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2013-2014 Progress Report - Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security

Table of Contents

Acronyms

C-NAP
Canada’s National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security
CAF
Canadian Armed Forces
CANSOFCOM
Canadian Special Operations Forces Command
CANSOF
Canadian Special Operations Forces
CFLI
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives
CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency
ConOps
Concept of Operations
CSW
Commission on Status on Women
DFATD
Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada
DFATD/DEV
DFATD Development
DND
Department of National Defence
DRC
Democratic Republic of Congo
ECOSOC
Economic and Social Council
EGM – DFATD/DEV
Europe, Middle East and Maghreb Division
GENEV
Permanent Mission of Canada to the to the World Trade Organization, the United Nations and the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva
GPSF
Global Peace and Security Fund
GSB
DFATD South Asia Relations Division
IASC
Inter-Agency Standing Committee
IPD
International Policing Development
IRC
Deployment and Coordination Division, START
IRG
Programming Division, START
IRH
Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Response Division, START
IRP
Peace Operations and Fragile States Policy Division, START
KFM – DFATD/DEV
Partnership for Development Innovation Division
MFM – DFATD/DEV
Global Issues and Development Division
MIH
DFATD Human Rights Division
NAP
National Action Plan
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NGM – DFATD/DEV
Assistant Deputy Minister for the Americas
NGO
Non-governmental Organization
OAS
Organization of American States
OCHA
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
OGM – DFATD/DEV
Asia-Pacific Division
OSCE
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
PSEA
Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse
PoC
Protection of Civilians
PRMNY
Canadian Permanent Mission to the UN in New York
RCMP
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
SGBV
Sexual and Gender-based Violence
START
Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force, DFATD
UN
United Nations
UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund
UNFPA
United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNSCR
United Nations Security Council Resolution
WPS
Women, Peace, and Security

Executive Summary

This is the second annual report on Canada’s implementation of its National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (C-NAP). It This report covers the period from April 2013 to March 2014 and is the third annual report on Canada’s implementation of its national action plan on Women, Peace and Security.

During the reporting period, Canada continued to work on policy and program development, training, and advocacy in relation to women, peace and security (WPS) in conflict-affected countries. Led by the Peace Operations and Fragile States Policy Division of DFATD (IRP), key governmental departments and Canadian diplomatic missions collaborated on efforts to increase women’s role in international peace and security as well as to protect women and children from sexual violence in armed conflict, including through the G8. Canada worked with like-minded countries and Canadian and international civil society organizations to fulfill its commitment to supporting the United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) on WPS.

Regarding the treatment of women inside the CAF, in April 2014 the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) ordered an independent external review to examine claims of sexual misconduct and sexual harassment within the CAF. Prior to the review’s release in 2015, a CAF Strategic Response Team on Sexual Misconduct was created. Further reporting on the Strategic Response Team’s action plan to address the report’s recommendations will follow in the 2015-2016 CNAP. 

The year 2013-14 was markedly different than the preceding years for Canada, as two key partners of Canada’s National Action Plan (C-NAP) on WPS, the former DFAIT and CIDA, merged into the new DFATD.  Development programming is critical to the C-NAP, and new coordination mechanisms across the new Department needed to be established. This remains a work in progress as part of the overall process of amalgamation.

As part of the amalgamation process, two Working Groups (one inter-departmental and one for the former DFAIT divisions) were combined into one WPS Working Group, thereby increasing C-NAP partners’ access to the experiences of all other partners both internal and external to DFATD. Additional benefits of amalgamation are being explored. For example, the former CIDA had a strong gender equality integrated programming approach that is currently maintained in the new Department, while the former DFAIT is building its capacity within the Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) at DFATD, with attention being paid preventing overlap and duplication of efforts related to WPS programming.

Some of Canada’s key activities for the year included the following: the G8-led initiative on the prevention of sexual violence in conflict; the preparations for the C-NAP mid-term review; the public release and tabling in Parliament of the first two C-NAP Progress Reports; and, continued security, development, and humanitarian programming in crisis-affected states.

For the 2013 G8 cycle, G8 foreign ministers embarked on an initiative to prevent sexual violence in conflict.  Canada contributed as a global champion for the initiative by providing input to the drafting and launch of three significant documents: the G8 Declaration on the Prevention of Sexual Violence in Conflict in London in April; United Nations Resolution 2106 at the UN in June; and the UN Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict at the UN again in September. For the remainder of the reporting period, Canada maintained its focus on the prevention of sexual violence against women and girls and supported the drafting and review of the new International Protocol on the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence in Conflict.

As called for in the action plan, in early 2014, C-NAP partners began work on a C-NAP mid-term review.  While most of the review activities occurred in the following reporting year (2014-15) they will be reported here as it is timely to do so.  As part of the review, over the summer of 2014, experts from the Washington-based Institute for Inclusive Security (IS) on contract to the Government conducted an independent evaluation of C-NAP processes and activities through a series of consultations with partner departments and agencies and Canadian civil society.  IS rendered its report on 15 September, 2014 which is being tabled and released along with this report.  The highlights of the report and the Government’s implementation responses to its recommendations are outlined in the paragraphs below.

IIS concluded that the C-NAP has had “a significant, positive impact” on the Government of Canada’s training, hiring practices, and multilateral and bilateral partnerships, as well as on external perceptions of Canada’s role as a global leader in the area of women, peace, and security. IIS made several recommendations to improve the C-NAP’s impact, including:

  1. Strengthen monitoring and evaluation practices (drawing out the objectives of the C-NAP more clearly by adding results statements and outcome indicators and providing definitions or examples for each indicator to which organizations are required to report);
  2. Release regular, simplified reports that address challenges as well as successes;
  3. Consult regularly and predictably with civil society;
  4. Create space for, and encourage sharing of, best practices across and among organizations;
  5. Identify and profile high-level C-NAP champions; and
  6. Affirm Canada’s commitment to the C-NAP as a policy directive.

The Government accepts that C-NAP can be improved with respect to the monitoring and evaluation practices and will undertake to revise them in consultation with programming and Canadian civil society experts.  We will work to implement improved processes in Fiscal Year 2014-15 and report on progress in the next C-NAP annual report.

The Government has tabled in Parliament and web published the reports for Fiscal Years 2011-12 and 2012-13 and is tabling this report for 2013-14.  We will continue to table and publish reports on an annual basis.  We will undertake immediately to simplify and shorten the reports to make them easier to read and understand.  We will also work to incorporate analysis which will more clearly illustrate progress trends over time.

The Government consulted widely in 2010 for the design and development of C-NAP and has kept in regular contact with Canadian civil society organizations and interested activists, including through key groups such as the Women Peace and Security Network-Canada.  We held a day of consultation with civil society during the mid-term review process and the independent evaluator had follow-up interviews with the participants. We agree that we can improve this important relationship and will work with civil society to immediately establish regular and predictable consultations which take into consideration time zone and travelling differences to ensure that all regions of the country can be included.

The Government hosts regular formal working group meetings with C-NAP partner departments and agencies where lessons and experiences are shared.  Again, the Government agrees that better and informal mechanisms would assist in the open sharing of information and will work with partners to this end.

The Government takes the recommendation of appointing specific champions for C-NAP under advisement.  Our current position is that the international agenda for Women Peace and Security, including the prevention of sexual violence in conflict, is at the centre of Canadian policy for promoting the equality between women and men, and the empowerment, human rights and well- being of women and girls.  For example, in the 10 weeks following the receipt of the reports of the heinous acts of violence by so-called ISIL against women and girls in ethnic and religious communities in Iraq and Syria, Canadian Ministers and senior officials made some 20 formal interventions on the subject in multilateral fora to keep the situation at the top of the global agenda, in addition to the military and programming action which Canada is taking.

The Government drafted a C-NAP implementation plan in 2010 to guide C-NAP partners in their work and reporting.  Further, the annual C-NAP progress report provides general guidance to partners for following years.  That said, the Government accepts the recommendation that a similar plan should be developed, disseminated and promoted on an annual basis so that C-NAP is clearly perceived to be the policy directive that it is, and undertakes to do so.

Further to the above recommendations, the Government will continue to work to enhance the Women Peace and Security agenda within the institutions which work on international policy and programming.  The continuing work on amalgamation at DFATD will be examined to determine whether the world class work in support of gender equality which continues to be undertaken in humanitarian assistance and development programs can be a lesson for other parts of the Department.  We are determined that the true legacy of C-NAP will be seen in changed attitudes, as well as the improvement of the skills, knowledge, process and practices to sustain work in support of women and girls in conflict situations.

1.0 Canada’s Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security

Introductory Overview

1.1 The UN Security Council Resolutions - New DevelopmentsThe UN Security Council Resolutions - New Developments

The Government of Canada has made a long-standing commitment to supporting the empowerment of and greater equality for women and girls. As a part of this commitment and as a means of supporting the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000) the Government of Canada developed a National Action Plan (C-NAP) to support its implementation of the Resolution. The C-NAP also aligns Canada’s peace operations and work in fragile states with the diverse UNSC Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) adopted since 2000.

The UNSC introduced two new resolutions related to Women, Peace and Security in 2013.  Resolution 2106 targets conflict-related sexual violence and outlines operational details to previous WPS resolutions. It stresses that the Security Council, parties to armed conflict, all Member States and United Nations entities must exert more effort to implement WPS mandates and tackle impunity for sexual violence. Co-sponsored by Canada, it was adopted on June 24, 2013.The second resolution, UNSCR 2122 (2013) creates stronger measures for women to participate in all phases of conflict prevention, resolution and peacebuilding as a means of placing a greater emphasis on women’s leadership in the women, peace and security agenda.

1.2 Canada’s Approach and Role

Canada has pledged, through the C-NAP, to use diverse strategies to implement the UN Security Resolutions. These include advancing international norms and standards, conducting sustained advocacy on a bilateral and multilateral basis; seeking mechanisms for accountability and implementation; and building knowledge and skills for practitioners, among others.

To implement the National Action Plan, Canada adopted a whole-of-government approach.  Four government agencies with international operations are responsible for implementing and reporting on Canada’s Action Plan. These four agencies are Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT- now DFATD), the Department of National Defence (DND), and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), now part of DFATD.

The C-NAP focuses on the themes of Prevention, Participation, Protection, and Recovery and ReliefFootnote 1.

2.0 How this report is organized

The report covers the period from April 2013 to March 2014.  It is the third annual report on Canada’s implementation of its national action plan on Women, Peace and Security. Its format and approach are consistent with the two preceding annual reports.  It is based on information provided in departmental annual reports on WPS actions. A composite matrix of the current reporting year can be found in the annex of this report.

The report includes a chapter on Canada’s Achievements related to UNSCR 1325 and C-NAP’s four main themes of: prevention; women’s participation; protection; and relief and recovery. Under each thematic area the annual report outlines actions that have been taken in the past year with regard to policy and programming, training, and accountability. Each section also includes illustrative examples to highlight this work.

The four themes are inter-related and inter-dependent.  An effort was made to report actions by thematic area, but there is overlap in some areas. For example, protection related interventions could also fall under the prevention category. Similarly, within each thematic area, some activities may be inter-linked. This is particularly the case with regard to capacity building and training activities.

3.0 Canada’s Implementation

3.1 Prevention

During the reporting period, Canada continued to integrate into its initiatives an analysis of the differential experiences of men and women, boys and girls in conflict contexts. Implementing departments of Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security invested their resources in policy development, capacity building of Canadian personnel and international partners, advocacy for prevention of violence and sexual violence against women and girls, and sustained policy dialogue with a range of stakeholders.

3.1.1 Policy and Programming

Policy: Policy development remained an important prevention initiative, especially in relation to Canada’s partnerships in humanitarian action.  By requiring Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) partners to have a code of conduct consistent with the core principles of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises, Canada achieved some level of success, in that all of its 35 NGO partners have some type of code of conduct in place. (See Annex, Action 1 &Indicator 1-1)

Code of Conduct Training in Burma (DFATD)

The Border Consortium (TBC) is Canada’s partner supported through the Burma Border Assistance Program. All partner Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) have codes of conduct consistent with IASC guidelines. As part of its protection programming, the Border Consortium provided training on Prevention of Sexual Abuse and Exploitation for TBC, camp committee and CBO staff.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and its police partners in international peace operations are committed to observing the highest standards of police conduct in missions. In peace missions, Canadian police must abide by the code of conduct of their police service and that of the host organization.  The RCMP prohibits fraternization of Canadian police with the host population, due to the difference in real or perceived power and authority.  Not only are deployed police made aware of this policy through the Code of Conduct and Ethics pre-deployment training, they are also informed of the consequences of misconduct, which range from disciplinary measures to repatriation.  Each deploying police officer must sign a letter agreeing to refrain from fraternizing with the local population.  Canadian police officers deployed to international peace operations must also obtain attestation letters from their Commanding Officers stating that the candidate has not been charged or convicted of, and is not currently under investigation for, any criminal or disciplinary offence.  The letter also certifies that he or she is not aware of any allegation against the candidate of committing or being involved in, by act or omission, any acts that may amount to violations of international human rights law or international humanitarian law.  If the peace operation is being conducted through the UN, a second attestation letter – specific to the UN – is also required.

Similarly, Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel must abide by the CAF Code of Conduct, the Laws of Armed Conduct, the Statement of Defence Ethics and other policies in place on the prevention of sexual and gender-based violence, abuse and exploitation, at all times, including when deployed on international operations.  Prior to deployment, they receive specific training on the CAF Code of Conduct, human rights, ethics and individual conduct and the Laws of Armed Conflict.  The CAF Code of Conduct’s standards of treatment with respect to local civilian populations prohibit rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault, as well as discriminatory treatment based on sex.  It is made clear that a member who violates any of these standards is liable to disciplinary and administrative action, including release from the military.

On the issue of how women are treated inside the CAF, in April 2014, the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) ordered an independent external review to look into sexual misconduct and sexual harassment in the CAF following a number of media reports on the subject and a subsequent Internal Review. Madame Marie Deschamps, a former Supreme Court of Canada Justice, began the review in June 2014 and completed it in March 2015. Madame Deschamps determined that inappropriate sexual conduct is a serious problem in the CAF and made a number of recommendations to address it.

On 25 February 2015, prior to the completion of the review, the CDS directed the creation of the CAF Strategic Response Team on Sexual Misconduct with the mandate to develop an action plan to address the report’s recommendations. The Strategic Response Team will develop and lead the measures and actions required to address the problem of inappropriate sexual behaviour and, on 30 April 2015, released an action plan to address the report’s recommendations. An update on the implementation of the action plan will be provided in the 2015-2016 CNAP.

Programming related to prevention: Canada funded projects that improved access to justice for women, and strengthened attention on gender issues within security forces.  Fiscal year 2013/14 saw an increase in the proportion of Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) projects which reflected an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls (C-NAP Action 3), from 64 percent in 2012/13 to 99 percent in the current reporting year.  There was also a sharp decline in the number of projects that did not integrate a gender-based analysis (from 46 in FY 12/13 to only 1 in FY 13/14).  The reasons for the rise in projects that included gender-based analysis were two-fold: i) older multi-year projects that had not been required to include gender analysis at the time of their design were completed in the previous year (2012/13); and ii) designated resources or gender-based analysis point persons ensured project review at multiple stages of development and implementation, leading to a higher frequency of projects reporting on gender equality results.  This latter reason reflects a new requirement that partners provide a gender-based analysis as part of their concept notes.

An important increase can also be seen in the number of gender-specific projects with a leap from nine to sixteen.  This positive shift demonstrates that greater focus on WPS led the GPSF program to support projects that responded to the specific needs of women, girls, and men and boys in failed and fragile states.  The table below presents a comparative distribution of GPSF programming throughout the three annual reporting periods and indicates that the Average Gender Assessment Score has almost doubled from FY11-12 to FY 13-14 (0.89 to 1.72).

