific needs of 851 ex-combatants and over 6,000 of their dependents. LOGiCA activities have also generated 15 knowledge products and 17 ground-breaking studies touching on a variety of social and economic dimensions of gender in conflict and post-conflict contexts.

3.4.2 Accountability

Canada raised its concerns about protection issues at forums such as the UN Security Council, UN General Assembly, ECOSOC, donor support groups and civil society organizations in relation to key conflict contexts, including Syria, Sudan and South Sudan, Mali, Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Canada continues to advocate for humanitarian partners to consider the gender dimensions and the specific needs and capabilities of women and girls in their response efforts both as beneficiaries and decision-makers.

Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action

CIDA supported the dissemination, implementation and monitoring of the Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action, which promote equality between women and men, giving consideration to local social norms and cultural restrictions. Each Standard caters to the different needs of girls and boys. Indicators capture results both in terms of delivery of assistance and gender-balance of the organization involved. Canada’s contribution is expected to help, among others, translate and distribute copies in French, Spanish and Arabic, provide technical assistance for humanitarian agencies through the deployment of child protection experts, and prevent violence against girls and boys.

Canada ensured language on violence against women was included in a resolution it co-sponsored on Assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights at the 20th session of the Human Rights Council.

In the 2013 bilateral consultations with the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Canada focused on the need for OCHA to maintain equality between men and women as a key policy priority. Similarly, Canada continued to promote through the OCHA Donor Support Group a greater consideration of the differential impacts that humanitarian crises have on women and girls, including through the robust use of the Gender Marker and the full implementation of the Gender Policy Instruction. The latter are tools to help ensure that gender is mainstreamed throughout the humanitarian response, that targeted support to address gender inequality is based on a gender analysis, and that all affected populations have equal access to protection and assistance.

At humanitarian coordination meetings, Canada advocated for greater integration of gender in the UN-led Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) with a special focus on including gender-sensitive responses to humanitarian needs in the CAP’s sectoral response plans. UN agencies welcomed the Canadian initiative to improve integration of gender in the CAP and committed to do so in CAP 2014. CIDA also worked with other donors (Spain and Italy), UN Women and OCHA to support a gender coordinator position to ensure that gender is effectively integrated across sectors of the humanitarian response.

Research

Canada’s investment in evidence-based research to promote equality and improve program and project design for the prevention of and response to violence against women has yielded promising results. It has helped identify WPS initiatives that have shown results in improving the psychological, social, economic, and physical situations of victims of violence, including sexual violence. There is also significant potential for replication of such interventions in future relief and recovery actions. For example, over the reporting year, the ongoing CIDA-funded research on Gender Equality and Humanitarian Outcomes has been looking at how equality programming contributes to improving humanitarian outcomes. The findings of the research are expected to shape the IASC’s approach to gender equality programming, inform calls for increased accountability among stakeholders, and contribute to the broader collection of evidence on gender-responsive humanitarian outcomes.

Project Gateway: Expanding access to justice through mobile phone networks for Afghan women, Afghanistan

Canada’s Global Peace and Security Fund supported “Project Gateway” to equip and staff the first-ever call centres providing quick and effective legal advice and counselling services, including referrals to local service providers and to Afghan women in marginalized regions of Afghanistan. A toll free hotline was created and promoted exclusively for this purpose. The hotline serviced an average of 340 callers per week, which resulted in about 731 occasions of legal advice, 196 referrals to field-based service providers and 1,702 occasions of delivering psycho-social support. Referral partners cite the call centre as a cause of increased demand for services and it is estimated that up to 12% of callers actually sought further services. Despite promoting the service only in the Eastern Region, the hotline received calls from 29 provinces in every region of Afghanistan.

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4. Progress since Last Year

In the second year of C-NAP implementation, the government continued interdepartmental collaboration on its work on women, peace and security among the four key implementing departments: the Department of National Defense; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and the Canadian International Development Agency. Although much of the work on establishing the foundation for the implementation of C-NAP took place in the first year, there was room for adjusting and refining reporting templates, mechanisms, and procedures in the reporting period. Departments captured new data through modified reporting processes, although some reported the need to still improve reporting mechanisms.

Prevention

In the thematic area of prevention, the government’s policy and programmatic interventions supported the development of codes of conduct and internal regulations on the prevention of violence against women and girls in conflict-affected and fragile contexts. Canada’s training initiatives for staff and Canadian partners maintained a steady momentum. During the reporting period, prevention-related training showed a strong Canadian focus, in keeping with C-NAP’s intention to provide “Canadian training for military, police and civilian personnel being deployed operationally…” Footnote 5 Training is one of the most active areas in which each department contributes in terms of technical knowledge and logistical support. In addition, an important change was made to the current START curriculum in order to make the Gender-Based Analysis course more context-relevant and effective in improving the capacity of Canadian personnel to prevent violence. Advocacy is another area in which Canada continued to effectively demonstrate its commitment to women, peace and security, specifically to protect the human rights of women and girls. The government continued to promote and engage its international partners on policy dialogue concerning the security and human rights of women and girls in conflict-affected and fragile states in all long-term development and humanitarian actions.