Table 1. Gender equality integration and spending by fiscal year (C-NAP Indicator 3-1)Footnote 2
Gender Assessment ScoreNo. of GPSF funded projects% of GPSF funded projectsSpending
($)
Spending
(%)
FY 11/12FY 12/13FY 13/14FY 11/12FY 12/13FY 13/14FY 13/14FY 13/14
Formula used for calculating average gender assessment score: [ (3X16)+(2X19)+(1X33)+(0X1) ] / 69
3 (Specific)109165%7%23%$5,540,6609%
2 (Integrated)33211918%16%28%$22,254,72837%
1 (Limited Integration)64533336%41%48%$29,605,58450%
Sub-total107836859%64%99%$57,400,97296%
0 (No gender integration)7246141%36%1%$2,195,2004%
TOTAL PROJECTS17912969100%100%100%$59,596,172100%
AVERAGE GENDER ASSESSMENT SCORE0.890.951.72-
UNSCR 1325 and Guatemala (DFATD)

The Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) is a mission-administered fund that provides monetary assistance for projects that are conceived and designed by local organizations.  The CFLI funded the Instituto de Enseñanza para el Desarrollo Sostenible (IEPADES) in a project aimed at empowering women in post-conflict Guatemala and strengthening attention to gender issues within Guatemalan security forces. The project included workshops and public fora to advance the Guatemalan national action plan for the UN Security Council Resolution 1325. IEPADES prepared a training module for the National Civilian Police on gender equality and UNSCR 1325. 400 police agents received training on women’s rights and the responsibility to protect women from violent crimes and sexual violence. 4,000 copies of the course manual were distributed within the police force for use of further training and for monitoring purposes. The project also involved consultations with the Ministry of Interior and members of the Guatemalan Congress. (Action 3.A)

Source: DFATD/IRG, FY13/14 C-NAP Divisional report

Crime prevention is another area to which Canada contributes by attending or providing briefing material in conferences, workshops and UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Working Group meetings on Trafficking in Persons. DFATD’s International Crime and Terrorism Division provides input to related resolutions at UN General Assembly, Human Rights Council, or the OSCE. It also contributes to and coordinates DFATD’s departmental commitments in Canada’s Action Plan to combat human trafficking, which places an emphasis on women and girls. (Action9)

3.1.2 Training

The International Level

Gender considerations were part of the terms of reference for those DFATD deployments that helped develop the training capacity of the host country or organization.  Gender analysis was also a component used in conflict analysis. (See Annex; Indicator 2-1a)

Gender perspectives are reflected in the training that DND and the CAF provide to international partners, including the United Nations Staff Officers Course and the Peace Support Operations Course, and through the Caribbean Junior Command and Staff Course.  The Directorate of Military Training and Cooperation provides training to member countries of the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP).  In partnership with the Canadian Defence Academy, MTCP developed a new seminar titled “Ethics in the Military Profession”, in which gender issues featured.  The seminar is scheduled for delivery once in FY 14/15 and twice in FY 15/16. In addition, MTCP-sponsored international participants, who attended courses in Canada, received elements of training on the impact of conflict on women and girls. (Indicator3-1.b)

Canada followed through on its advocacy for increased integration of equality between women and men, girls and boys in humanitarian action by building capacity through gender advisors recruited to support selected projects, on a need basis.  In 2013, Canada, along with Spain, funded the posting of a gender advisor to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in the West Bank and Gaza.  The advisor supported the integration of gender dimensions in information, analysis and programming, built capacity in equality between women and men, girls and boys, and supported the development of the 2014 Humanitarian Programme Cycle (HPC).  In addition, the presence of a gender advisor facilitated greater inclusion of gender considerations through technical guidance and support provided to clusters or sectoral working groups and the overall humanitarian community on gender equality programming. Significant progress was noted in the integration of gender concerns in the Humanitarian Needs Overview compared to the previous year. (Action 4.D)

National Level

During the reporting period 2013/14, Canada started to streamline its approach to capacity building related to women, peace and security as it amalgamated two departments, DFATD and CIDA, into one entity.  One evolving effect of the amalgamation included efforts to reduce duplication, resulting, for example, in keeping the START training on Gender-Based Analysis on hold while making use of the existing gender training course offered by DFATD-DEV. (Action 2.A) Canada also sought to make training on gender-based analysis more accessible to staff and managers at missions by arranging bilingual teleconferences (French and English) and online courses. (Indicator2-2a)

Currently, the Government of Canada is reviewing its pre-deployment training program for rapid responders and deployees in order to raise their awareness level of equality between women and men, girls and boys.  In addition, Canada addressed the lack of a gender component in the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) training for outgoing personnel with CFLI responsibilities. (Indicator2-3a)

MTCP-sponsored courses, such as the United Nations Staff Officer Course, included AIDS Awareness, Protection of Women and Children, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA), and Diversity as mandatory training subjects. As part of CAF pre-deployment training, the CAF’s Peace Support Training Centre delivered modules on analysis of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls, as well as on UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security, specifically UNSCR 1325 and 1820.  Furthermore, the Canadian Special Operations Training Centre (CSOTC) provides annual training for Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) personnel through the Special Operations Readiness Training (SORT) on Human Rights, Laws of Armed Conflict, Ethics, Cultural Awareness, and Rules of Engagement, with the focus on protection of all non-combatants, including women and girls, while deployed on operations (Action2.B; Indicators 2-1.b& 2-3.b).

Over the course of the year, CAF personnel deployed to peace support operations, fragile states, or conflict-affected situations were provided with training on human rights, codes of conduct, cultural awareness components (which included instruction on the protection of women and children and other vulnerable populations), and gender as a factor on operations.  The Government of Canada also took measures to ensure personnel posted on any HMC ship understood their responsibility to protect vulnerable groups, such as detainees, including female and juvenile detainees.  Canadian Special Operations Forces personnel also received the Special Operations Command Environment Training including core deployment requirements addressing both human rights and the protection of women and girls (Indicators2-2b & 2-3b).

Canada continued to offer pre-deployment training through International Policing Development (IPD) at the RCMP for police posted to peace operations, with an in-class pre-deployment training session ranging from two to three weeks in Ottawa.  This training, delivered by subject matter experts, covered ethics and codes of conduct, and included a minimum one-day cultural intelligence session with gender-related content.  Since the adoption of the C-NAP, IPD has also offered mission-specific training on the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.  The training has the flexibility to address context-specific circumstances that may differ from mission to mission.  In addition to the in-class training, the training for all Canadian police deployed to UN peace operations includes two mandatory online modules -“Effective Mandate Implementation” and “Values and Core Business”. (Indicator 2-1)  Once police officers arrive in mission, they generally attend the induction training offered by the multilateral organization to which they are deployed; this usually includes components related to women, peace and security.

Mission-Specific Training, Haiti (RCMP)

In the training session held during the reporting period for police deploying to Haiti, some of the topics covered included:

  • Sex versus gender
  • The Haitian Penal Code
  • Statistics and data with respect to Haiti and the Haitian National Police (HNP)
  • UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS
  • Sexual and Gender-based Violence
  • Human trafficking within the Haitian context
  • Information about the UN mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and its Gender Unit
  • UN definitions of sexual exploitation and abuse

3.1.3 Accountability

Advocacy for Prevention

During the reporting period, the Government of Canada continued its advocacy work on the need to integrate Women, Peace and Security issues into the mandates of all UN missions for peace operations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).  It also held discussions on WPS issues at the OSCE, including at regular meetings of the Permanent Council.

Canada took the opportunity to advance issues relating to equality between men and women at multiple venues, including Executive Board/Committee meetings of World Food Program and UN High Commissioner on Refugees, the Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Donor Support Group (ODSG) High-Level Meetings and Annual Bilateral Consultations, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Annual Donor Support Group meetings, and the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives.  Either as chair or member, Canada maintained a policy dialogue on WPS with a range of stakeholders, including but not limited to Donor Gender Working Groups, the UN Security Council, NATO partners, various project coordination groups, the Group of Friends for Women, Peace and Security, partner ministries, and civil societies.  (For more information, please see Action 4.)

Through the Permanent Mission in New York, Canada maintained targeted discussions and advocacy on WPS issues with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and UN Women throughout the year.  It contributed to the development of commitments for the Security Council within UNSCRs 2106 on Sexual Violence in Conflict and 2122 on Women, Peace, and Security and co-sponsored UNSCR 2106 in June 2013.

Canada’s Influence in the drafting of an ECOSOC’s resolution in 2013 (DFATD)

Canada, along with other like-minded member states, succeeded in negotiating the text in the 2013 ECOSOC resolution on Strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, by including the following language:

Urges Members States to continue to prevent, investigate and prosecute acts of sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies, calls upon Member States and relevant organizations to strengthen support services to victims of such violence, and also calls for a more effective response in that regard;

Requests Member States, relevant United Nations organizations and other relevant actors to ensure that all aspects and stages of humanitarian response address the specific needs of women, girls, men and boys, on an equal basis, taking into consideration age and disability, including through improved collection, analysis and reporting of sex-, age- and disability- disaggregated data taking into account, inter alia, the information provided by States, and emphasizes the importance of the full participation of women in decision-making processes related to humanitarian response.

At the G8 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in April 2013, Minister Baird announced a $5M Canadian contribution to support the G8 Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative.  Along with fellow foreign ministers, Minister Baird co-launched in the G8 Declaration on Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict, and at the June 2013 G8 Summit, Prime Minister Harper and his colleagues endorsed the G8 Declaration.  In September 2013, Minister Baird delivered a statement in New York and co-launched the UN Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict.

In addition, Canada leads the annual resolution on Violence against Women (VAW) at the Human Rights Council (HRC).  In 2013, the VAW resolution focused on the prevention of rape and sexual and gender-based violence in all contexts, including conflict and post-conflict situations, as well as strengthening accountability measures for investigating SGBV (such as mandating inclusion of SGBV experts on Commissions of Inquiry and Fact Finding Missions).

Research

Supported by Canadian funding, innovative research is underway in Guatemala to identify the link between organized crime in the country and violence against women.  The research will be published in 2015.

In Afghanistan, Canada funded the evaluation of the current level of implementation of the National Action Plan for Women of Afghanistan.  Carried out by the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, the evaluation report was shared with other donors.

Reporting on Prevention Activities

All Government of Canada departments implementing the National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security reported the use of regular internal data collection systems.  For example, the Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force at DFATD (IRG) generated its year-end report based on the data gathered from the Security and Stabilization Project Management Tool.

At the international level, Canada successfully lobbied for the inclusion of policies and recommendations in the “Gender and peacekeeping” section of the Report of the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping (C-34).  The latter is mandated to offer strategic and operational guidance on UN peacekeeping. (Action 5.B)

3.2 Participation

Canada maintained the momentum it gained in the previous year by continuing to work with its partners in overcoming potential barriers to women’s full and meaningful participation in decision-making, peace operations, and peace building processes.  The following subsections include more detail regarding, for instance, the participation of female police officers in peace support operations and some of the key roles which other Canadian women play in positions abroad.

3.2.1 Policy and Programming

The International Level

Canada ensured women in fragile or conflict-affected states were given equal opportunity to contribute to the design or implementation of projects, and also to participate in training opportunities through these projects.  Interventions demonstrating meaningful participation or consultation of women or girls in planning or implementation stood at 61 percent by the end of the reporting period, generally consistent with the 68 percent in FY 12/13 (GPSF figures derived from consultations with implementing partners).  CFLI projects in fragile states focusing on women’s participation increased from 24 percent in FY 12/13 to 40 percent this year.

The Government of Canada encourages its partners to aim for at least a 20 percent representative goal of including women in decision-making roles and police deployments for peace operations.  To that end, it continued supporting initiatives of the DPKO Police Division to take measures to prioritize the selection of women in peacekeeping and special political missions.  In addition, speaking through the CANZ (Canada, Australia and New Zealand) group, Canada explicitly urged troop- and police-contributing countries to increase the participation of women in peace operations and associated training.

Civil Society Appreciation of Canada’s Role in Afghanistan

“I also know that the BEST champion on implementing Canada’s National Action Plan in the field – where it is making such important and immediate difference – is Canada’s Ambassador to Afghanistan Deborah Lyons and her amazing team.”

For FY 2013-14, in addition to the ambassador, 4 of 6 members of the Canadian embassy’s political team were female, 5 of 6 members of the development team were female, the MCO was a women, as were 2 DMCOs.

Promoting Women’s Participation in Elections, Afghanistan (DFATD)

In advance of Afghanistan’s April 2014 presidential elections, the CFLI funded the creation and dissemination of public service announcements by the Afghan Women’s Network (AWN) to promote awareness of the right of Afghan women to vote. The announcements were broadcast by radio and television during peak periods from March 23-31. In total, the ads were broadcast 76 times on four television stations and 77 times on two radio stations. The project sought to reach more than 20 million Afghans in all 34 provinces, including, in particular, illiterate Afghan women who could not make use of printed materials about the election. (An estimated 87 percent of Afghan women are illiterate or only semi-literate). AWN also distributed the ads, which were created in the local languages of Dari and Pashto, to their more than 100 partner organizations across Afghanistan for further dissemination at local events.

The script included an actor playing an Imam [Muslim religious scholar] reminding listeners that “Elections are making our future.  Each male and female aged over 18 has the right to vote. O people! This is your legal right and there is no barrier against this right in Sharia Law, too.” According to AWN contacts at provincial offices, the ads were well-received, with many people suggesting anecdotally that they were helping to change opinions towards women’s participation in the elections.  On 5 April, global media reports noted that nearly 35 percent of voters in the first round of the election were women and credited the active work of civil society organizations, such as AWN, in promoting women’s participation in the elections.

In recognition of the efforts of the UN Secretariat to increase the number of women in senior positions, Canada supported its efforts to develop a roster and pro-actively recruit qualified women to raise the percentage of women at the UN director level and above (which stood at only nine percent).  Canada, as Chair of the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security, represented the Group at a Security Council ArriaFootnote 3 Meeting on “Implementing the UN Security Council’s women, peace and security agenda – perspectives from the field: gender practitioners in UN Peacekeeping operations”.  The Arria meeting called for the timely and increased posting of women protection advisors to field missions, as well as the need for funding to create the said positions in missions where sexual violence is widespread.

Canada contributed to its commitment to women’s leadership by actively supporting the Special Representative of the Secretary General to MINUSTAH (Haiti) Sandra Honoré since her May 2013 appointment.

A Mentor’s encounter with Afghan Police Women, NATO Training Mission, Afghanistan (RCMP)

“Working as a mentor/advisor to the Afghan Anti-Crime Police in Kabul, I was presented with an opportunity to assist a Canadian independent documentary film maker who wished to provide donations of boots to the front line Afghan Police Women.

“Myself and a Canadian colleague attended an Afghan Police women’s shura in Mazar-e Sharif and spoke with some of the police women who said they would prefer to have uniforms over boots, as they felt they weren’t recognized as police women, and basic equipment was not provided by their own headquarters. With assistance from the Netherlands ‘Military Gender Advisors, we were able to use the film maker’s donation to have 80 uniforms made and provided to police women there.

“The police women were amazed and grateful for this donation. I believe the knowledge that they are being thought of and supported by women from other countries helps build their confidence and determination to make a difference.”

National Level

Government of Canada female staff continued to have equal access to deployment opportunities through bulletins and notices encouraging eligible candidates to apply.  In departments such as International Policing Development, there was a policy explicitly requiring a female candidate to be selected when an equally qualified man and woman competed for a position.  Efforts to promote women’s participation in missions ranged from media campaigns, events in missions, and participation in courses related to women, peace and security.

Percent of women in police deployments in 2013/14
Figure 1: FY 2012/13 and FY 2013/14 Percentage of Police Officers Deployed to Peace Operations who are Female

Figure 1 above indicates monthly fluctuations, but in general shows a slight increase with an average of 15 percent of women in police deployments in 2013/14 as compared to 12 percent in the previous year, Figure 2Footnote 4.  In addition, mission deployments remain voluntary with the option to apply to specific missions.  The Montreal City Police Service (SPVM) shared its experience on best practices for the recruitment of women to peace operations at IPD’s Annual General Meeting in October 2013. Since 2009, when it conducted a study on women’s deployment to peace operations, SPVM has been supporting women by addressing their concerns with respect to the challenges of international deployments.  This approach has helped more than double SPVM’s female participation from 10 percent prior to 2008 to 21 percent in 2013.

Canada supported the development of the Justice Rapid Response sub-roster of sexual violence experts, which includes five Canadian female police officers (Action 11.B).

Senior Positions held by Canadian Female Police Officers

In addition to increasing the number of female Canadian police deployed to peace operations, IPD recognizes the importance of female police holding senior, strategic positions. Canadian women police held the following senior positions in FY 2013/14:

  • Senior Police Advisor to Canada’s Permanent Mission to the UN in New York (PRMNY)
  • Senior Police Advisor and Team Leader, EUPOL COPPS, West Bank
  • Deputy Head of the International Police Coordination Board, Afghanistan
  • Chief of MINUSTAH Community Policing Unit, Haiti.

The Government of Canada also supported initiatives that contributed to capacity building for women’s increased participation in municipal governance, including training for women candidates running for municipal elections (Indicator 12-1). In other instances, projects targeting women’s economic empowerment were funded by Canada in recognition that women’s ability to occupy leadership positions was further enhanced by achieving economic independence (Indicator 12-2a).