Participation

Supporting women’s active and meaningful participation in all decision-making processes, including peace operations and peace processes remained a priority for the government. Canada funded women to attend conferences and events on women, peace and security, which enabled the participating women to voice their concerns and priorities. In addition, Canada placed greater emphasis on the quality of international postings for peace operations offered to women police officers. The number of female staff deployed to international peace operations – including the police and armed forces – rose from 12 percent to 14 percent. The government has sustained its efforts to recruit more women while giving them the flexibility of opting out and choosing the location of their deployment.

Canada contributed to important progress in fragile states such as Libya, where it followed up on Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird’s 2011 statement of support for women’s leadership in Libya. Canada maintained its practice of financing civil society organizations, including women’s groups, to collaboratively work on preventing violence against women and girls and protecting their human rights.

DFAIT adapted CIDA’s gender equality coding tool into a performance measurement tool specific to WPS programming, which helped it to monitor the number and percentage of projects integrating gender equality issues, including women, peace and security. The tool was used to prepare the departmental annual C-NAP report and allowed for a better analysis and insight into the programming and funding allocated to women, peace and security.

Protection

The government made conscious efforts to systematically analyze the differential impact of conflict on women, girls, men and boys in order to provide effective protection support to vulnerable groups. In addition, Canada continued to finance interventions that addressed the physical and psychological effects of sexual violence by bringing together professionals from the police, judicial, psychosocial and medical sectors. This led to increased services for women and girls, as changes were made to service protocols to be more responsive to women’s and girls’ specific needs. The government not only engaged with vulnerable women, but also with women holding political office in order to understand their level of personal security. Canada’s investments during the reporting year concentrated on strengthening legal and judicial systems, creating awareness among community leaders, increasing access to rule of law services for women and girls, supporting women’s organizations, and training and professional development of international partners.

At the 2012 Sommet de la Francophonie in Kinshasa, Canada also pledged $18.5 million to fight against sexual violence and impunity in the DRC. Over the reporting period, the government used its resources and influence to advocate for greater protection for women and girls affected by conflict.

Relief and Recovery

Canada’s investments in this thematic area were split between policy/programming and accountability. The government concentrated efforts in improving the quality of life of women and girls in conflict, fragile, and post-conflict situations through supporting interventions linked to education, well being, and equality. It funded projects that responded to the needs of women and girls, including victims of sexual violence, ex-combatants, and refugees, and that addressed security and other needs of women and girls through disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and security reform programs. In addition, it also financed initiatives to develop global standards for the protection of girls and boys in humanitarian response. Canada sustained its efforts on policy negotiation and advocacy on matters concerning women and girls in humanitarian crises and how they are affected differently than men and boys. Canada maintained its support for evidence-based research, specifically to promote gender equality and its correlation to improving humanitarian outcomes.

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5. Lessons Learned

The lessons learned in the second year of C-NAP implementation confirm the experience of the first cycle, including the importance of coordination between implementing partners. The distributed approach to C-NAP implementation through which departments and agencies undertake and report on their activities in their respective ways reflects the organization of the government and the very differing roles, resources and mandates of the organizations involved.

Maintaining dialogue with Canadian civil society organizations as well as international networks of experts such as within the G8 and the Group of Friends of Women Peace and Security at the UN proved to be invaluable to keeping in touch with priorities in Canada and around the world.

Due to the rotational nature of military, diplomatic, development and police officials it was necessary to refresh the investment in training on women, peace and security issues for programming and policy officers, which will continue throughout the remaining years of C-NAP.

The data collection and reporting process revealed, as anticipated by the C-NAP, that changing situations can render certain C-NAP Actions and Indicators less relevant than they were when the plan was drafted in 2010. The C-NAP mandates a mid-term review which will be undertaken in 2014 and will allow for the Actions and Indicators to be updated to better reflect changing situations.

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6. Next Steps

As the government looks forward to the third year of C-NAP implementation and the 2013-2014 reporting cycle, continuity can already be seen for work undertaken over the past two years. For example, Canada’s leadership on WPS issues at the G-8 and NATO last year led to G-8 Foreign Ministers launching at their meeting in London in April 2013 a related Declaration on the Prevention of Sexual Violence in Conflict in which partners committed to concrete actions to prevent sexual violence, including by enhancing the role of women in international peace and security.

Canada appointed its first female Ambassador to Afghanistan in July 2013.

The government will undertake a mid-term review of C-NAP and consider new opportunities for women, peace and security collaboration, including those presented by the 2013 amalgamation of DFAIT and CIDA into the new Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD). This amalgamation will allow even closer cooperation across peace, security and development activities, including augmenting existing collaboration and coordination mechanisms on women, peace and security.