Facts and Figures on Canadian Women’s Participation in Women, Peace and Security Operations
  • Of the 38 high-level positions (EX-01 or higher) at DFATD located in, or accredited to, conflict-affected and fragile states, 13 of them are currently being staffed by women. These include positions in Egypt, Haiti, Afghanistan and the DRC.
  • For example, in July 2013, the Government appointed Deborah Lyons as its first Ambassador to Afghanistan and she is the only woman foreign ambassador in Kabul.  Ambassador Lyons has worked tirelessly and with effect in working with the diplomatic community, the Government of Afghanistan and local women’s groups to ensure that the human rights and dignity of Afghan women are protected and promoted as the country transitions to stable and democratic government.
  • Ambassador Lyons and two Afghan women activists joined Minister Baird at the Global Summit to End Sexual violence in conflict held in London in June 2014 to report on their important work in Afghanistan along with a Canadian police officer who worked on sexual violence issues in Afghanistan.
  • As of March 2013, the Director General and 60% of the directors in the Stabilization and Reconstruction Taskforce (START) were women;
  • 33% of 21 Canadian civilian experts deployed to international organizations and in response to international crises in 2013/14 were women
  • 31% was the percentage of women (5 of 16) deployed in the final IPD contingent in Afghanistan.

3.2.2 Training

Conferences and voter education outreach campaigns were some of the initiatives Canada supported to increase women’s participation in the political sphere in fragile states such as Afghanistan.  DFATD funded the training of some 10,000 domestic election observers to participate in the 2014 presidential and provincial council elections.  Canada also contributed to gender training as a follow-up on the commitment to explore the challenges and obstacles in the identification, recruitment, training and retention of women correctional experts in peace operations.

Promoting Women’s Political Participation in MENA (DFATD)

START funded a project through the Arab Women’s League Institute (AWLI) and the International Republican Institute to help build the political capacity of female candidates in Jordan, Libya and Tunisia and ensure their greater participation in decision making and political processes.  Activities include; specialized campaign management training for 6 AWLI members to serve as campaign advisors in their respective countries and to other women in the region (two per target country: Tunisia, Libya and Jordan).  Training will cover campaign strategies, organization, coalition building, message development, voter contact, survey research, debate techniques, handling political adversaries, media relations, social media strategies, as well as special coaching to help them develop their consultations with female candidates.  The project will recruit and train nearly 400 women from the MENA region, specifically in Tunisia, Libya, and Jordan for both local and national-level elections in a series of consultations complemented by 3 two-day campaign school trainings.

In addition, Canada concentrated efforts on building a pool of mission-specific subject-matter experts on gender issues and the differential impact of conflict on women and girls, in order to keep its own training relevant and current.  Within the RCMP, this exercise began to involve the identification of Canadian police personnel already with the expertise and qualifications required to send for further training in gender issues in conflict contexts.  For example, two Canadian police officers, one CAF military officer and one civilian completed the European Security Defence College accredited “Gender in Operations” course.  The RCMP also maintained licenses for online courses on UN peacekeeping through the UN Peace Operations Training Institute in order to enable personnel both in mission and at HQ to pursue supplementary gender courses if they wanted to. (Action 11.B).

3.2.3 Accountability

Advocacy

Canada championed women’s participation and leadership in conflict prevention and peace processes, and promoted the strong connection between a society’s development and the engagement and leadership of women.  Fora in which Canada consistently raised women’s participation and appointment to senior and strategic posts included the Security Council, high-level debates on international peace and security, Groups of Friends working in the humanitarian sector, and informal networking meetings such as the “Women in Uniform” event.  Canada, in developing drafts of resolutions, called for increased political participation of women in countries such as Haiti. As part of the CANZ group (Canada, Australia and New Zealand), Canada supported the Secretary General’s mobility framework proposal, which included a clause to ensuring implementation is carried out in a way which respects UN policies on gender balance.

Given that failed and fragile states may not provide women with an environment in which they can thrive, Canada advocated with host government ministries to create a supportive and secure environment to increase women’s participation.  For example, Canada urged the Ministry of Interior in Afghanistan to increase security around polling centres for women voters on Election Day, as well as to assign an adequate number of female body searchers at polling stations.  Canada endorsed the Communiqué of the New Deal for Somalia at the Brussels Conference in September 2013, which included language that emphasized the important role Somali women played in the peace- and state-building process and called for their greater inclusion in the political, economic and public arenas. 

In 2014, Canada supported efforts to include women at the Geneva II Syria peace talks.  With regards to Afghanistan, Canada stressed in all relevant resolutions at the UN Security Council and statements within the Group of Friends of Afghanistan the importance of women’s rights being protected in political agreements signed between the Government of Afghanistan and insurgent groups.  Furthermore, Canada held policy dialogue with religious leaders to gain support for women’s political participation and for their help in promoting women’s right to participate in elections as both voters and candidates (e.g. Afghanistan).  (Action 14.A)

Reporting on Participation

As part of the annual reporting process, stories from the field are sent in by female and male Canadian police peacekeepers to the RCMP’s website and social media, as a way to improve awareness and promote female participation.  The RCMP honoured International Women’s Day (March 8, 2014) by recognizing and featuring the accomplishments of female police officers on its website. One of the women presented was a senior officer deployed through IPD to the EUPOL COPPS mission in the West Bank.

3.3 Protection

Canada focused on protecting women and girls’ human rights, specifically by instituting policies and guidelines on the prevention of sexual-based violence or violence against women in conflict-affected countries.  It ensured projects integrated an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and children.  In the case of GPSF programming, partners are required to specifically address how their projects will contribute to supporting UNSC Res. 1325 (2000).

3.3.1 Policy and Programming

The Concept of Operations (ConOps) approach is used to guide Canada’s engagement in peace operations.  Canadian personnel are often deployed to multilateral organizations that follow the ConOps mandate, and have a strategic direction concerning the protection of women and girls’ human rights.  As such, they are obligated to respect the policies of these organizations. (Indicator 19-1)

Various policies are in place to inform deploying personnel about standards of treatment of civilians, including the protection and promotion of women and girls’ human rights, are still effective and relevant.  CAF policies, for example, explicitly prohibit rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault, discriminatory treatment based on sex, sexual and gender-based violence, and abuse and exploitation.  In addition, deployed Canadian personnel are bound by duty to report to the appropriate authorities and if possible to act to halt any observed incidences of violation of women and girls’ human rights, including sexual and gender-based violence. (Actions 16.C & 19.B; Indicator 17-3)

The development of departmental policy is an area that can potentially benefit from the findings of an analysis of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls and the promotion and protection of the human rights of women and girls.  The Government of Canada is continuously examining how integrating such findings in policy could be done more explicitly. (Action 18.D).

Family Support Hotline, Afghanistan (DFATD)

During the reporting period, Afghanistan’s first national call centre started providing legal advice and referrals, along with psychological and religious counseling to address issues, including sexual and gender-based violence, domestic disputes, and child, early and forced marriage.  Canada supported the establishment of the hotline.

The majority of projects (70 percent) funded by Canada through GPSF programs and activities had a central theme of women and girls’ human rights protection. These included:

Initiatives also included ongoing logistical support for the creation of adequate specialized facilities within police stations where victims of domestic violence or sexual assault could be received.  In Haiti, for example, a Canada and Norway-led SGBV project created 10 operational locations for victims of SGBV within police stations.  This spurred on the growth of the Haitian government’s Bureau de la coordination nationale des affaires féminines et des questions de genre from a staff of two to nine.  Protection activities also involved Canadian personnel providing guidance and mentorship in the investigation of sexual assault cases, including in Haiti.

The GPSF ensured initiatives were first preceded by a gender-based analysis.  The WPS officer, a member of the Project Team for projects, was systematically consulted on programming guidelines as well as projects funded by the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives and the Post Initiative Fund. (Action 18.C)  Furthermore, gender focal points were identified to both promote and integrate the protection of women and girls’ human rights into project conception and initiation.  The CFLI continued to strengthen the capacity of its program staff to carry out gender analysis. (Action 18.B)

In certain cases, analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and men required direct consultations with women as to their specific protection needs.  In Afghanistan, Canada engaged with female Members of Parliament throughout the year and in the weeks leading up to the April 5, 2014 presidential and provincial council elections to discuss barriers to their political participation and opportunities for Canadian support, especially concerning their personal security.  Similarly, Canada also consulted female Afghan police Generals on ways to promote and improve the Afghan’s police ability to respond to and investigate gender-based crimes. (Action 18.A)

Addressing violence against women in Haiti (DFATD)

The CFLI  funded a project for the Association Femmes Soleil d’Haiti, which supported over 100 women and girl survivors of violence in the communities of Cap-Haitien, Balan, Fort Liberté, Plaine du Nord, and Bayeux. The project provided support services for these women, including shelter and outreach. Through workshops, the Association raised awareness about violence against women with 10 local organizations in each of the five communities, local authorities and 300 men.

3.3.2 Training

International Level

Considerable effort was expended on the capacity building of international partners to investigate and manage cases of sexual and gender-based violence against women and girls.  In partnership with like-minded nations, Canada supported train-the-trainer and police training in countries such as Haiti, to raise awareness of SGBV with the national police force and at a national level. Canadian personnel were involved at different levels of training processes to strengthen the training capacity of the Haitian police force in promoting and protecting women and girls’ human rights.

National Level

DFATD ensured that all staff deployed, including those considered “Rapidly Deployable”, completed a mandatory gender-based training focusing on the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls.  During FY 2013/14, only the online Gender Training was offered, and monitoring of the number of staff members who completed the online training is planned for the next reporting period.  In addition, based on the findings of the Gender-Based Analysis Training, START developed a comprehensive curriculum that allows participants to access the practical tools and tips required to integrate and address gender equality considerations effectively in programs and projects. (Action 17.A; Indicators 17-1a; 17-2a)

3.3.3 Accountability

Advocating for prevention of sexual violence in humanitarian action was a key priority during the reporting period.  Canada was persistent in citing the need to integrate gender considerations in national statements to the UN Security Council Open Debate on the Protection of Civilians (POC) in Armed Conflict, at ECOSOC and UN General Assembly.  In addition, Canada urged UN agencies and member states to increase protection of the rights and safety of women and girls.

Where appropriate, Canada also advocated at the ministerial level for the increased protection of professional women’s human rights.  In Afghanistan, for example, Canada urged the Ministry of Interior to develop a robust and impartial mechanism to investigate and prosecute allegations of harassment and abuse of female police officers by male colleagues and supervisors. (Action18.A)

Anecdote by a Male UNPOL Mentor, Côte d’Ivoire (RCMP)

“While posted at Yamoussoukro in Côte d'Ivoire I was tasked with delivering training to Ivorian police and gendarmes. Along with a Nigerian woman UN Police officer (UNPOL) and the UN gender expert from Yamoussoukro, I was tasked with attending a village meeting in relation to female genital excision/mutilation.

“The meeting was organized in this particular village due to cases of young girls and women being victimized by the practice of genital excision. The village meeting was to encourage locals to disregard the practice, with the support of the village chief and UN/international personnel. The message was well received and the women were passionate and vocal about their stories and the need to cease this practice. It was commented to me that it was valuable having a Canadian man present in support of the initiative and in support of women's rights.”

Reporting on Protection

International Policing Development instituted a reporting system during the reporting period to capture any incidence of observed or credibly reported violations of women and girls’ human rights, and to determine whether these are reported to mission authorities and subsequently acted upon.  The individual monthly reporting requirement was changed to one that is submitted on a quarterly basis.  This change has led to an increase in response rates from deployed police.  In addition, a comprehensive review of the questions asked as part of the reporting was done, in order to ensure that all required indicators were met through the project.

Pushed to the Brink, China-Burma Border (DFATD)

In June 2013, the Burma Border Assistance Program (funded by Canada) supported Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT) to produce a report titled “Pushed to the Brink”, documenting how conflict and displacement are fuelling human trafficking along the China-Burma border, and how the lack of refugee protection and shortages of humanitarian aid are exacerbating the problem. The report was launched in Bangkok, and received widespread Burmese and international media coverage. (Action 20.B)

In Afghanistan, Canada maintained its focus on serious violations of women and girls’ human rights in periodic reporting. This allowed for regular updates on issues such as:

Furthermore, the Canadian program in Kabul dedicated a significant part of its 2013/14 Human Rights Report to documenting and analyzing the impact of political and legal developments on the protection of women and girls’ rights in Afghanistan. (Action 16-A)

Documenting sexual violence in Burma (DFATD)

A critical first step in addressing sexual violence is documenting and exposing its occurrence. In January 2014, Women’s League of Burma (WLB), a partner of the Burma Border Assistance Program (which is funded by Canada), published a report documenting 104 cases of sexual violence committed by the Burma Army since the current government was elected in November 2010. The report was launched in Yangon, Chiang Mai and New York and received wide international coverage. It analyzed the systematic nature of the sexual violence and called for constitutional reform to bring the Burmese military under civilian control. (Action 21.B)

3.4 Relief and recovery

In recognition that women and children are the most vulnerable groups in conflicts and natural disasters, Canada remained resolute about the importance of including an analysis on the differential impact on women and children in humanitarian response.  Canada supported specific initiatives aimed to improve women’s well-being to ensure physically safety, health care, and food, water, and shelter.  The target groups in humanitarian action included refugees, Internally-Displaced People (IDP) and returnees.

3.4.1 Policy and Programming

Canada continued to require inclusion of equality between women and men, girls and boys considerations in the humanitarian assistance projects it supported in countries affected by conflict and natural disasters, including Afghanistan, the Central African Republic, Chad, Pakistan, Syria, and South Sudan.  In particular, it worked with partners such as the UN High Commissioner on Refugees, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the UN Population Fund to ensure the needs and capacities of women and girls were integrated in relief and recovery efforts.  Initiatives sought to incorporate gender assessments, create gender units, establish gender focal points (e.g. Canadian Red Cross in Afghanistan – Action 21.B), and provide protection against sexual violence in humanitarian action.  In addition, country programs and strategies in states affected by conflict or disasters explicitly addressed equality between women and men, girls and boys as an approach and, in few instances, as a goal.  Canada supported women and girls’ well-being, women’s economic empowerment, language rights, women’s human rights, and health security of vulnerable women and girls.

Typhoon Haiyan (DFATD)

When Typhoon Haiyan devastated parts of the Philippines in November 2013, Canada responded with millions of dollars in humanitarian assistance.  Canada’s response was guided by special consideration of the differential impact which the hurricane would have on women, men, boys and girls. Included in this was funding for the International Organization for Migration and the United Nation’s Children’s Fund, both of which addressed the prevention of violence and exploitation of women, girls and boys.  In addition, Canada supported the United Nations Population Fund, helping to provide reproductive health services and works to prevent and manage sexual and gender-based violence.

Programs in countries hosting refugees, such as Jordan, which has a large Syrian refugee population, also integrated gender equality in humanitarian actions aiming to reduce the impact of the Syrian conflict on Jordan. (Indicator 21-1.c)  Additionally, Canada also supported comprehensive health services, targeting women and girls, for refugees, internally displaced people and returnees (see Box below).

Delivering the Muskoka Promise (DFATD)

Reaching refugees, internally displaced people and returnees, the International Planned Parenthood Federation project, funded by the Partnerships for Innovation Branch, is delivering MNCH programming in three conflict affected and fragile states: Afghanistan, Mali, and Sudan. The project meets the needs and capacities of women and adolescent girls providing access to sexual and reproductive health services, and other MNCH care, in marginalized communities; by specifically addressing the needs of high-risk communities, and by advocating for increased public acceptance – critically including male acceptance of women’s right to plan and space childbearing. (Indicator 21-1f).

Furthermore, the Government of Canada engaged with host governments to ensure the needs and capacities of women and girls are appropriately addressed in relief and recovery efforts.  In Afghanistan, Canada held the government accountable on the implementation of the Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) law, a commitment it made under the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework (TMAF).