Finally, the government will examine how Canadian policy and programming can be enhanced to support women and girls through harmonization across our leadership agendas on eliminating violence against women; women, peace and security; trafficking in women and girls; maternal, newborn and child health; and child, early, and forced marriage. In addition to a shared emphasis on the human rights of women and girls, they all share common elements such building community resistance and resilience, support for survivors and victims, and the investigation and prosecution of associated criminal activity.

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Annex: Aggregated Data Matrix

Action 1

Ensure that all organizations receiving Government of Canada funds for humanitarian assistance have organizational codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse consistent with the core principles of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises.

CIDA

In 2012-2013, CIDA included a clause in each grant agreement with NGO partners working in humanitarian assistance, stating that the NGO must have a code of conduct that is consistent with the core principles identified in the IASC Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises. Consistency with all of the core principles of the IASC Plan of Action on PSEA in humanitarian crises varies from partner to partner.

Indicator 1-1

Number and percentage of organizations receiving Government of Canada funding for humanitarian assistance that have organizational codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse consistent with the core principles of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises.

CIDA

Number of NGO partners: 23; Number of NGO partners with codes of conduct relating to PSEA*: 23 Number of NGO partners CIDA reviewed to determine if code of conduct is consistent with IASC PSEA: 7** Of the 7 NGO partners reviewed, #of NGO partners with code of conduct consistent with IASC PSEA: 2

*Included in each grant agreement with NGO partners working in humanitarian assistance is a clause stating that the NGO must have a code of conduct that is consistent with the core principles identified in the IASC Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises. **Consistency with the core principles of the IASC Plan of Action on PSEA in humanitarian crises varies from partner to partner. Of CIDA's 7 major NGO partners in delivery of humanitarian assistance, 2 have PSEA codes of conduct that are fully consistent with the IASC principles and the rest adhere to some of the principles.

9% NGO partners with code of conduct consistent with IASC PSEA Two of the seven assessed NGOs have codes of conduct that are fully consistent with the IASC PSEA. In some cases, the PSEA principles are not explicitly stated, while in others specific principles are omitted (e.g. in one case the two missing principles were: Exchange of money, employment, goods or services for sex is prohibited; and Sexual relationships between humanitarian workers and beneficiaries are strongly discouraged.)

Afghanistan:

The Afghanistan Program’s multilateral partners for humanitarian assistance programming for 2012-2013 included CARE, Canadian Red Cross (CRC), WFP and the UN Mine Action Service. All are in compliance with IASC principles.

West Bank and Gaza:

Care International is a partner for international humanitarian assistance, and has such a code of conduct. Otherwise, WB/G provides assistance under the UN Consolidated Annual Appeal (CAP) for West Bank and Gaza. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) in West Bank and Gaza says that it does not do such vetting in-country as part of the process to submit projects to the CAP.

Burma:

In 2007, the partner launched the “Prevention of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA)” project, which by 2010 introduced, translated into local languages, and provided training for Community Based Organizations partners on IASC guidelines for prevention of sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian settings. Contractual agreements now require all partner Community Based Organizations to have codes of conduct that comply with IASC guidelines.

No other country programs supported humanitarian assistance programming through bilateral envelopes in 2012-2013.

Action 2

Systematically include modules on women, peace and security, including codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the human rights and protection of women and girls in all Canadian training for military, police and civilian personnel being deployed operationally, in a manner which addresses any differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls.

CIDA

DFAIT

DND

Training for CAF personnel deploying internationally included human rights, codes of conduct, and cultural awareness components, which addressed issues such as the protection of women and girls and gender as a factor on operations.

RCMP

Indicator 2-1

Percentage of Government of Canada departmental pre-deployment or general training courses, including courses taken while deployed on mission, for peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations that examine the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls and address key issues such as codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

CIDA

DFAIT

10%. START offered a total of 10 training courses, including Government of Canada departmental pre-deployment training. Out of these 10 courses, one course (Gender-Based Analysis) focused on the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls. The Gender-Based Analysis course aimed to train for an increased awareness of gender issues into the context of peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

DND

RCMP

100%. The required two- to three-week pre-deployment training course for police deploying to peace operations addressed the relevant issues in the indicator. In addition, police deployed to United Nations peace operations completed online modules, which included International Law relevant to Peacekeeping Operations; International Human Rights Law; Human Rights Protection in Peacekeeping Operations; Women, Peace, and Security: The Role of Peacekeeping Operations; Protection of Children: The role of Peacekeeping Operations; Working with Mission Partners; Conduct and discipline; Sexual exploitation and abuse; The consequences of misconduct; HIV/AIDS and Peacekeeping Operations; Respect for diversity; and Core business of police in Peace Operations.

Indicator 2-2

Number and percentage of Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations who receive pre-deployment training or training while deployed on mission that examines the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls and addresses key issues such as codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

CIDA

45%. Nine CIDA employees of twenty deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations received pre-deployment training in which participants were made aware of Canada's commitments to international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights, including in fragile and conflict-affected situations.