Supporting women leaders in Burma (DFATD)

Through the Burma Border Assistance Program (which is funded by Canada), women’s organizations developed gender-sensitive community-based programs to address the vacuum of services in Burma’s conflict-affected areas. This enabled women to take on community leadership roles. It also engaged a broad range of ethnic organizations promoting greater inclusion of women and representation of women’s rights issues. As a result, partner ethnic civil society organizations have increased women’s representation in leadership positions from 22 percent in 2009 to 41 percent by December 2013. In addition, the project achieved a landmark result when a woman was elected to the position of Secretary General of the Karen National Union. (Action 21.B)

With respect to the sexual exploitation or abuse of children in fragile states and conflict-affected contexts, Canada has been taking explicit measures to combat child sex tourism and trafficking in persons.  The Government of Canada has a National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.  DFATD provides assistance to other governments as well as funding to a number of international organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that work with governments to address human trafficking, with a core focus on prevention, protection and rehabilitation of trafficking victims and integrating equality between women and men, girls and boys as a cross-cutting concern.  Canada has identified those fragile states vulnerable to child sex tourism and has a criminal law that prohibits all child sexual exploitation, including by Canadians or permanent residents of Canada during their travel overseas.  A policy to address the sexual exploitation of children by Canadians abroad has been instituted at consular offices.  Public Safety Canada continues to collaborate with the RCMP’s National Child Exploitation Coordination Center, which coordinates intelligence.  As well, Canada established a federal working group in 2010 to provide an important forum for information-sharing and coordination on the issue of travelling child sex offenders. (Action 27)

3.4.2 Accountability

Advocacy

In fragile states such as Afghanistan, Canada maintained its dialogue with women Members of Parliament to discuss issues related to the rights of women and girls, with the objective of increasing the active and meaningful participation of women political leaders on issues that affect them. (Action 21.A)

Canada also sustained its advocacy on the protection of women and girls in humanitarian action, participating in a high-level event organized by the UK Department for International Development in London, entitled “Keep Her Safe”.  Canada is one of 13 countries which endorsed a communiqué developed to prioritize the protection of women and girls in emergency responses (please see Action 25.A for more information).  In its statement, Canada defined its commitment to:

In June 2013, Canada joined the Global Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Online to step up international cooperation efforts to effectively investigate and prosecute cases of online sexual exploitation.  Through this Alliance, Canada and its partners will be able to work on bringing criminals to justice while getting exploited children to safety.  Collaboration signifies not only the exchange of intelligence in the tracking of online predators, but also the sharing of best practices and lessons learned in fighting child exploitation on the constantly evolving medium of the Internet.  In December 2013, Canada coordinated the interdepartmental response to the “Reporting Form – Announcement of Actions” with the RCMP, Department of Justice Canada, and DFATD.  The response outlined the actions Canada has already carried out and those still to be taken with respect to each of the policy targets.  Progress to date will be discussed and reported back upon in the summer of 2014 and again later in the year.

Other areas where Canada advocated for women’s leadership in humanitarian response as well as women’s and girls’ full participation throughout every phase of humanitarian action were the annual UN General Assembly and Economic and Social Council humanitarian resolutions.  As the comprehensive implementation of the Gender Marker - a tool for marking whether and to what degree a humanitarian project is designed to take into account the different needs of affected men, women, girls, and boys - remains important to Canada, the Canadian Permanent Mission to the UN in New York consistently called for better donor tracking of its use.  In March 2014, Canada urged that explicit references of the differential impact of natural disasters on women and girls be made in the “Gender equality and the empowerment of women in natural disasters” resolution at the Commission on the Status of Women. (Action 25.B)

By actively remaining engaged in the drafting of the UN-Women Humanitarian Strategy developed in 2014, Canada ensured that the differentiated effects of disasters and conflicts on women and children are duly taken into account and addressed through recommended actions in the Strategy. (Action 25.B)

4.0 Progress

Overall, Canada was successful in maintaining its commitment to promoting and protecting women and girls’ human rights in fragile states and conflict-affected situations.  This is especially notable, considering that two of its key government partners, the former DFAIT and CIDA, were undergoing an amalgamation into one new entity, DFATD.  In addition, the GPSF did not program during the first quarter of fiscal year 2013-14.

Prevention

During the reporting period, partner departments collaborating on the implementation of Canadian National Action Plan continued to carry out and fine-tune activities initiated during the two previous reporting periods.  Canada’s strongest areas are advocacy and policy dialogue on the prevention of sexual violence in conflict situations in a range of fora with a broad group of multilateral partners.  These include the UN, Human Rights Council, governments, and civil society organizations, for example.  Using its leverage as Chair of the Group of Friends of WPS and the Group of Friends of Children and Armed Conflict, Canada sustained its advocacy work to prevent violence against women, girls, and other vulnerable groups and to support the UN’s zero tolerance policy with regard to sexual exploitation and abuse.  In June 2013, Canada co-sponsored a resolution related to WPS, UNSRC 2106 and also contributed to the groundwork of UNSCR 2122, which seeks to address the issue of strengthening accountability mechanisms in WPS resolutions.

A review of the implementation of Canada’s Action Plan over the last three years indicates that training initiatives have varied across government departments.  All partner departments have ongoing training that addressed their specific needs.  START and former-CIDA’s gender training sessions were put on hold during the transition period of the amalgamation.  However, online gender training was available to departmental employees.

All 35 of Canada’s key NGO partners have a code of conduct relating to the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises (PSEA).  In 2013, DFATD published revised International Humanitarian Assistance Funding Application Guidelines for NGOs.  As per the revised guidelines all NGOs must meet ten minimum requirements, which include adherence to: the Code of Conduct of the International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disaster Relief; and the Plan of Action and Core Principles of Codes of Conduct on Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation in Humanitarian Crises.  NGOs that wish to be considered for project funding are invited to submit an Institutional Profile to DFATD demonstrating how they meet the requirements.  In 2014, DFATD began reviewing Institutional Profiles to determine the extent to which NGOs meet all ten criteria.  The results of this review will be reported in the next Annual Report.

Participation

Women’s increased participation and representation in peace related operations and peace processes were areas of focus, both at international and national levels.  The government of Canada continued to advocate for women’s participation and representation through all avenues afforded to it, including the UN, DPKO, peace missions (Haiti), and peace talks (Syria), and all conflict prevention and resolution processes. Canada also supported the UN’s efforts to increase the number of women holding senior and executive level positions.

At the national level, Canada was the first country to appoint a woman ambassador to Afghanistan.  Although the participation rate of women remained somewhat constant, the government sustained its efforts to encourage and retain women civilian and non-civilian deployees to peace operations.  All government partners reported implementing equitable hiring practices with respect to international postings in fragile states and conflict situations.

Protection

A key approach to ensuring greater protection of women and girls’ human rights is through systematic reporting of serious violations by perpetrators, including Canadian personnel.  Canada has put measures in place to stop such breaches by requiring Canadian deployed personnel (DND and RCMP) to include any observed or credibly reported violations to competent mission authorities on peace operations.  Though a mandatory individual form was introduced for police deployees, its frequency was reduced to quarterly basis from a monthly basis.  This change has led to an increase in reporting by deployed police officers.  Through pre-deployment training, deploying police officers are informed of the importance of the individual reporting of violations, such as sexual violence against women and girls.

Canada also made an important contribution by funding the Family Support Hotline, Afghanistan’s first national call centre providing legal advice and referrals, as well as psychological and religious counselling to address issues related to sexual and gender-based violence, domestic disputes, and child, early and forced marriage.

Relief and Recovery

For most of the Actions under this thematic area, Canadian interventions were similar to those implemented in the past. However, Canada also embarked on new initiatives designed to eliminate online sexual abuse and exploitation of children by joining the Global Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Online.  However, under many of the Actions of Relief and Recovery, partners did not provide sufficient update to allow an accurate assessment of progress over the last three years.

5.0 Lessons Learned

Canada made significant strides in fulfilling its commitment to women, peace and security issues during the reporting period.  The previous two years of C-NAP implementation also provided opportunities for building momentum and experience as well as capturing lessons learned. 

Coordination Processes

In the third year of the C-NAP implementation, the amalgamation of two key players – the former DFAIT and CIDA – into DFATD presented significant opportunities for better coordination.  While the delineation of responsibilities remains unchanged, the structural and process changes prompted the blending of two Working Groups (one inter-departmental and one for the former DFAIT division) into one WPS working group.  This has so far proven to be invaluable as all C-NAP partners are in a better position to share experiences and WPS knowledge.  Nonetheless, the process of amalgamation takes time and, during this transition, the Peace Operations and Fragile States Policy Division is exploring potential efficiencies in both former CIDA and DFAIT.

Subject Matter Experts

In terms of pre-deployment training, the RCMP has noted the best practice for building Subject-Matter Expert resources are Canadian police officers with mission experience in specific gender-focused roles.  Expanding the cadre of these experts within IPD has also been identified as an important area to work on, prompting the ongoing training of IPD staff members in Canada or abroad.

Results versus Activities

This is the first year that the annual C-NAP report has included a detailed review of its indicators and a report on progress on these indicators as a part of the reporting process.  This review has brought to light the fact that many of the indicators focus on activities and not results.  While it is important to be able to report on the specific actions that Canada has undertaken, in future there may be a need for additional indicators that measure the results over time.

Reporting on C-NAP

The review of the aggregated matrix for the last three years of C-NAP’s implementation, which is a new feature of this annual report, revealed some irregularities.  In some cases, quantitative indicators were left blank, or a statement was made to the effect that obtaining said data, especially financial, was not feasible.  In other cases, indicators repeated what was reported in the previous year, without noting if the reported activities were a continuation of ongoing projects.  In the spring of 2014, DFATD and its C-NAP partners undertook a mid-term review, including an independent evaluation, which identified strengths and weaknesses; this will be reported upon next year.   

Availability of Data

There are several indicators for which there were either no data available or else insufficient data to calculate the required quantitative measures.  These gaps would seem to indicate a need to either change the way in which some data is reported on by specific Government of Canada departments or else flag that it is not possible to collect this level of data for this indicator and a need to revise the indicator accordingly.

6.0 Next Steps

A review of the C-NAP and related documents from each department indicated that Canada will be taking the following actions over the course of the next fiscal year:

a) Prevention

b) Participation

c) Protection

d) Relief and Recovery

Annex: Aggregated Data Matrix

The information below was compiled from all reports received from the Government of Canada departments implementing Canada’s National Action Plan.

The letters in the Reference column are only applied to Actions and Indicators for which more than one implementing department has reported on (e.g. 2.A & 2.B indicate that two different divisions are reporting on Action 2).

Ref.: 1

Indicator: Action 1: Ensure that all organizations receiving Government of Canada funds for humanitarian assistance have organizational codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse consistent with the core principles of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Haiti: The Haiti Program’s Multilateral partners for Humanitarian Assistance (HA) programming for the past fiscal year included Oxfam, Médecins du Monde, WFP, and PAHO. All are in compliance with ISAC principals.

West Bank and Gaza: The WB/G development program’s UN partners World Food Programme (WFP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have such a code. Under the 2013 UN Consolidated Appeals Process, the WB/G program also partnered with non-governmental organizations Care International, Oxfam Quebec, Handicap International, and Save the Children Canada, each of whom have such codes.

Afghanistan: The Afghanistan Program’s Multilateral and NGO partners for Humanitarian Assistance programming for the past FY includes WFP, UNMAS, CARE, and the Canadian Red Cross. All are in compliance with ISAC principles.

Burma: The Border Consortium (TBC), a partner supported by the Burma Border Assistance Program (which is funded by Canada), and all partner Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) have codes of conduct that comply with IASC guidelines. As part of its protection programming, in 2013, the Border Consortium provided training on Prevention of Sexual Abuse and Exploitation for TBC, camp committee and CBO staff.

Ref.: 1-1

Indicator: Indicator 1-1: Number and percentage of organizations receiving Government of Canada funding for humanitarian assistance that have organizational codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse consistent with the core principles of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises (PSEA).

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Number of NGO partners: 35

Number of NGO partners with codes of conduct relating to Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse *: 35

*Included in each grant agreements with NGO partners working in humanitarian assistance is a clause stating that the NGO must have a code of conduct that is consistent with the core principles identified in the IASC PSEA in humanitarian crises.

Ref.: 2A

Indicator: Action 2: Systematically include modules on women, peace and security, including codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the human rights and protection of women and girls in all Canadian training for military, police and civilian personnel being deployed operationally, in a manner which addresses any differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

In previous fiscal years, START/IRC carried out Gender Training for all program and policy officers in START including rapid responders. The training was also extended to relevant OGDs and selected NGO partners. The outcomes of this provided program and policy officers with: an increased awareness of gender issues in the context of peace operations, fragile states, and conflict affected situations; an increased capacity to ensure gender based analysis is applied in programs and projects; and, lastly, an enhanced capacity to identify gender results and indicators. The Gender Training was not offered during this reporting period, as START opted to use existing gender training offered by Development. START sent 4 people (2 male, 2 female) on the Development course. Online course also offered but participation is not currently tracked.

The CFLI unit provides training to CFLI managers at missions. In 2013-2014, one of the monthly teleconferences was specifically focused on Gender Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) and programming and involved participants from 20 different missions. Following this teleconference, all CFLI program managers were encouraged to complete the online training GBA+ course offered by Status of Women.

Ref.: 2B

Indicator: Action 2

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

Training for CAF personnel deploying internationally included human rights, codes of conduct, and cultural awareness components, all of which addressed issues such as the protection of women and girls and gender as a factor on operations.

The Canadian Special Operations Training Centre (CSOTC) provides all new CANSOFCOM personnel (Specialists, Supporters, and Staff) training that includes Human Rights, Laws of Armed Conflict, Ethics, Cultural Awareness, and Rules of Engagement. This training addresses the protection of all non-combatants, including women and girls, while deployed on operations.

Ref.: 2C

Indicator: Action 2

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Pre-deployment training for police deploying to peace operations included sessions on cultural awareness, gender awareness, codes of conduct and ethics. Pre-deployment training for police deploying to United Nations peace operations also included two mandatory online modules which address these issues: Effective Mandate Implementation and Standards, Values, and Core Business.

Effective Mandate Implementation addresses, in a generic manner, the key elements candidates need to know to effectively implement a mission’s mandate under the following headings: international law relevant to peacekeeping operations; international human rights law; human rights protection in peacekeeping operations; women, peace, and security: the role of peacekeeping operations; protection of children: the role of peacekeeping operations; and, working with mission partners.

The training module Standards, Values, and Core Business addresses what is expected of members in mission under the following headings: conduct and discipline; sexual exploitation, and abuse; the consequences of misconduct; HIV/AIDS and peacekeeping operations; respect for diversity; and the core business of police in peace operations.

International Policing Development’s pre-deployment training utilizes subject matter experts to instruct police preparing for mission on matters relating to women, peace, and security.

Ref.: 2-1A

Indicator: Indicator 2-1: Percentage of Government of Canada departmental pre-deployment or general training courses, including courses taken while deployed on mission, for peace operations, fragile states, or conflict-affected situations that examine the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls and address key issues such as codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details: In lieu of START specific gender courses, START officers participated in the Gender Based Equality course offered department-wide, as well as the GBA+ online course offered through Status of Women.

Ref.: 2-1B

Indicator: Indicator 2-1

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

Cultural awareness training delivered to CAF personnel deploying on peace support operations or to fragile states or conflict-affected situations incorporated gender considerations.

Individual Pre-Deployment Training delivered by the Peace Support Training Centre included an examination of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls.

The Canadian Special Operations Training Centre, as part of its programming, conducts annual training for CANSOFCOM personnel in the form of Special Operations Readiness Training. This course encompasses Laws of Armed Conflict, Human Rights, and Rules of Engagement, topics which apply to all persons involved in or affected by conflict, including women and girls.

Ref.: 2-1C

Indicator: Indicator 2-1

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details: 100% of pre-deployment training for police deploying to peace operations includes elements relating to WPS issues. The mandatory two- to three-week pre-deployment training course for police deploying to peace operations addressed the relevant issues in the indicator. In addition, police deployed to United Nations peace operations completed online modules, which included: International Law Relevant to Peacekeeping Operations; International Human Rights Law; Human Rights Protection in Peacekeeping Operations; Women, Peace, and Security: The Role of Peacekeeping Operations; Protection of Children; the Role of Peacekeeping Operations; Working with Mission Partners; Conduct and Discipline; Sexual Exploitation and Abuse; the Consequences of Misconduct; HIV/AIDS and Peacekeeping Operations; Respect for Diversity; and Core Business of Police in Peace Operations.

Ref.: 2-2A

Indicator: Indicator 2-2: Number and percentage of Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations who receive pre-deployment training or training while deployed on mission that examines the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls and addresses key issues such as codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Out of the 21 personnel deployed by START to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations, 2 (10.5%) of these personnel received START’s new training on the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls immediately prior to deployment.

The CFLI program is managed by personnel at 65 different Canadian offices abroad. Staff from 20 of these missions (31%) participated in one of four hour-long teleconferences on Gender Based Analysis. Calls were offered in both English and French.

Ref.: 2-2B

Indicator: Indicator 2-2

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

All CAF personnel deployed to peace support operations, fragile states, or conflict-affected situations received pre-deployment cultural awareness training that incorporated gender considerations, as well as codes of conduct and training on Canadian and international law and human rights applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

All CAF members posted onboard any HMC ship must read and sign the Ship Standing Orders which contain a section on Treatment of Detainees. This section provides instruction on the treatment of female and juvenile detainees.

All CANSOF personnel complete the Special Operations Command Environment Training on arrival at the command. They conduct readiness training which consists of core deployment requirements. They are inculcated with CANSOF’s Culture and Values and the Command Ethos. These are nested into the various codes of conduct and training from both Canadian and international laws on both human rights and the protection of women and girls.

Ref.: 2-2C

Indicator: Indicator 2-2

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Number: 112

Percentage: 100% of police deploying to peace operations must complete the two- to three-week pre-deployment training course, which includes some or all of the key issues in the indicator.

Ref.: 2-3A

Indicator: Indicator 2-3: Extent to which content of mandatory training courses for deployed personnel or for policy and program staff associated with peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations reflect the SCRs on Women, Peace and Security.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

The only mandatory training provided to policy and programming staff during the reporting period that reflected the UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS is the Gender Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) course. This training was not provided during the reporting period to personnel selected for deployment to fragile states; however, some of those deployed had previously been trained in GBA+. START is reviewing its training program for rapid responders and deployees to increase the gender awareness component of our pre-deployment training.

The CFLI program mandates training for outgoing personnel with CFLI responsibilities. For 2013-14, the course did not include an adequate gender component but this was addressed in the 2014-15 FY. All outgoing personnel with CFLI responsibilities participated in a two-day CFLI course in May 2014. The course included sessions on Gender Based Analysis and on Child, Early, and Forced Marriage. There were 17 participants in this bilingual course.

Ref.: 2-3B

Indicator: Indicator 2-3

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

Training on human rights and the law of armed conflict was mandatory for CAF personnel deploying on peace support operations, or to fragile states or conflict-affected situations. This training reflected UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security by addressing the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.

Cultural awareness training was mandatory for CAF personnel deploying on peace support operations, or to fragile states or conflicted-affected situations. This training considered the impact of gender on operations, such as when interacting with the local population.

Individual Pre-Deployment Training offered by the Peace Support Training Centre included Human Rights and Women in Conflict modules that addressed UNSCRs on WPS, including Resolutions 1325 and 1820. This training included an introduction to gender mainstreaming and a discussion of the impact of conflict on women and girls.

Ref.: 2-3C

Indicator: Indicator 2-3

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details: International Policing Development at the RCMP has taken the approach of providing specific training on the SCRs on Women, Peace and Security to police deploying to UN missions, through the online module Effective Mandate Implementation. The module includes content on international legal standards and peace operations’ role in protecting human rights, civilians, women, and children, as well as the impact of violent conflict on women and children, and on how peace operation personnel can help protect their rights. The tenets of the SCRs are further reinforced through the facilitative efforts of subject-matter experts who provide lectures to officers during pre-deployment training for police deploying to peace operations.

Ref.: 3.A

Indicator: Action 3: Deliver programming under Government of Canada international programs in the justice and security sector that reflects an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

CFLI projects in this area include: Improving access to justice for women (Nepal, Mexico, Egypt); and Strengthening attention to gender issues within security forces (Guatemala).

Ref.: 3.B

Indicator: Action 3

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

Training offered by the Military Training and Cooperation Program included sessions that integrated a gender perspective.

Ref.: 3-1A

Indicator: Indicator 3-1: Extent to which programming delivered under the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP), Anti-Crime Capacity-Building Program (ACCBP), Counter-Terrorism Capacity-Building Program (CTCBP) and the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) and similar Government of Canada international programs in the justice and security sector operationalizes an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

All civilian deployment programs, projects and deployments are reviewed for gender risks and benchmarks. Terms of reference for all civilian deployments take into account the differential impact of conflict on women and girls; this is particularly true in the case of those experts who are conducting conflict analysis.

Ref.: 3-1B

Indicator: Indicator 3-1

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

The Military Training and Cooperation Program’s Peace Support Operations courses incorporated a gender perspective as a part of the discussion of subjects such as international law, human trafficking, and child soldiers.

AIDS Awareness, Protection of Women and Children, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA), and Diversity, are all mandated training subjects within the United Nations Staff Officer Course. MTCP delivered one iteration of this course in the FY 13/14 and has four courses planned for FY 14/15. Additionally, MTCP sponsored a course of the Jamaican Junior Command and Staff College, that included components on gender awareness as well as military law. As well, MTCP and the Canadian Defence Academy developed a new seminar, Ethics in the Military Profession, which includes discussion of gender issues and will be delivered once in FY 14/15 and twice in FY 15/16. MTCP; the Canadian Defence Academy has also developed a new seminar on Gender, Peace, and Security that will be delivered in FY15/16. Finally, international participants sponsored on various courses in Canada receive elements of training on the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

Ref.: 4

Indicator: Action 4. Continue to engage in policy dialogue with multilateral partners—including through the UN and its various bodies, funds and programs; the World Bank and other international financial institutions; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; NATO; the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe; the International Organization for Migration; the Organization of American States; the Commonwealth; and La Francophonie—to encourage the strengthening of their capacities to plan for, implement and report on issues of Women, Peace and Security in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

The protection of women is a key tenet of DFATD's engagement with multilateral partners. DFATD makes use of a number of fora to advance gender-related issues, including: Executive Board/Committee meetings of World Food Program and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Donor Support Group High-Level Meetings and Annual Bilateral Consultations; and the International Commission of the Red Cross (ICRC) Annual Donor Support Group Meetings. Engagement with the ICRC is particularly important as it plays a key role in upholding the Geneva Conventions and protecting civilians affected by armed conflict. DFATD also advocates for the inclusion of language on the protection of women during negotiations on UN General Assembly resolutions and the annual humanitarian resolution of the UN's Economic and Social Committee (ECOSOC).

Among the results that can be indirectly attributed to the efforts of DFATD are:

In 2013 the ICRC undertook a four-year commitment to consolidate, expand and heighten its focus on its action specifically responding to the problem of sexual violence. In 2014 there was a special appeal to support this effort, to which DFATD provided $5M.

and

The final negotiated text in the 2013 ECOSOC resolution on Strengthening of the Coordination of Emergency Humanitarian Assistance of the United Nations included the following language:

Urges Member States to continue to prevent, investigate and prosecute acts of sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies, calls upon Member States and relevant organizations to strengthen support services to victims of such violence, and also calls for a more effective response in that regard;

Requests Member States, relevant United Nations organizations and other relevant actors to ensure that all aspects and stages of humanitarian response address the specific needs of women, girls, men and boys, on an equal basis, taking into consideration age and disability, including through improved collection, analysis and reporting of sex-, age- and disability-disaggregated data, taking into account, inter alia, the information provided by States, and emphasizes the importance of the full participation of women in decision-making processes related to humanitarian response;

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Canada is actively engaged with other donors and with the UN, including the Gender Unit of the UN Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO), within existing coordination mechanisms in the DRC, both in the justice sector and on matters pertaining to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). In 2014, Canada and the DRC’s Ministry of Gender co-led the SGBV sub-group of the Gender Thematic Group. Co-leadership presented an opportunity for Canada to further work with other donors, representatives of UN organizations, civil society organizations, and the private sector to coordinate plans and programs for stronger partnerships and better resource allocation in the sector, all in support of the implementation of DRC’s National Strategy to combat SGBV.

Mali: Policy dialogue continued through the Health Donor Coordination Group, where Canada pushed for the crosscutting integration of gender in the Health National Development Plan. Other policy dialogue results include: gender equality cross-cutting integration in the national budget of Mali for 2014; and the National Assembly's decision to take concrete measures to reduce gender inequalities within the public administration.

Colombia: During 2013-2014, DFATD participated actively in the Donor Gender Working Group (which includes representatives from donors, United Nations agencies and international organizations) and monitored the implementation of the Government of Colombia's Public Policy and Integral Plan for a Life Free of Violence and its Indicative Plan of Action 2013-2016.The Gender Working Group also supported the October 2013 Women for Peace Summit organized by several donors and multilateral organizations, recommendations of which were presented to the Government of Colombia. As a result, two women (the Presidential Advisor for Gender Equity and the former Director of Human Rights in the Ministry of the Interior) were named as part of the Government's Negotiating Team in the peace talks with the FARC.

DFATD funding to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Colombia included gender mainstreaming as a key Global Management Output. Training was provided to OHCHR staff at all levels on the use of gender analysis tools in human rights monitoring and reporting. OHCHR also ensured that protection measures implemented by the Government of Colombia took into account the particular situation of threats against women human rights defenders.

Colombia/OAS Mission to Support the Peace Process (MAPP): In November 2013, Minister of State Yellich announced an additional $1M contribution from Canada’s Global Peace and Security Program to the OAS to support its continued work in Colombia’s ongoing peace process. With Canada’s support, the OAS/MAPP continues to work on key areas of the peace process, namely: disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), transitional justice, reparation and reconciliation, and land restitution, as well as two cross-cutting areas, gender and security. In addition to having a $60,000 budget dedicated to gender advocacy, the OAS/MAPP has a specific activity that focuses on women, peace and security, namely Action 4, which includes advocacy efforts for a gender focus in the peace process with high-level actors and the provision of support to a main women victims group.

West Bank and Gaza: At humanitarian coordination meetings in 2013-14, Canada advocated for greater integration of gender in the UN-led Humanitarian Programme Cycle (HPC), which replaced the Consolidated Appeal Process in 2014. Canada placed a special focus on including gender sensitive responses to humanitarian needs in the HPC’s sectoral response plans. UN agencies welcomed the Canadian initiative to better integrate gender in the HPC and committed to doing so.

In order to strengthen gender equality analysis as a basis for planning and addressing humanitarian needs, a gender adviser, funded by Canada and Spain, was brought on board to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in 2013. The advisor supported the integration of gender dimensions in information, analysis and programming, built capacity in gender, and supported the development of the 2014 HPC and pooled funding process. The advisor also provided technical guidance and support to clusters (sectoral working groups) and the overall humanitarian community on gender equality programming.

During the HPC, the gender adviser, OCHA and UN Women worked closely with the clusters to ensure that gender considerations were taken into account in the Humanitarian Needs Overview, and there was a considerable improvement in this regard compared to the previous year.

Afghanistan: Through its development program, Canada remained engaged with UN Women’s quarterly multi-donor fora in Kabul and through regular Gender Donor Coordination Group (GDCG) meetings with UN Women and other donors.

DFATD’s support to, and close work with, GenCapFootnote 5, through Multilateral and Global Programs Branch, was productive in strengthening the humanitarian system’s integration of gender issues in Afghanistan. DFATD Canadian-based staff have been very active in this regard. DFATD continues to engage in regular policy dialogue on gender equality issues with OCHA, UN Women, World Food Program (WFP) and key bilateral donors. DFATD’s advocacy efforts are focused on the reinstatement of a full time senior Gender Advisor for Humanitarian Assistance in Afghanistan who can be situated in–country.

Canada regularly participates in the Women, Peace, and Security Group, which is chaired by UN Women and which brings together international organizations, NGOs, donors, and relevant ministries to support Afghan authorities in policy formation on WPS issues and implementation of these policies.

Canada actively advocated for the creation of a gender officer position at the WFP Donor Meetings to ensure that gender equality considerations are integrated at both the organizational and beneficiary level at this forum. The WFP now hired a specialist to cover their Afghanistan office on a part-time basis.

Canada also actively participated in OCHA monthly donor meetings and consistently raised that gender equality considerations should be part of OCHA’s coordinating role in working with partners on the ground. Most recently, OCHA has put in place a Common Humanitarian Fund mechanism. Canada suggested that, through this mechanism, partners receiving funding should have gender equality considerations outlined in either their proposals or grant arrangements; OCHA is considering this suggestion.

Canada was a key donor to the Mine Action Program of Afghanistan (MAPA) via our support to the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) and participated in monthly stakeholder and quarterly donor meetings. Over the past year, due in part to advocacy efforts of donors including Canada, there has been a Mine Action Gender Baseline Survey and Mine Action Gender Mainstreaming Strategy developed by MAPA partners. Furthermore, there is currently an external evaluation of the MAPA being conducted for which Canada contributed to the ToRs and included evaluation questions related to gender equality.

Canada is a lead donor of the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) Gender Working Group which aims to strengthen the ARTF’s gender focus as well as provide a mechanism to respond to gender issues at a higher policy framework. Canada’s advocacy over the last two years on the importance of including gender equality in development programming was instrumental in the World Bank’s decision to establish the Gender Working Group. As a result of Canada’s participation in the Group, gender equality and women’s rights, as a cross-cutting issue, have been better mainstreamed into ARTF development projects, with new gender equality results and indicators integrated into the ARTF results matrix.

Challenges include:

Burma: The Burma Border Assistance Program (BBAP), which is funded by Canada, contributes to the implementation of Canada's National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325.

The Karen Women’s Organisation (KWO), a partner of BBAP, engaged in policy dialogue with UNHCR to engage with and consider the views of refugees in the process of planning for refugee return. By the end of 2013, KWO reported satisfaction that the voice of refugees was being taken into account in the process of planning for their return, and that the KWO were playing a leadership role in the process.

Pakistan: The Women, Peace, and Security agenda is complicated in Pakistan due to the sensitivities about the status of Pakistan as a conflict-affected context. However, DFATD participates in regular discussions with the UN on the humanitarian response in Pakistan and routinely raises issues related to gender equality. The Pakistan Program also participates in the Gender Task Force, co-chaired by UN Women and UN Population Fund and acts as a mechanism for humanitarian policy and technical advice to the UN Humanitarian Country Team in Pakistan. As member and past chair of the Inter-Agency Working Group on Gender and Development (INGAD), DFATD has worked to ensure that gender equality is front and centre of the agenda related to humanitarian and development assistance in Pakistan. Canada’s membership in INGAD, which is comprised of 34 member agencies from bilateral donors, development banks, and UN agencies, allows Canada to coordinate and collaborate on policy and program issues, share information and analysis, and actively network with stakeholders in advocacy and implementation efforts. DFATD, because of its technical expertise, remains an observer to the Gender Thematic Group - a forum of different international and national NGOs and UN agencies to provide support to National Disaster Management Agency. This group helps coordinate stakeholders, formulate policy, and develop implementation plans on gender equality for the complete spectrum of disaster management.

Multilateral: The annual resolution on the elimination of violence against women (VAW), which Canada leads at the Human Rights Council (HRC), provides a valuable opportunity for policy dialogue. The 2013 resolution, which focused on rape and other forms of sexual violence, addresses a range of issues of direct relevance to the WPS agenda, including ensuring women’s participation, addressing root causes of sexual violence, improving women’s access to justice, and increasing accountability for sexual violence.

Under the HRC’s peer-review Universal Periodic Review (UPR) mechanism, Canada provides recommendations to States with a view to improving the protection of human rights. Women’s human rights and violence against women are among the issues that Canada includes in its UPR recommendations as a matter of priority. All States, including fragile and conflict-affected States, are reviewed through the UPR, providing an opportunity to recommend actions that advances the objectives of the women, peace, and security agenda.

The 2012 resolution on the elimination of VAW, led by Canada, had requested a report from the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights on synergies and linkages between the HRC and other intergovernmental processes with a view to identifying opportunities for greater coherence and impact of efforts to address VAW. The report, published in June 2013, outlines opportunities for improving synergies between HRC and the UNSC on this issue.

In the context of HRC resolutions on human rights country situations, Canada works to ensure inclusion of strong language related to the need to protect women’s rights, promote their full participation, and take steps to eliminate all forms of VAW. This contributed to the integration of relevant language in several HRC resolutions, including DRC, Mali, DPRK and Sri Lanka.

Again this year, Canada capitalized on the 16-day campaign of activism against gender violence to host a panel discussion at the UN to raise awareness and foster dialogue on violence against women. The well-attended event, organized in collaboration with UN and civil society partners, afforded Canada the opportunity to highlight the White Ribbon campaign, which originated in Canada following the Montreal Massacre of 6 Dec 1989, and to address issues such as the engagement of men and boys in ending VAW, the role of youth, and the health implications of VAW.

Canada continued to place strong emphasis on issues related to gender equality and SGBV in its policy dialogue with Geneva-based humanitarian actors, including the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). Canada expects this dialogue to lead to a concrete action plan for addressing sexual violence by the ICRC, a more robust monitoring framework on SGBV by UNHCR, and clearer commitments on gender equality by OCHA in its new strategic framework.

GENEV continues outreach with various Geneva-based organizations working on Peace & Security issues, including the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, Interpeace, the Geneva Peacebuilding Platform, Geneva Call, and the Small Arms Survey, to elicit views on how the good offices of the Mission can be better leveraged to advance dialogue and developments on women, peace, and security, and to plan related activities.

At the Third Meeting of States Parties of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Canada has advocated the need to continue working to mainstream gender and diversity issues into the implementation of the Convention and encouraged States Parties and partners integrate gender considerations into all of their mine action and cluster munitions-related programming.

At the April 2013 G8 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting, Minister Baird announced a $5M Canadian contribution to support the G8 Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative and, with his colleagues, announced a Declaration to End Sexual Violence.

At the June 2013 G8 Summit, PM Harper and his colleagues endorsed the Declaration to End Sexual Violence.