DFAIT

28 of 66, or 42%. This includes all of START deployments of civilians, including to fragile and conflict-affected states, as well as to election observation missions. DFAIT will work to ensure that experts deployed to or working with fragile and conflict-affected states receive the appropriate training.

DND

CAF personnel deployed to peace support operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations received pre-deployment cultural awareness training that incorporated gender considerations, as well as codes of conduct and training on Canadian and international law and human rights applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

RCMP

100%. All (152) police deploying to peace operations were required to complete the two- to three-week pre-deployment training course, which included some or all of the key issues in the indicator.

Indicator 2-3

Extent to which the content of mandatory training courses for deployed personnel or for policy and program staff associated with peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations reflect the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security.

CIDA

DFAIT

All START training reflected Canada’s commitments to UNSCRs on WPS. All policy and program staff who took part in START training, whether from START, other government departments or from partner organizations, work within the context of peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations.

DND

RCMP

The RCMP took the approach of providing specific training on the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security to police deploying to UN missions, through the online module Effective Mandate Implementation. The tenets of the UNSCRs were further reinforced through subject-matter experts who provided lectures to officers during pre-deployment training.

Action 3

Deliver programming under Government of Canada international programs in the justice and security sector that reflects an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

DFAIT

DND

Training offered by the Military Training and Cooperation Program included sessions that integrated a gender perspective.

Indicator 3-1

Extent to which programming delivered under the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP), Anti-Crime Capacity-Building Program (ACCBP), Counter-Terrorism Capacity-Building Program (CTCBP) and the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) and similar Government of Canada international programs in the justice and security sector operationalizes an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

DFAIT

DND

The Military Training and Cooperation Program’s Peace Support Operations courses incorporated a gender perspective as a part of the discussion of subjects such as international law, human trafficking, and child soldiers.

Action 4

Continue to engage in policy dialogue with multilateral partners—including through the UN and its various bodies, funds and programs; the World Bank and other international financial institutions; the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; NATO; the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe; the International Organization for Migration; the Organization of American States; the Commonwealth; and La Francophonie—to encourage the strengthening of their capacities to plan for, implement and report on issues of Women, Peace and Security in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CIDA

Geographic Programs:

Colombia:

Guatemala:

CIDA convened donors to the UNDP/Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala to discuss improving gender outcomes and was able to influence Commission programming to include specific actions around violence against women and trafficking of women. The Commission is now working closely with the specialized prosecutor's office on human trafficking and the development of a methodology for criminal investigation to address cases of murdered women and trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and other forms of violence against women.

Burma:

CIDA-supported women's groups were the first to highlight humanitarian challenges on Burma's northern border, and have been active in dialogues on the question of refugee repatriation. One result was that the Myanmar Peace Support Initiative postponed plans related to resettlement of displaced Shan into an insecure location.

Afghanistan:

West Bank/Gaza:

South Sudan:

CIDA’s contribution to the Joint Donor Office (JDO) (mandated to provide technical expertise to Joint Donor Partners and the Government of South Sudan in support of sustainable peace, poverty reduction and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals) resulted in technical support to gender coordination mechanisms for harmonization and effectiveness of development partner support, including implementation of UNSCR 1325.

Democratic Republic of Congo:

West and Central Africa :

Since March 2011, CIDA contributed $4.3 million to a World Bank-managed Multi-Donor Trust Fund worth $9.2 million, and played an active role in policy dialogue at the bilateral and regional level to address the gender-specific needs of ex-combatants in the context of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs. CIDA support led to improvements in building the capacity of the Burundi and Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commissions to implement gender action plans, which have supported the gender-specific needs of 851 ex-combatants and over 6,000 of their dependents. Nonetheless, insecurity and violence persist in the DRC, causing challenges and delays in service delivery and program development and implementation.

Mali:

Multilateral and Global Programs Branch:

Strategic Policy and Performance:

DFAIT

Action 5

Continue to work with partners, including in Canada’s role as Chair of the Working Group of the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations (“C-34”), the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security, and the Group of Friends on Children and Armed Conflict, as well as through relationships with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the African Union, the League of Arab States and others, to fully implement zero-tolerance policies on sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations and to promote the implementation of international human rights, crime prevention and criminal justice standards relevant to protecting the rights of women and girls.

DFAIT

Afghanistan

Action 6

Advocate for improved accountability mechanisms on the part of the UN and reporting by Member States on progress made to implement Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (UNSCRs 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889).

DFAIT

Action 7

Advocate for Women, Peace and Security issues to be included in the mandates of all UN missions for peace operations, and throughout the work of the UN Peacebuilding Commission, while encouraging the creation and work of appropriately resourced and influential specialist teams on Women, Peace and Security issues within new peacekeeping operations.

DFAIT

Action 8

Promote evidence-based research and analysis, and engage in policy dialogue and development on the Women, Peace and Security agenda, including discussions with Canadian, international and local civil society organizations.