Minister Baird delivered a statement and co-launched the UN Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict, New York at the UN in September 2013.

Minister Yelich participated in the September 2013 UNGA high-level side event on women’s economic participation and post-conflict recovery.

On October 18, 2014, Canada made a statement to the Security Council reaffirming the important role women play in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, and called for the continued meaningful participation of women throughout peace processes.

Canada continued to Chair the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security and use this group to engage with multilateral partners, civil society organizations, and the Security Council to encourage the implementation and reporting on women, peace, and security issues.

IRP engagement with NATO in 2013-2014 included encouraging NATO partners’ consideration of women peace, and security issues, a gender perspective in operations, and liaison with NATO partners on national implementation and reporting arrangements of the UNSCRs.

Canada supported discussions on women, peace, and security issues at the OSCE, including at regular meetings of the Permanent Council.

PRMNY engaged in regular policy dialogue with UN bodies, funds and programs, in particular with UN Women, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support, to discuss strengthened implementation and accountability of women, peace, and security issues. This dialogue takes place within the Group of Friends of Women, Peace, and Security, which PRMNY chairs, through bilateral discussions with the UN Secretariat, and through formal statements regularly delivered in various UN for a (including the Security Council, the General Assembly and its committees, and the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations).

PRMNY leveraged its role as Chair of the Group of Friends of Women, Peace, and Security – an informal network of 48 member states – to undertake a series of advocacy efforts through targeted discussions with the UN Secretariat and Security Council members to: support the further development of the SCR1325 global indicators; to prepare the groundwork for the 1325 Global Study in the lead up to the SC 2015 High Level Review; to call for the urgent identification and deployment of women protection advisors to peace operations; to support the work of the UN Team of Experts on Rule of Law / Sexual violence in conflict; and to call for DPKO to finalize their Forward-looking Strategy on the Implementation of SCR1325.

To build on our advocacy efforts in the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security, PRMNY, along with the missions of Australia and New Zealand, called for DPKO to finalize their Forward-Looking Strategy on Gender Mainstreaming and Implementation of SCR1325 in our joint statement to the peacekeeping debate of the 4th Committee.

PRMNY also regularly encouraged UN Women to strengthen its implementation efforts and reporting on women, peace, and security through our active engagement on its Executive Board. For example, during a session of the UN Women Executive Board in January 2014, PRMNY intervened with the Mission of Israel on UN Women’s contribution to women’s leadership and participation in peace and security, and humanitarian response.

Ref.: 5

Indicator: Action 5: Continue to work with partners, including in Canada’s role as Chair of the Working Group of the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations (“C-34”), the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security, and the Group of Friends on Children and Armed Conflict, as well as through relationships with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the African Union, the League of Arab States and others, to fully implement zero-tolerance policies on sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations and to promote the implementation of international human rights, crime prevention and criminal justice standards relevant to protecting the rights of women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Afghanistan: Canada worked with partners to promote the implementation of international human rights, crime prevention, and criminal justice standards relevant to protecting the rights of women and girls by:

At the United Nations in New York, Canada continued its role as Chair of the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security and of the Group of Friends of Children and Armed Conflict. In these roles, Canada convenes monthly meetings of the groups to discuss emerging policy and items on the Security Council’s agenda, organizes and chairs events on topics of interest, and represents the Groups of Friends at the Security Council.

Multilateral: Canada continues to be an active advocate for the inclusion of policies and recommendations in the “Gender and peacekeeping” section of the Report of the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping (C-34). The C-34 is the body in charge of providing strategic and operational guidance on UN peacekeeping. Canada negotiates as part of the CANZ group (Canada, Australia and New Zealand), in which Canada has the lead role for setting and advancing priorities and strategies on gender and peacekeeping.

IRP conducted outreach visits in December 2013 to the EU External Action Service, the German Foreign Ministry, and the German civilian peacekeeping centre (ZIF-Berlin) to discuss how WPS issues would be covered in up-coming G8 cycles (Russia in 2014 (since cancelled) and Germany in 2015).

PRMNY undertook a concerted outreach campaign, on behalf of the Group of Friends, targeted at Security Council Members during the negotiations of both Security Council Resolutions 2106 on sexual violence in conflict and 2122 on women, peace and security. PRMNY’s efforts were focused on ensuring that 2106 protected the work and mandate of the SRSG on sexual violence in conflict and built on the G8 Foreign Ministers Declaration of April 2013 on the same issue. PRMNY’s efforts around SCR2122 included advising likeminded SC members on the text of the resolution to ensure that it included a clear framework of accountability for the SC’s work in this regard, i.e. an accountability “mechanism” that would help to provide concrete results but without a formal structure that would overburden the Council.

In the peacekeeping debate of the 4th Committee, PRMNY, along with the Missions of Australia and New Zealand, called for appointments of more women to senior positions in missions of the UN and to incorporate a gender perspective in training, planning, and conduct of peace operations to ensure the full protection of the rights of women and girls.

In the Canadian statement to the Security Council on 17 April 2013, PRMNY delivered a joint statement of the 48-member Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security, calling on the Security Council and the UN system to act systematically and comprehensively to address gaps in and challenges to its work on women, peace, and security, to accelerate progress in its work, and to monitor commitments by parties to conflict to prevent and address conflict-related sexual violence.

PRMNY advocated for strong references promoting and protecting the role of women in conflict prevention and resolution, peacekeeping, and post-conflict peacebuilding in GA resolution “Causes of Conflict and Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa”.

In the Canadian Statement to the Security Council on 17 March 2014 on the situation in Afghanistan, PRMNY called for increased efforts to secure the meaningful participation of women in elections and for laws to ensure strong protections for women and girls, in particular from domestic and sexual violence and child, early, and forced marriage.

PRMNY has also worked more broadly on key issues affecting women and girls, particularly through a new resolution at the third committee on the priority issue of child, early, and forced marriage. This resolution, the first ever on the issue at the GA, begins a process of further study of the issue. This is particularly relevant is tenuous security situations, where instability can cause a greatly increased risk of girls being subject to child marriage.

Ref.: 6

Indicator: Action 6: Advocate for improved accountability mechanisms on the part of the UN and reporting by Member States on progress made to implement Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (SCRs 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889).

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

In Guatemala, the CFLI funded training for the National Civil Police Services, with participation from the Ministry of the Interior and the Congress as part of the country’s national action plan on UNSCR 1325.

As a result of Canada’s leadership, the Human Rights Council resolution on rape and other forms of sexual violence called on States to strengthen accountability for perpetrators, including by strengthening their criminal justice systems. The resolution included a decision to ensure that Commission of Inquiry and Fact Finding Mission mandates require that specific attention be devoted to violence against women, where appropriate. It also invited the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to make expertise promptly available to investigate allegations of mass rape or systematic sexual violence, including by utilizing existing resources such and the joint UN Women/Justice Rapid Response Roster.

IRP participated in the UN Women Global Review of National Action Plans in Glen Cove, NY, in November 2013.

PRMNY hosted a series of events on women, peace and security in October 2013, encouraging discussion between UN Missions and civil society

In the Canadian statements to the SC on 17 April 2013 and 24 June 2013, PRMNY demonstrated Canada’s consistent approach to improved accountability mechanisms by calling on the Council to adopt a systematic approach to addressing reports of conflict-related sexual violence and to ensure that Sanctions Committees include criteria pertaining to acts of rape and other forms of sexual violence.

In May 2013, PRMNY co-hosted with the NGO Working on Women, Peace, and Security an informal brainstorming meeting with Security Council members and UN Women representatives to discuss examples of SC accountability mechanisms for implementing WPS matters. This brainstorming helped inform Council members’ preparation for negotiations of SCR2122.

In discussions within the Friends of WPS group, PRMNY regularly raises the issue of accountability for implementation of the WPS resolutions, including how better to equip the SC so that they might have a consistent approach to their work in this regard. PRMNY specifically engaged and assisted likeminded SC members in the preparation of the draft of SCR2122 on how to set out in this resolution a series of improvements to the working methods of the SC so as to approximate an accountability mechanism.

Ref.: 7

Indicator: Action 7: Advocate for Women, Peace and Security issues to be included in the mandates of all UN missions for peace operations, and throughout the work of the UN Peacebuilding Commission, while encouraging the creation and work of appropriately resourced and influential specialist teams on Women, Peace and Security issues within new peacekeeping operations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Canada has advocated for Women, Peace, and Security issues to be included in the mandates of all UN missions for peace operations, including:

In its role as Chair of the UN Peacebuilding Commission Sierra Leone Country Configuration, Canada has used its profile and influence, including through open statements at the Security Council, to highlight and encourage action by the Government of Sierra Leone and its international partners on the declining presence and participation of women in Sierra Leone political office and processes.

PRMNY actively worked with the Mission of Germany (who leads on the mandate renewal of the peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan, UNAMA) to ensure the inclusion of robust language on women, peace and security in the renewed mandate in February 2014, in particular ensuring women’s meaningful participation in the full electoral process.

In the joint statement on behalf of the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security to the SC on 17 April 2013, PRMNY urged the SC to ensure that its mandated missions consistently evaluate the level of protection and promotion of women’s human rights, and called for the further and timely deployment of women protection advisors to SC-mandated missions, while advocating that such missions must plan and budget for women protection advisors in all relevant situations of concern

In the Canadian statement to the Security Council on 17 April 2013, PRMNY urged the Council to ensure that the Mali mission mandate specifically addressed sexual violence, and that it should ensure that preventing and addressing conflict-related sexual violence is included in all mission mandates.

In the Canadian statement to the SC on 24 June 2013, PRMNY urged the Council to ensure the inclusion of prevention of and response to sexual violence in its mandates for UN peace operations and resolutions and to ensure that these elements are implemented. PRMNY continued to advocate for all Security Council missions/field visits to include meetings with women’s organizations and that all technical assessment missions ensure a gender perspective is included in their work so that addressing sexual violence and ensuring the protection of women’s rights is included from the start of a peacekeeping mandate. PRMNY raised this directly with SC members and UN Secretariat representatives, including jointly with Australia, US, UK, and New Zealand in the context of our annual quadrilateral peacekeeping dialogue with the UN Secretariat.

Ref.: 8

Indicator: Action 8: Promote evidence-based research and analysis, and engage in policy dialogue and development on the Women, Peace and Security agenda, including discussions with Canadian, international and local civil society organizations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Gender Equality & Humanitarian Outcomes:

Canada and UN Women (on behalf of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s (IASC) Sub-Working Group on Gender and Humanitarian Action)jointly commissioned research to assess how gender equality programming (GEP) has or has not contributed to improved humanitarian outcomes. The findings of the research will help to refine the IASC’s approach to GEP, inform calls for increased accountability among stakeholders, and contribute to the broader collection of evidence on gender-responsive humanitarian outcomes.

This initiative was funded in 2011/2012 and field research came to a close this year. A synthesis report will be prepared mid-summer, but preliminary results indicate that the access to and use of services can be positively influenced by GEP, and in turn that this increased access and use of services can improve the welfare of affected people, families and communities.

Haiti: DFATD’s Prise en charge integrée de la santé de la mère et de l’enfant en Haiti (PRISMA) and Improving Reproductive Health Initiatives continue to engage with Haitian authorities and the population to address the issue of violence against women and gender-based violence. These two projects provide training and services related to sexual and gender-based violence to women and girls in the Nippes, Sud-Est, and Artibonite departments.

Canada is funding a project which aimed at enhancing the professionalism of the Haitian National Police through initial training and professional development for inspectors and commissioners at the National Police Academy. In 2013, the first cohort of 41 commissioners, five of whom are women, graduated. Specific measures were put in place to support the participation of women commissioners. Gender equality considerations were also integrated into the Haitian National Police training curriculum.

DFATD also provides funding to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Haiti for the Housing Action Project (Champ de Mars) which aims to respond to the resettlement needs of those displaced by the January 2010 earthquake through sustainable housing solutions. Included in this initiative are measures to provide additional security for women living in the camps (lighting and police presence), as well as reporting and increasing protection against sexual and gender based violence. Housing services and specific support are also provided to women and their family to help ensure an easier relocation process (legal support in rental agreement negotiations, moving services, etc.).

New projects approved in 2013-2014: DFATD's Resettling Haitian Families project (implemented by the International Organization for Migration) aims to resettle 16,000 of the most vulnerable Haitian families, who are still living in camps following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti in January 2010. This includes the provision of health, psycho-social and special protection services to victims and survivors of sexual and gender based violence, as well as housing services and specific support to women and their family to help ensure an easier relocation process.

Guatemala: DFATD’s support to the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala in 2013-2014 contributed to the completion of a methodology for criminal investigation by the office of the Special Prosecutor for Human Trafficking. This is meant to address cases of femicide, trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, and other forms of violence against women. The office's work in investigation also led to the conviction of a man (linked to criminal structures) for the murder of three female minors. The Commission aims to increase knowledge about violence against women in Guatemala; two studies are in progress, on human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and on linking violence against women with organized crime and impunity, both to be released in 2015. In addition, the Commission has made advances in incorporating a gender focus into its investigations, as well as developing a protocol for such integration to be used by Guatemalan investigative bodies

Canada has worked with civil society organizations to increase the availability and use of physical evidence for judicial proceedings in cases involving serious crimes against humanity (including crimes of slavery and sexual violence against women) during the country’s armed conflict. Furthermore, Canadian programming has strengthened the investigative capacities of Guatemalan law enforcement agencies (including cases of femicide, extortion, kidnapping, human trafficking, and murders) contributing to a 30% increase of efficiency in solving of cases

Great Lakes Region: Canada is strengthening the capacity and the leadership of members of the women's organizations which make up the Concertation des Collectifs des Associations Féminines de la Région des Grands Lacs (COCAFEM/GL) and is helping to increase the impact of their advocacy work to combat sexual violence and end impunity. The $13.5M project implemented by the Centre for International Studies (CECI) is also providing training on funds mobilization to the member organizations and support to COCAFEM/GL’s governance structure. Through the Project to Fight Sexual Violence implemented by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) from 2006 to 2013, Canada has built the capacity of Congolese NGOs by providing training in accounting techniques and governance. Canada will continue to provide such training through the project Fight against Impunity and Support to Survivors of Sexual Violence (2013-2018).

Canada contributed to the implementation of a database on sexual and gender-based violence in the Ministry of Gender of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first comprehensive report on the magnitude of the phenomenon in the country was published in June 2013.Canada is actively engaged with other donors and with the United Nations, including the Gender Unit of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO), within existing coordination mechanisms in the DRC, both in the justice sector and on matters pertaining to sexual and gender-based violence. In 2014, Canada and the DRC’s Ministry of Gender will co-lead the Sexual and Gender-Based Violence sub-group of the Gender Thematic Group. Co-leadership presents an opportunity for Canada to further work with other donors, representatives of UN organizations, civil society organizations, and the private sector to coordinate plans and programmes for stronger partnerships and better resource allocation in the sector, in support of the implementation of DRC’s National Strategy to combat sexual and gender-based violence.

Mali: Canada approved a project, to be implemented by a Canadian NGO, which aims to improve access to justice for victims of the conflict, particularly women and children, in a context of peacebuilding, and to improve the capacity of civil society to prevent violence against women.

Colombia: Funded by DFATD, the UN High Commission for Refugees/UN Population Fund Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Information Management System in Colombia registered 2,032 cases of GBV in 2013, indicating that internally displaced populations are now reporting on the prevalence of sexual and gender-based violence.

Through DFATD funding, Save the Children and Norwegian Refugee Council are ensuring that gender is a key feature of their work in the conflict-affected departments of Nariño and Cauca. The project prepared an out-of-school census showing significant gender gaps and barriers that are limiting educational access for girls and these are now being addressed in project activities.

West Bank and Gaza: In 2013-2014, Canada engaged in a number of policy dialogues to advance women, peace, and security issues. Generally, the bilateral development program is helping build the institutions that will one day serve Palestinians in a state resulting from direct negotiations between the parties that ends the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, there remains a lack of progress on plans across the Palestinian Authority to substantially address gender issues. This is exacerbated by the absence of a sitting Palestinian Legislative Council and what is seen as a lack of will and capacity by the Palestinian Authority to act. In the context of the development of a new Palestinian justice sector strategy, DFATD has advocated for greater focus on gender justice issues.

Afghanistan:

Policy dialogue:

Canada continued to engage in policy dialogue with key development stakeholders (Government, civil society organizations, the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission, and other donors) through a number of fora (e.g.: Gender Donor Coordination Group; Women, Peace, and Security Working Group; EU Human Rights and Gender Working Group) on key issues to promote the human rights of Afghan women and girls.

Canada engaged in periodic and focused policy dialogue with our partner Afghan ministries. These efforts have led to opportunities to advance our gender equality interests and to reinforce commitments under the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework and the National Action Plan for Women in Afghanistan.