CIDA

Multilateral and Global Programs Branch:

Work on the Canada-funded Gender Equality & Humanitarian Outcomes research study was ongoing during the reporting year. The study is jointly commissioned by OCHA, UNICEF and UN Women, and assesses how gender equality programming has or has not contributed to improved humanitarian outcomes. The findings of the research will help to refine the Inter-agency Standing Committee’s (IASC) approach to gender equality programming, inform calls for increased accountability among stakeholders, and contribute to the broader collection of evidence on gender-responsive humanitarian outcomes.

Evaluations:

Strategic Policy and Performance Branch

1. Canadian Police Arrangement/ International Police Peacekeeping and Peace Operations

2. Regional Human Rights and PeaceBuilding Fund

Policy Dialogue:

Strategic Policy and Performance Branch

Geographic Programs Branch

Colombia:

In Colombia, gender-based violence is still a taboo issue and people are often afraid of reporting incidents because the perpetrators are armed actors. With support from CIDA funding, UNHCR/UNFPA published a manual on the Implementation of the Gender-Based Violence Information Management System in Colombia. The system allows humanitarian actors responding to incidents of gender-based violence in the areas of health, justice and psycho-social assistance to effectively and safely collect, store, and analyze incidents of gender-based violence reported by survivors. The UNHCR reports that 444 cases of SGBV were registered in the system during the three years of implementation in four municipalities.

Haiti:

CIDA supported coordination structures between state and non-governmental actors to address violence against women and gender-based violence, particularly at the departmental level in Nippes and South-East departments.

Burma:

Nepal:

The Peacebuilding From Below project engaged local Community-Based People’s Organizations and Village Development Committees to ensure women’s inclusion in local decision-making and development projects, and the centrality of gender equality to peacebuilding and development. Through the implementation of the project, Community-Based People’s Organizations saw a rise in women’s attainment of decision-making positions and inclusion in decision-making processes, and an overall increase in women’s mobility. While Community-Based People’s Organizations reported a decline in violence against women—and attributed this to women’s growing confidence, assertiveness, and solidarity to address gender equality-specific issues—district level authorities felt that violence against women was on the rise (for generally the same reasons Community-Based People’s Organizations attributed a decline). The project did not collect data on this issue or have a concerted strategy to address it.

Afghanistan:

Pakistan:

West Bank/Gaza:

Jordan:

South Sudan:

Democratic Republic of Congo:

West and Central Africa :

DFAIT

Action 9

Advocate internationally for the strengthening of crime prevention, in particular with regard to women and girls, in a manner consistent with international standards and norms on crime prevention, including the UN Guidelines on Crime Prevention and the prevention components of existing conventions and other relevant standards and norms.

DFAIT

Action 10

Encourage the active and meaningful participation of women in decision-making and in deployments for peace operations, including by identifying and addressing barriers to full participation

CIDA

CIDA continued to work toward supporting the equally active and meaningful voice, representation, and participation of women in decision-making and peace operations, including in programming teams for fragile and conflict-affected situations, in international humanitarian assistance teams, and in fragile state and gender equality policy teams.

DFAIT

DND

The CAF does not differentiate between women and men when selecting personnel for operations. Women participated actively and meaningfully in all aspects of international missions, including peace support operations. The CAF also ensures all equipment for personnel on deployed operations is suitable for both women and men. In addition, deployed women have been employed to interact with local women and girls.

RCMP

Indicator 10-1

Number of Canadian strategic-level national and international security policy directives or guiding documents that address the participation of women in decision-making.

DFAIT

Developed indicators on women’s human rights, access to justice for vulnerable people and training of police and security officers in a new Americas Strategy.

The START Security System Reform (SSR) Guidelines have the promotion of gender equality as a principle and a reference to C-NAP as providing guidance for SSR programs and projects (available by request from http://www.international.gc.ca/start-gtsr/ssr-rss.aspx?view=d

Indicator 10-2

Number of Canadian strategic-level national and international security policy directives or guiding documents that address the deployment of women to peace operations.

DND

Indicator 10-3

Number and percentage of female Canadian Armed Forces personnel, police officers and civilian Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations.

DFAIT

In 2012/2013 START funded the deployment of 66 Canada-based civilian experts. Of these 66, a total of 22 (33%) were women.

DND

RCMP

Indicator 10-4

Number and percentage of voluntary selection processes for Government of Canada personnel to deploy on peace operations that offer specific measures which work to identify and address barriers to women's participation.

DND

The CAF does not differentiate between women and men when selecting personnel for international operations, including peace support operations.

RCMP

Number : 1. Percentage cannot be determined.

Indicator 10-5

Number and proportion of women in executive-level roles in Government of Canada departments and agencies involved in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CIDA

  1. Some employees were counted more than once as they encumbered multiple EX positions (i.e. usually in the context of acting assignments) during the established timeframe, but they were only counted once in each position they encumbered.
  2. This excludes Managers and Head of Aid positions as these are not executive level positions

DFAIT

3 of 5; Proportion: 60% The Director General and two of the four Directors in the Stabilization and Reconstruction Taskforce (START) were women, as of March 31, 2013.

DND

RCMP

Number:

1 in the RCMP

1 in the Service de police de la Ville de Montréal (SPVM)

Proportion: Cannot be determined within the RCMP as participation in peace operations is but a very small number of the overall role of Canadian police.

Action 11

Identify Canadian specialists and trainers from various backgrounds with expertise in women, peace and security issues, and assist where practicable their professional development, placement on international deployment rosters or nomination for relevant multilateral assignments. These specialists can also be a source of policy and program advice for Government of Canada departments and agencies.

DFAIT

RCMP

Action 12

Integrate the participation and representation of women and girls in Government of Canada international security policy frameworks and projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CIDA

Canada worked to advance the equal, active and meaningful voice, representation, and participation of women and girls, including as decision-makers, in peace activities, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations through 6 projects in 2012-2013. For example:

DFAIT

DND

DND will continue to examine how promoting the full and meaningful participation of women in international operations can be more clearly and explicitly reflected in departmental policy.

Indicator 12-1

Number and percentage of departmental international security policy frameworks that integrate the participation and representation of women and girls.

DFAIT

Indicator 12-2

Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate the participation and involvement of women and girls or work with key stakeholders, including men and boys, to promote increased participation and representation of women and girls.

CIDA

*One WPS-related project may address more than one C-NAP indicator. Because of double counting, these amounts should not be summed. **In some cases, only a component of the project may contribute to the participation of women and girls. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support women’s and girls’ participation.

DFAIT

Action 13

Encourage troop- and police-contributing countries to foster the participation of women in peace operations and in training relevant to peace operations.

DFAIT

Indicator 13-1

Number of Canadian interventions in the United Nations Security Council, General Assembly, Special Committee on Peacekeeping or other relevant international fora that explicitly encourage troop- and police-contributing countries to address the participation of women in peace operations and in training for peace operations.

DFAIT

Action 14

Actively encourage UN and other multilateral efforts to involve women, including Indigenous women, in peace agreements and mediation processes, and ensure that such agreements take into account the differential experiences of women and girls, women’s and girls’ human rights and the rights of the child.

DFAIT

Afghanistan

Action 15

Support UN human resources reform processes, particularly with regard to recruitment, to increase the number of women in decision-making positions relating to peace and security and, where appropriate, identify strong Canadian candidates for such positions.

DFAIT

Action 16

Direct Canadian diplomatic missions and deployed Canadian Armed Forces or Canadian police personnel to include information on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women’s and girls’ human rights in their periodic reporting to competent mission authorities on peace operations, and to address reports of alleged sexual exploitation or abuse by Government of Canada personnel with the utmost seriousness.

DFAIT

The Canadian Mission to Afghanistan in Kabul paid particular attention to issues surrounding the situation and human rights of Afghan women and girls in its regular reporting from Afghanistan.

DND

Deployed CAF personnel were responsible to report observed incidences of serious violations of women's and girls’ human rights to competent mission authorities while on international operations, including peace support operations.

RCMP

Through deployment of Canadian police to international peace operations, Canada took a principled stance on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women's and girls' human rights and gender-based violence in all its forms. Canadian police are trained to recognize and mandated to report human rights violations to the appropriate authorities. The individual monthly reporting project, which began during this reporting period, was modified to include a section specifically addressing this issue.

Indicator 16-1

Number of reported cases of sexual exploitation or abuse in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations, allegedly perpetrated by Canadian military personnel, police or civilian Government officials, and the percentage that are:

  • referred to a competent Canadian authority,
  • addressed in a timely, appropriate and transparent manner.

RCMP

*This indicator is based on the UN definition of sexual exploitation and abuse; by definition, the elements of this offence may or may not constitute a criminal offence in Canada. The United Nations reported both alleged cases to the Government of Canada. All reported cases were addressed in timely fashion and within the rule of law. The Government of Canada provides the UN with regular updates on actions taken to address the issue and will inform it of the cases’ eventual resolution.

Action 17

Develop training modules for Government of Canada personnel being deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations, which identify and address in a meaningful way the differential impact of conflict on women and girls. This training will be specific to protection in the region of assignment or mission area, will be offered either pre-deployment or in the field, will draw on experiences/lessons learned from previous engagements, and will address protection issues including sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls, and trafficking in persons.

DFAIT

START implemented a complete evaluation and overhaul of gender training and developed a comprehensive and accessible curriculum which enables participants to gain the practical tips and tools they need to effectively integrate and address gender equality considerations in their programs and projects.

DND

Mission-specific pre-deployment training for CAF personnel deploying to international operations addresses human rights issues such as the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.

RCMP

The RCMP continued to include mission-specific sessions on the differential impact of conflict on women and girls, including protection issues, in its pre-deployment training. During this reporting period, the RCMP identified additional subject-matter experts who could provide in-depth and meaningful training. The RCMP is continuously striving to improve and expand the content of this session.