Canada continued to provide multi-year institutional support to Afghanistan’s Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) which provides training on human rights, with a focus on women’s rights, to government bodies including the Afghan National Army, the Afghan National Police, and the judiciary. In partnership with civil society, the AIHRC has played a pivotal role in strengthening knowledge and understanding of women and girls’ rights among Afghans and maintaining pressure on the Government of Afghanistan to address women’s rights. The AIHRC plays a key role in monitoring and reporting incidents of violence against women, which are used by the Commission and the international community – including Canada – to advocate with Afghan Government for greater measures to promote women’s security, including stronger implementation of the Elimination of Violence Against Women (EVAW) law.

During 2013-2014, the Canadian Embassy in Kabul organised three roundtables with Afghan Government Ministries, such as the Ministry of Women’s Affairs, local civil society organizations, UN agencies, and other donors to discuss issues related to gender based violence and, in particular, strategies on strengthening implementation of the EVAW Law and promoting women’s political participation in the Presidential and Provincial council elections.

Canada is a member of the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework group where it co-leads the international community’s engagement on gender equality and human rights. Examples of our activities include delivering a statement on human rights and gender at the January 29 2014 Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board Meeting and co-hosting a number of Ambassador/Ministerial level dinners to discuss and advocate for advances in human rights and gender equality. Canada was instrumental in advocating for the delivery by the Government of Afghanistan on its commitment to report on the implementation of the EVAW Law. The first EVAW Law implementation report was publicly released in March 2014.

Research:

The Afghanistan Development Knowledge Fund supported research and the preparation of an assessment report by the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU) on the National Action Plan for Women of Afghanistan (NAPWA) which focused on evaluating the current level of implementation of this Plan and providing recommendations for a way forward. The findings of the assessment have been widely shared with other donors as well as the Ministry of Women’s Affairs.

Burma: Civil society partners of the Burma Border Assistance Program (which is funded by Canada) have undertaken a number of initiatives, such as organizing conferences, to advance the Women, Peace, and Security agenda.

2013 marked a milestone in the increasing collaboration between the border-based women’s movement and the women’s movement based in Yangon (Rangoon). A large-scale joint forum was organized in Yangon in September 2013 by the Women’s League of Burma (WLB) and the Women Organizations’ Network of Myanmar (WON). Strong calls were made for legal and constitutional reform to promote gender equality and for increased women’s participation in the peace process. A concrete result of this increased collaboration is that WLB and WON will coordinate in the process of producing alternative CEDAW reports during 2014. WLB will focus on issues affecting women in conflict affected ethnic areas, where they have decades of experience working with their communities.

The Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT), a local partner receiving Canadian support through the BBAP project, undertook activities to promote women’s participation in the peace process in Kachin State. These activities led to the development of strategy to document the protection concerns of IDPs, and policy recommendations for the Kachin Independence Organization on this issue.

The Kayan ceasefire group, the Kayan New Land Party (KNLP), has no women at all in its leadership. To address this, the Kayan Women’s Organization, a WLB member in southern Shan State, organized a women’s conference in April 2013 to promote increased women’s political participation. The WLB’s “peace mission team” also attended the conference and met with the KNLP leaders to advocate the inclusion of women in the peace process.

The Burma Border Assistance Program supported the WLB to forge networks and engage in policy discussions with women’s groups based inside Burma on issues intended to increase understanding between ethnic minority and Burman groups and to advance national reconciliation. For example, in May, 2013, the WLB organised a workshop that brought together ethnic minority women and Burman women from central Burma to learn about and discuss federalism. Exchanges such as these are useful in building understanding and trust between ethnic minority and Burman women.

In October 2013, the Molo Women Mining Watch Network was supported to undertake research and produce a report Mining in conflict zones: a new form of military offensive, which exposed how the granting of new mining concessions in Karenni State before proposed peace negotiations, was aggravating existing grievances, undermining peace-building and exposing women to particular hardships. There was widespread Burmese media coverage of the report.

Several partner organizations have advanced environmental protection policies and raised awareness nationally and internationally about the negative social and environmental impacts of large-scale infrastructure projects in ethnic states. The displacement, loss of livelihoods, and other social harms resulting from such projects have aggravated conflict and are impediments to sustained peace. One notable success was an awareness campaign led by Kuki Women’s Human Rights Organisation about the planned Tamanthi hydropower dam on Chindwin River. This dam would displace over 45,000 people and adversely affect the biodiversity and ecological balance of the entire Chindwin River. In June 2013, India cancelled its involvement in the project, citing opposition from local groups over its environmental impact as a key factor in the Indian government’s decision.

Multilateral: The 2013 Human Rights Council (HRC) resolution on Violence Against Women (VAW) renewed the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women for another three years. The mandate plays a key role in monitoring, documenting and reporting on violence against women, and issues annual thematic reports which provide analysis on a particular aspect of the issue.

As lead on the annual HRC VAW resolution, Canada consults and engages with Canadian and international civil society in preparation to and during negotiations. This engagement allows stakeholders to contribute to the initiative and helps build support for the initiative.

To help build support for the 2013 VAW resolution and expand the dialogue, Canada also hosted a panel discussion on sexual violence during the twenty-third regular session of the HRC (HRC23).

Canada continues to chair an expert-level network of experts on women’s human rights, which is composed of States, UN agencies, civil society, and academia. The network provides a platform for dialogue, planning, collaboration and information sharing. Canada capitalizes on the network to reinforce its leadership on VAW as well as child, early, and forced marriage. Canada engages on an ongoing basis with civil society organizations actively engaged in advancing the WPS agenda, including the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) and Femmes Africa Solidarité (FAS).

Canada has successfully advocated for the Annual Day of Discussion on Women’s Rights held in June at the HRC to focus on the issue of violence against women. States, civil society, UN representatives, and experts participate in this panel discussion. A Canadian was among the panellists.

Child, forced, and early marriage constitutes an obstacle to advancing WPS. Canada has been advocating for an end to this practice, including by sponsoring two panel discussions to mark the first International Day of the Girl Child (October 11, 2012) in Geneva which tackled this issue, by co-sponsoring a dialogue on servile marriage at the 21st session of HRC (September 2012), and by hosting an event on child, early, and forced marriage at HRC23.

Canada was represented in a core group of women ambassadors that organized a high level panel on The Power of Empowered Women on the occasion of International Women’s Day. The women who spoke (several of whom were from conflict-affected and fragile States) on the panel made a compelling case, based on their own experience, for how gender equality enables positive transformative change to take hold.

GENEV hosted a roundtable on 27 November 2013 to launch and promote the policy paper on Gender and Statebuilding in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States (published by the OECD International Network on Conflict and Fragility) which provides an overview of the challenges, opportunities, and prospects for integrating a gender perspective in statebuilding efforts. A co-author of the paper presented findings and recommendations, and engaged in a dialogue with 30 country, civil society, and international organisations representatives.

The Interdepartmental Working Group on Women, Peace, and Security maintained regular contact with Canadian civil society umbrella group “Women, Peace, and Security Network – Canada (WPSN-C)” to exchange ideas on WPS policy, Government plans for reporting, and emerging issues of mutual interest.

IRP liaised regularly with members of the WPSN-C steering committee to facilitate ongoing dialogue. IRP held meetings and exchanged information with international civil society organizations from the US, UK, NL, Colombia, and local civil society organizations from Pakistan, South Sudan, and Nigeria.

PRMNY regularly engages in policy dialogue with civil society organizations active at UN headquarters working on women, peace, and security matters, in particular with: the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace, and Security; PeaceWomen; Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom; the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders; Amnesty International; Human Rights Watch; the International Committee of the Red Cross; Femmes Africa Solidarité; Care International; Global Action to Prevent War; and Security Council Report.

PRMNY regularly hosts meetings of the Group of Friends of Women, Peace, and Security on an almost monthly basis. These meetings include discussions of emerging policy research and analysis in the area of women, peace, and security, and provide a platform for Canada and the 48 member states who are members of the Friends Group (including Security Council members) to engage with civil society organizations on issues related to the implementation of the women, peace and security.

PRMNY hosted a roundtable discussion on 31 October 2013, on the margins of the 13th anniversary of the adoption of SCR1325, which presented the findings and recommendations of the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders’ 2013 Civil Society Monitoring Report on the Implementation of UNSCR1325. Countries included in the 2013 report are Armenia, Canada, Colombia, DRC, Fiji, Liberia, Nepal, Netherlands, Philippines, Serbia, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sweden, and Uganda.

Ref.: 9.

Indicator: Action 9: Advocate internationally for the strengthening of crime prevention, in particular with regard to women and girls, in a manner consistent with international standards and norms on crime prevention, including the UN Guidelines on Crime Prevention and the prevention components of existing conventions and other relevant standards and norms.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

ICT attends or provides briefing material for Canadian participation in conferences, workshops and UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Working Group meetings on Trafficking in Persons and provides input to related resolutions, for example at UN General Assembly, Human Rights Council, or the OSCE. ICT contributes to and coordinates DFATD’s departmental commitments in Canada’s National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, which includes a strong emphasis on women and girls.

Ref.: 10A

Indicator: Action 10: Encourage the active and meaningful participation of women in decision-making and in deployments for peace operations, including by identifying and addressing barriers to full participation.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Supported efforts for the inclusion and full participation of women at the Geneva II Syria peace talks in January 2014.

Ambassador Deborah Lyons is Canada’s first woman Ambassador to Afghanistan and is the only female Ambassador currently in Afghanistan.

In Canada’s statement to the Security Council during an open debate on “Maintenance of international peace and security” (29 January 2014), PRMNY promoted the inextricable tie between a society’s development and the engagement and leadership of women, noting that peace cannot exist when the rights of women are compromised, and that when given access to resources, tools, and opportunities, women are drivers of post-conflict reconciliation and recovery.

In the peacekeeping debate of the 4th Committee (the Special Political and Decolonization Committee), PRMNY, along with the Missions of Australia and New Zealand, called for appointments of more women to senior positions in missions of the UN and to incorporate a gender perspective in training, planning, and conduct of peace operations to ensure the full protection of the rights of women and girls.

In July 2013, PRMNY and New York University’s Centre on International Cooperation hosted the launch of the publication resulting from our series of panel discussions entitled “Building More Effective UN Peace Operations” which was established with a view to exploring the challenges facing UN peace operations. The series provided a forum for PRMNY to engage informally in a substantive dialogue with Member States, drawing on the expertise of leading practitioners, to explore modern peace operations and build a shared understanding to allow for better collective decision-making. The series included, amongst a number of other topics, a discussion of how to strengthen the capacity of peace operations to prevent and respond to threats to civilians including in the form of conflict-related sexual violence.

In Canada’s statement to the SC on 24 June 2013, PRMNY called on the Council to take concrete measures to support women’s opportunities for equal participation and decision-making in all conflict prevention and resolution processes.

PRMNY continues to support initiatives of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations Police Division to streamline women candidates to peacekeeping and special political missions and to take measures to prioritize their selection. PRMNY takes every opportunity to encourage the 20% representative goal for 2014.

As a member of the Group of Friends of Haiti, PRMNY participates directly in the development of the draft of the resolution renewing the MINUSTAH mandate (this year, UNSCR 2119) prior to its formal consideration by Security Council members. In this regard, PRMNY actively worked to ensure that the resolution calls for increased political participation of women in Haiti, the protection of the rights of women and children (including from sexual and gender-based violence), improved responses to rape complaints, and better access to justice for victims of rape and other sexual crimes, and encourages Haitian national authorities to promote national legislation in this regard.

Ref.: 10B

Indicator: Action 10

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

The CAF does not differentiate between women and men when selecting personnel for operations. Women participated actively and meaningfully in all aspects of international missions, including peace support operations. The CAF also ensures all equipment for personnel on deployed operations is suitable for both women and men. In addition, deployed women have been employed to interact with local women and girls.

Ref.: 10C

Indicator: Action 10

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

The RCMP made continuous efforts to encourage the active and meaningful participation of women in deployments to peace operations, including the following:

Ref.: 10-1

Indicator: Indicator 10-1: Number of Canadian strategic-level national and international security policy directives or guiding documents that address the participation of women in decision-making.

Reporting Department: -

Details: None this year.

Ref.: 10-2

Indicator: Indicator 10-2: Number of Canadian strategic-level national and international security policy directives or guiding documents that address the deployment of women to peace operations.

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

All CAF positions, including combat occupations, are open to men and women. As such, there is no distinction (in guiding documents or training) between male and female soldiers who deploy to peace operations.

*Note: The opening of all CAF positions, including combat occupations, to women occurred as a direct result of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal Decision (20 February 1989). The formal announcement of the change was made on March 1, 1989.

Ref.: 10-3A

Indicator: Indicator 10-3: Number and percentage of female Canadian Forces personnel, police officers and civilian Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details: In 2013-2014 START funded the deployment of 21 Canada-based civilian experts to international organizations and in response to international crises. Of these, a total of 7 personnel (33%) deployed were women. No civilian experts were deployed to peace operations.

Ref.: 10-3B

Indicator: Indicator 10-3

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

As of March 31, 2014, 69 of 516 (13.4%) deployed CAF personnel on international operations were women, and over the course of the reporting year 585 women of a total of 5387 (10.9%) personnel were deployed on international operations.

During the reporting year, 6 of 14 (43%) civilian employees deployed in support of CAF designated international operations were women.

Ref.: 10-3C

Indicator: Indicator 10-3

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Of 112 personnel who were deployed to police peace operations, 21 (19%) were women.

As deployments to peace operations overlap reporting periods, it should be noted that the number above reflects the number of police officers who began their tour of duty in 2013-14. Over the course of 2013-14, at any given time, the average rate of female police participation over the reporting period was 15%.

Ref.: 10-4A

Indicator: Indicator 10-4: Number and percentage of voluntary selection processes for Government of Canada personnel to deploy on peace operations that offer specific measures which work to identify and address barriers to women's participation.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

No Government of Canada civilian personnel were deployed on peace operations during the reporting period. Unless a particular request for Canadian expertise included a specific request for women, eligible candidates within the Government of Canada were sought during the reporting period on an equal-opportunity basis through bulletins and notices. START is not aware of any systemic barriers to the selection of women for deployments.

Ref.: 10-4B

Indicator: Indicator 10-4

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

The CAF does not differentiate between women and men when selecting personnel for international operations, including peace support operations.

Ref.: 10-4C

Indicator: Indicator 10-4

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Number: 1

Percentage: Cannot be determined

The RCMP has attempted to increase awareness of the program and promote female participation in peace operations through various means. In 2013-14, all job bulletins for peace operations included a line specifically encouraging women to apply. IPD policy also required a female candidate to be selected when an equally qualified man and woman are competing for a position.

IPD’s Communication Section regularly published stories from the field written by female Canadian police peacekeepers via the RCMP’s website and social media in an effort to increase awareness and promote participation. Stories from the field authored by women and/or stories with a focus on gender issues were actively promoted on International Women’s Day, but also appear throughout the year.

Ref.: 10-5A

Indicator: Indicator 10-5: Number and proportion of women in executive-level roles in Government of Canada departments and agencies involved in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Of 40 executive-level roles at Headquarters involved in peace operations, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations, 25 were filled by women, 14 by men, and one was vacant (62.5%) .

Ref.: 10-5B

Indicator: Indicator 10-5

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

60 of 138 (44%) DND civilian employees occupying executive level positions were women, which includes 3 of the 6 (50%) of the most senior executive level (EX-05) positions. 13.5% of Combined Regular Force/Primary Reserve Force Senior Officers (Major to Colonel) in the CAF were women, including 4.5% of Flag Officers (Brigadier-General or Commodore and above).

13.7% of Combined Regular Force/Primary Reserve Senior Non Commissioned Officers (Sergeant to Chief Warrant Officer) in the CAF were women.

The DND Policy Group’s International Security Policy Division and its Directorate of Peacekeeping Policy develops defence policy relating to peace support and humanitarian operations, including policies related to UNSCRs on Women, Peace, and Security. The Assistant Deputy Minister (Policy) and Deputy Director-General of International Security Policy were female.

All women in executive level positions, both civilian and military, are critical to carrying out the DND and CAF’s role contributing to international peace and security, including peace support operations and missions involving fragile and conflict-affected states.

Ref.: 10-5C

Indicator: Indicator 10-5

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Number: 3 from the RCMP, plus additional women from other Canadian partner police services.

Proportion: The proportion cannot be determined within the RCMP as participation in peace operations is but a very small number of the overall role of Canadian police.