Indicator 17-1

Percentage of relevant region- or mission-specific pre-deployment or field training modules for Government of Canada personnel on protection issues that address in a meaningful way the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls.

DFAIT

10%. START offered a total of 10 training courses (including pre-deployment training). Out of these 10 courses, one course (Gender-Based Analysis) focused on the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls. The Gender-Based Analysis course aimed to train for an increased awareness of gender issues into the context of peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

DND

RCMP

Rather than incorporating this training into various modules, the RCMP provided a region or mission- specific pre-deployment training session on protection issues and the differential impact of conflict on women and girls to police deploying to peace operations.

Indicator 17-2

Number and percentage of Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations who receive region- or mission-specific pre-deployment or field training on protection issues that addresses the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls in a meaningful way.

DFAIT

6.9%. Six out of 66 deployed Government of Canada personnel received Gender Training from START prior to their deployment. Since they were deployed during this reporting period, the training was received in the reporting period for 2011-2012.

DND

CAF personnel who deployed to peace support operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations received mission-specific pre-deployment training that addressed the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.

RCMP

Number: 131 out of 152; Percentage: 86% This region- or mission- specific pre-deployment training session that addresses in a meaningful way protection issues and the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls has become a part of all pre-deployment training for police deploying to peace operations.

Indicator 17-3

Extent to which DND/Canadian Armed Forces strategic direction or equivalent policy guidance for deployed Canadian police address in a meaningful way the importance of protecting women’s and girls' human rights on international operational deployments.

Action 18

Integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights, in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls, in Government of Canada international security policy frameworks and projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CIDA

Canada worked to protect the human rights of women and girls through its support to programming that promotes the safety, health, wellbeing, economic security and equality of women and girls in fragile and conflict-affected situations. Such programming is guided and directed by a gender-based analysis, which is required for all CIDA policies, programs and projects, including those that seek to address differential impacts of conflict on women and girls.

In 2012-2013, CIDA supported 11 projects that worked towards this Action. For example:

DND

DND will continue to examine how the recognition of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls, as well as the promotion and protection of the human rights of women and girls, can be more clearly and explicitly reflected in departmental policy

Indicator 18-1

Number of departmental international security policy frameworks that integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

DFAIT

At the Third Meeting of States Parties of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in September 2012, Canada advocated for mainstreaming gender and diversity issues into the implementation of the Convention and encouraged States Parties and partners integrate gender considerations into all of their mine action and cluster munitions-related programming.

Indicator 18-2

Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects that integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

CIDA

11* of CIDA’s total WPS-related projects (55) focused on supporting the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights.

19.57 million* of CIDA’s total WPS-related investments ($164.9 million) either specifically addressed or integrated gender equality results in this area.**

*One WPS project may address more than one C-NAP indicator. Because of double counting, these amounts should not be summed.

** In some cases, only a component of the project may contribute to supporting the human rights of women and girls. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support women’s and girls’ human rights.

DFAIT

Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs: 64 projects. $33,148,547. Out of 129 projects, 64 (50%) address the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights.

Action 19

Direct Government of Canada departments and agencies that deploy personnel on peace operations to provide deploying personnel with clear context-specific instructions on measures to protect and promote women’s and girls’ human rights, including measures to prevent sexual violence, and to respond appropriately if sexual violence occurs.

DND

RCMP

Canadian police personnel normally deploy to a multilateral organization, usually a United Nations mission, which has its own mandate and ConOps, both of which clearly define the role of the UN Police and the scope, or limit, of their operations and actions. During pre-deployment training, it is impressed upon Canadian police personnel that they must ensure WPS issues are promoted and that any abuses or signs of abuse are brought forward to appropriate authorities. If they themselves do not have the mandate to act, they are advised to identify the key players in their missions who can, and to whom they could, report such behaviours.

Indicator 19-1

Extent to which Government of Canada departmental guidance documents for specific peace operations explicitly address the protection and promotion of women’s and girls' human rights, including measures to prevent sexual violence.

DFAIT

Gender-Based Analysis training was for the first time offered to partner organizations and other government departments. As a result, START was in communication with partners both internal and external to the government, advertising the development and implementation of a curriculum available on the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights, including measures to prevent sexual violence. The response was very positive and a waiting list was created for the future.

RCMP

The RCMP continued to work towards the development of ConOps for its missions; a model ConOps was finalized and approved in 2012 for one mission and research and planning began for additional ConOps.

The model ConOps included a section on gender and the protection of human rights for women and girls. Each subsequent ConOps will also include this element. It is also important to note that Canadian police normally deploy to multilateral organizations, usually United Nations missions, which have their own mandate, ConOps and strategic directions regarding the protection of human rights for women and girls. The RCMP’s ConOps are aligned with those of the multilateral organization, and clearly defining the role of police and the scope, or limit, of their operations and actions.