Within the RCMP, the Officer in Charge (OIC) of Operations at International Policing Development (IPD) is a female RCMP Inspector and the OIC of IPD Health Services is a female civilian (officer equivalent). Additionally, a female RCMP Chief Superintendent holds the position of Senior Police Advisor at Canada’s Permanent Mission to the UN in New York (PRMNY) and she is also the current International Vice-President of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. As one of three female police advisors represented in permanent missions to the UN, she actively participates in meetings of “women in uniform” and collaborates with the UN Police Division Gender Advisor to develop engagement strategies.

IPD recognizes the importance of female Canadian police officers holding senior, strategic positions within peace operations. In the EUPOL COPPS mission in the West Bank, for instance, a senior female RCMP officer held the position of Senior Police Advisor and Team Leader overseeing the Mission Implementation Plan for the institutional development of the Palestinian Civil Police. Additionally, a senior female police officer from the Toronto Police Service was the Deputy Head of the International Police Coordination Board in Afghanistan, and a senior female police officer from SPVM held the position of Chief of MINUSTAH Community Policing Unit in Haiti.

Ref.: 11A

Indicator: Action 11: Identify Canadian specialists and trainers from various backgrounds with expertise in women, peace, and security issues, and assist where practicable their professional development, placement on international deployment rosters or nomination for relevant multilateral assignments. These specialists can also be a source of policy and program advice for Government of Canada departments and agencies.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Canada does not maintain a roster of WPS experts but can source such experts from within the Government of Canada or from the Canadian or International public if required. For example, Canada funded the development of Justice Rapid Response’s sub-roster of sexual violence experts which that includes Canadians.

Ref.: 11B

Indicator: Action 11

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Several International Policing Development (IPD) staff and deployed police officers participated in training initiatives relating to women, peace and security issues. IPD sent three representatives to the European Security and Defence College accredited “Gender in Operations” Course. This included two police officers (one deployed to Afghanistan and one who provides pre-deployment training to Canadian police officers deploying to peace operations) as well as one civilian employee from IPD.

Canada has four female police officers on the roster of Justice Rapid Response - UN Women Special Sexual and Gender Based Violence (JRR-SGBV). Canadian police officers on this roster can be called upon by the international community for rapid deployment to assist in investigating human rights or international criminal violations, including gender-based violence offences. In January 2014, IPD funded the participation of a fifth female Canadian police officer to attend the JRR – SGBV course in Colombia and join the roster as a Spanish-speaking criminal justice and gender expert in the investigation of SGBV crimes.

IPD also continued to hold licenses for online courses on UN peacekeeping through the UN Peace Operations Training Institute, which included several gender-focused courses.

Of note, while women can be encouraged to apply for international peace operations, they cannot be compelled to do so as serving on a mission is a voluntary role.

Ref.: 12A

Indicator: Action 12: Integrate the participation and representation of women and girls in Government of Canada international security policy frameworks and projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details: The GPSF database has gender and participation elements embedded in it to ensure that participation of women is considered in all programming. Additionally, all concept and briefing notes for GPSF programs are required to include gender based analysis of contexts.

Ref.: 12B

Indicator: Action 12

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

DND continued to examine how promoting the full and meaningful participation of women in international operations can be more clearly and explicitly reflected in departmental policy.

Ref.: 12-1

Indicator: Indicator 12-1: Number and percentage departmental international security policy frameworks that integrate the participation and representation of women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Number: Supports at least 29 Canadian Partners (in one or multiple countries)

Example: The Federation of Canadian Municipalities, through the Municipal Partners for Economic Development (MPED), contributes to capacity building for women’s participation in municipal governance. To that end, the project incorporates gender equality into all its program components. Women aspiring to run for municipal office are trained and mentored to be effective decision makers, participating fully in decisions in the public realm at the municipal level. This initiative has had particularly successful results in Mali.

Ref.: 12-2

Indicator: Indicator 12-2: Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate the participation and involvement of women and girls or work with key stakeholders, including men and boys, to promote increased participation and representation of women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

World University Service of Canada-Centre for International Studies and Cooperation (WUSC-CECI) Consortium, “Build on successes for 2009-2015”: In Mali, the tested model of committees of women users of community health centre services will be proposed as the national model. In Guatemala, tribunals of conscience against sexual violence committed against women during the armed conflict were established to obtain civil and legal redress.

79 (40%) of the CFLI projects in fragile states were primarily focused on improving women’s participation and representation (compared to 24% of projects in 2012-13). Approximately $1.8 million was disbursed for these projects.

Afghanistan: Headquarters and KABUL activities included:

Ref.: 13

Indicator: Action 13: Encourage troop- and police-contributing (TCC and PCC) countries to foster the participation of women in peace operations and in training relevant to peace operations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

PRMNY took every opportunity, formal and informal, to encourage TCCs and PCCs to ensure the participation of women in peace operations and in relevant training. PRMNY made specific calls for such action in our CANZ (Canada, Australia and New Zealand) statement delivered during the peacekeeping item in theSpecial Political and Decolonization Committee (October 2013) as well as in our CANZ statement to the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations (February 2014).

PRMNY continues to support initiatives of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations Police Division to streamline women candidates to peacekeeping and special political missions and to take measures to prioritize their selection. PRMNY takes every opportunity to encourage the 20% representative goal for 2014. Currently, 17% of Canadian police deployments globally are women.

In Canada’s statement the SC on the protection of civilians(19 August 2013), PRMNY actively encouraged initiatives such as: training African women security personnel; helping women to participate more fully in peace processes; and assisting victims of sexual violence by improving access to the courts and truth commissions.

PRMNY has been very supportive of the MINUSTAH SRSG Sandra Honoré since her appointment in May 2013. However, as MINUSTAH is drawing down, there is limited scope for promoting further recruitment of any kind into the mission.

Ref.: 13-1

Indicator: Indicator 13-1: Number of Canadian interventions in the United Nations Security Council, General Assembly, Special Committee on Peacekeeping or other relevant international fora that explicitly encourage troop- and police-contributing countries to address the participation of women in peace operations and in training for peace operations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Canada made a statement addressing these issues at the UN General Assembly (Special Political and Decolonization Committee,November 2013) and in the joint Canada, Australia and New Zealand statement to the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations (February 2014).

Ref.: 14

Indicator: Action 14: Actively encourage UN and other multilateral efforts to involve women, including Indigenous women, in peace agreements and mediation processes, and ensure that such agreements take into account the differential experiences of women and girls, women’s and girls’ human rights, and the rights of the child.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

In the context of Human Rights Council (HRC) resolutions on human rights country situations, Canada works to ensure inclusion of strong language related to the need to protect women’s rights, to take measures to protect the most vulnerable, to promote women’s full participation in peace and mediation processes, to exclude sexual violence from amnesty provisions, and to address all forms of violence against women (VAW). This contributed to the integration of relevant language in several HRC resolutions, including DRC, Mali, DPRK, and Sri Lanka.

Canada-hosted side event on VAW during the 23rd regular session of the HRC to advocate the inclusion of women in democratic processes in times of transition, in peace time, and in conflict and post-conflict situations, and the implementation of measures to prevent sexual violence against women and girls. Canada also co-sponsored a panel discussion on sexual violence in the DRC at the HRC.

Canada led the resolution on VAW at HRC which addressed the need for measures to promote women’s inclusion and full participation.

Canada actively encouraged multilateral efforts to involve women in peace agreements and mediation processes and to ensure that such agreements take into account the differential experiences of women and girls, women’s and girls’ human rights, and the rights of the child by:

PRMNY represented the Group of Friends of Women, Peace, and Security at a Security Council Arria Meeting on “Implementing the UN Security Council’s women, peace, and, security agenda – perspectives from the field: gender practitioners in UN Peacekeeping operations". Arria meetings are meetings of Security Council members outside of the Council chambers where they are briefed by civil society and the UN on matters of interest to the Council. Canada was invited to intervene as Chair of the Friends of Women, Peace, and Security, and focussed on the need for timely and increased deployment of Women Protection Advisors to field missions, as well as the need for financial resources to establish these positions in all missions where sexual violence is a concern.

A number of Canadian statements to the Security Council on Afghanistan (June 2013; December 2013; March 2014) highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the rights of Afghan women and young girls.

In Canada’s statement the SC on the protection of civilians(19 August 2013), PRMNY actively encouraged initiatives such as: training African women security personnel; helping women participate more fully in peace processes; and assisting victims of sexual violence by improving access to the courts and truth commissions.

Ref.: 15.

Indicator: Action 15: Support UN human resources reform processes, particularly with regard to recruitment, to increase the number of women in decision-making positions relating to peace and security and, where appropriate, identify strong Canadian candidates for such positions.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

PRMNY strongly advocated for references in Administrative and Budgetary Committee resolutions, calling for improved performance by the UN Secretariat in the recruitment of women for senior positions in the Organization.

PRMNY consistently engages with the UN Secretariat in their efforts highlighting the need to increase the number of women in senior level positions in the field as women currently make up only 9% percent of the deployments at the D1 and D2 levels. PRMNY is supportive of the UN’s efforts to develop a roster and pro-actively recruit in order to improve this figure.

PRMNY and the Missions of Australia and New Zealand, in our grouping known as CANZ, strongly supported the Secretary General's mobility framework proposal and played a key role in getting the resolution on this adopted during the fall session of this General Assembly. The resolution contains a reference to ensuring that the framework is implemented in a manner which respects UN policies on gender balance.

Ref.: 16A

Indicator: Action 16: Direct Canadian diplomatic missions and deployed Canadian Forces or Canadian police personnel to include information on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women’s and girls’ human rights in their periodic reporting to competent mission authorities on peace operations, and to address reports of alleged sexual exploitation or abuse by Government of Canada personnel with the utmost seriousness.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

GENEV receives informally unsubstantiated information on suspected abuses from NGOs or other sources and shares such information with Canadian embassies in relevant countries and competent Canadian authority.

GENEV cooperates with posts in preparations for Universal Periodic Review sessions in order to ensure recommendations made by Canada are based on accurate information concerning violations of women's and girls’ rights.

KABUL placed a strong emphasis on serious violations of women and girls’ human rights in its periodic reporting, providing regular updates on issues such as: women’s rights-related developments on the Penal Code; revisions to the Criminal Procedure Code that have an impact on the prosecution of cases of sexual and gender-based violence; cases of women being imprisoned for running away from home; and child, early, and forced marriage. In addition, KABUL devoted a significant portion of its 2013-14 Human Rights Report to documenting and analyzing the impact of political and legal developments on the protection of women's and girls’ rights in Afghanistan.

Ref.: 16B

Indicator: Action 16

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

Deployed CAF personnel were responsible to report observed incidences of serious violations of women's and girls’ human rights to competent mission authorities while on international operations, including peace support operations.

Ref.: 16C

Indicator: Action 16

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Through the deployment of Canadian police to international peace operations, Canada takes a principled stance on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women's and girls' human rights and gender-based violence in all its forms. Canadian police are trained to recognize and mandated to report human rights violations to the appropriate authorities.

In FY 2012-13, International Policing Development implemented a reporting project requiring deployed police officers to report back on a number of elements, including this indicator. Specifically, they must report on any observed or credibly reported violations of human rights, as well as whether these are reported to mission authorities and subsequently acted upon. During the FY 2013-14 reporting period, the individual reporting project was modified to become a mandatory activity to be completed on a quarterly basis byall police deployed to peace operations.

Ref.: 16-1

Indicator: Indicator 16-1: Extent to which Canadian diplomatic offices and deployed Canadian Forces or police personnel include information on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women’s and girls’ human rights in their periodic reporting to competent mission authorities on peace operations.

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

In FY 2012-13, International Policing Development (IPD) implemented a monthly reporting project requiring deployed police officers to report back on a number of elements, including this indicator. Specifically, they must report on any observed or credibly reported violations of human rights, as well as whether these are reported to mission authorities and subsequently acted upon. During the FY 2013-14 reporting period, the individual monthly reporting project was modified to be completed on a quarterly basis. All deployed police in each peace operation must complete these mandatory reports. The importance of this reporting is impressed upon police officers during pre-deployment training, and IPD monitors the reports to ensure violations have been reported appropriately to the mission.

Ref.: 16-2A

Indicator: Indicator 16-2: Number of reported cases of sexual exploitation or abuse in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations, allegedly perpetrated by Canadian military personnel, police or civilian Government officials, and the percentage that are:

  1. a) referred to a competent Canadian authority,
  2. b) addressed in a timely, appropriate and transparent manner.

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

In the reporting year, there were no reported allegations of sexual abuse or exploitation by local complainants in the context of any CAF operation or deployment.

Ref.: 16-2B

Indicator: Indicator 16-2

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Number of cases:

RCMP: 0

Police partner agencies: 1*

Percentage (a): 100%

Percentage (b): 100%

*This reporting is based on the UN definition of sexual exploitation and abuse, not that of the Criminal Code of Canada.

Ref.: 17A

Indicator: Action 17: Develop training modules for Government of Canada personnel being deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations, which identify and address in a meaningful way the differential impact of conflict on women and girls. This training will be specific to protection in the region of assignment or mission area, will be offered either pre-deployment or in the field, will draw on experiences/lessons learned from previous engagements, and will address protection issues including sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls, and trafficking in persons.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Gender Based Training is mandatory for all START staff, included those who are considered “Rapidly Deployable” in the event of a sudden need for surge capacity in a crisis situation. Following the evaluation of the Gender Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) training, START developed a comprehensive and accessible curriculum that enables participants to gain the practical tools and tips they need to integrate and address gender equality considerations effectively in their programs and projects.

As the CFLI does not exclusively operate in conflict-affected situations, training specifically for the program does not deal with conflict analysis. GBA+ is a component of CFLI training as discussed in Indicator 2-1 to 2-3.

Ref.: 17B

Indicator: Action 17

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

Mission-specific pre-deployment training for CAF personnel deploying to international operations addresses human rights issues such as the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.

The Canadian Special Operations Training Centre’s lessons learned cell focuses on capturing best practices (from the tactical to the strategic level) from missions conducted by all units across the Canadian Special Operations Force (CANSOF) Command. Every opportunity is taken to ensure that all lessons about human rights and the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls, are stored and promulgated within CANSOF in a continual and sustained manner.

Ref.: 17C

Indicator: Action 17

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

The RCMP continued to include mission-specific sessions on the differential impact of conflict on women and girls, including protection issues, in its pre-deployment training. International Policing Development (IPD) has worked on building a qualified pool of subject-matter experts on gender issues for pre-deployment training and, in doing so, encouraged the development of information sharing and best practices on gender issues. IPD is continuously striving to improve and expand the content of this session to ensure it is up to date.

Ref.: 17-1A

Indicator: Indicator 17-1: Percentage of relevant region- or mission-specific pre-deployment or field training modules for Government of Canada personnel on protection issues that address in a meaningful way the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

START offers a total of 10 training (including Government of Canada departmental pre-deployment training) courses. Out of these 10 courses, one course (10%) focuses on the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls. This course (Gender Based Analysis Plus) aims to train for an increased awareness of gender issues into the context of peace operations, fragile states and conflict affected situations and for START Government of Canada personnel deployed.

Ref.: 17-1B

Indicator: Indicator 17-1

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

All region- or mission-specific training delivered to CAF personnel deploying on peace support operations or to fragile states or conflict-affected situations addressed human rights issues such as the protection of women and girls.

In addition, Individual Pre-Deployment Training delivered by the Peace Support Training Centre included an examination of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls, including protection issues.

Ref.: 17-1C

Indicator: Indicator 17-1

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Percentage: Not applicable

Rather than incorporating this training into various modules, the RCMP has taken the approach of providing a region- or mission-specific pre-deployment training session on protection issues and the differential impact of conflict on women and girls to police deploying to peace operations. This allows the session to remain current and specific to the mission and country context.

Ref.: 17-2A

Indicator: Indicator 17-2: Number and percentage of Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations who receive region- or mission-specific pre-deployment or field training on protection issues that addresses the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls in a meaningful way.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Number: 0

Percentage: 0%

The only course offered during this report period was the online Gender training. Participation in this course was not tracked. This will be done for the next reporting period.

Ref.: 17-2B

Indicator: Indicator 17-2

Reporting Department: DND

Details: All CAF personnel who deployed to peace support operations, fragile states, or conflict-affected situations received mission-specific pre-deployment training that addressed the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.

Ref.: 17-2C

Indicator: Indicator 17-2

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Number: 112 police

Percentage: 100% of Canadian police deploying to peace operations.

This region- or mission-specific pre-deployment training session that addresses protection issues and the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls in a meaningful way has become a part of all pre-deployment training for police deploying to peace operations. In addition, Canadian police within multilateral peace operations generally receive this kind of training from the receiving organization. For instance, police officers serving on the UN mission in Haiti receive a Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) sensitivity lecture during Induction Training. This lecture aims to raise awareness among newly arriving officers on cultural issues, personal attitudes and beliefs impacting SGBV and the prevalence of such abuse in the host country.