Action 20

In Government of Canada-funded projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations, integrate support for women’s and girls’ human rights including protection from violence, including sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls, and trafficking in persons.

CIDA

In 2012-2013, Canada funded 23 projects that supported women and girls in the realization of their human rights, including through strengthening efforts to protect women and girls from violence and sexual violence in peace operations, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations. For example

DFAIT

Canada provided funding to support women’s and girls’ human rights through CFLI and the GPSF.

Indicator 20-1

Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate support for women’s and girls’ human rights including protection from violence, sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls and trafficking in persons.

CIDA

*One WPS project may address more than one C-NAP indicator. Because of double counting, these amounts should not be summed.

** In some cases, only a component of the project may contribute to support for women’s and girls’ human rights, including protection from violence, sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse and trafficking. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support the human rights of women and girls, including protection from different forms of violence.

DFAIT

There were 23 Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) projects, totaling $496,625, that specifically addressed women’s and girls’ human rights. Some examples :

Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs: 35 projects. Funding disbursed: $21,253,919 Out of 129 projects, 35 (27%) address violence against women. This is the Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs’ lowest scoring indicator for the 2012/13 fiscal year for the second consecutive year.

Action 21

Support projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts including but not limited to: humanitarian assistance; support to refugees, internally displaced persons, and returnees; disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration DDR); justice and security system reform (JSSR); stabilization, reconstruction, early recovery and peace and security; economic empowerment; and health and education programming.

CIDA

Canada supported 37 projects that integrated the needs and capacities of women and girls to ensure their equal access to humanitarian and development assistance in relief and recovery efforts, in such efforts. For example:

DFAIT

Indicator 21-1

Number and percentage of departmental planning frameworks for fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls.

CIDA

Geographic Programs Branch

DFAIT

Indicator 21-2

Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts.

CIDA

* One WPS project may address more than one C-NAP indicator. Because of double counting, these amounts should not be summed.

** In some cases, only a component of the project may integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in access to relief and recovery. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support the needs and capacities of women and girls.

DFAIT

Action 22

Engage UN Member States and agencies in improving the comprehensiveness of their approach to the substantive equality of men and women and to the human rights of women and girls, with respect to the UN’s support to or participation in justice and security system reform.

DFAIT

Action 23

Continue to intervene actively with the International Criminal Court and other international courts and tribunals to promote the implementation of the relevant objectives of the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security in their activities, including in mechanisms such as truth and reconciliation commissions.

DFAIT

Action 24

Advocate, as appropriate, for the mandates of new international accountability and judiciary mechanisms such as international courts, special tribunals and other transitional justice mechanisms, to integrate the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security, and women’s and girls’ human rights.

DFAIT

Action 25

Advocate for UN agencies’ consideration of the differential impact that violent conflict and natural disasters have on women and girls, and their human rights, in all aspects of ongoing efforts to strengthen international humanitarian response capacity, including anti-human trafficking efforts.

DFAIT

Action 26

Continue to employ a variety of remedies to promote accountability and justice in situations where a perpetrator of a war crime or a crime against humanity (including genocide) is in Canada or wants to come to Canada, including extradition, prosecution in Canada under the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act, surrender to an international court or tribunal, revocation of citizenship obtained by fraud, denial of visas, and where applicable under Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, denial of access to the refugee determination system, and removal from Canada.

CBSA CIC Justice Canada RCMP

Action 27

Continue efforts to prevent, investigate and prosecute cases involving Canadian citizens or permanent residents in the sexual exploitation or abuse of children which occur in fragile states and conflict-affected situations, including child sex tourism and trafficking in persons.

DFATD

Public Safety

Action 28

Advocate internationally for equal access by female ex-combatants, and by women and girls associated with armed forces or groups, to appropriate benefits and resources from disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs.

CIDA

Footnotes

Footnotes 1

Two additional UNSCRs on WPS have been adopted during the drafting of this report: 2106(June 2013) and 2122(October 2013).

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnotes 2

Adapted Gender Assessment Criteria for Indicator 3-1: 0= no gender equality results; 1= limited integration; 2= integrated, or gender equality results exist at intermediate outcome level to create systemic, institutional or normative change; 3= specific, gender equality is the principal objective and result of the initiative.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Police Administration Survey.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

The Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework (TMAF) represents the mutual commitments of the Government of Afghanistan and the international community to help the country achieve its development and governance goals. The international community pledged to improve aid effectiveness and provide US$16 billion in development assistance through 2015 to respond to Afghanistan’s anticipated budget shortfall following military transition. In return, the Afghan Government committed to economic and governance reforms, including holding credible elections, combating corruption, improving financial transparency and promoting human rights, including the rights of women and girls.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Action 2. Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security. October 2010. Pg. 6.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

The IASC Gender Standby Capacity (GenCap) project seeks to build the capacity of humanitarian actors at country level to mainstream gender equality programming, including prevention of and response to gender-based violence, in all sectors of humanitarian response.

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Date Modified: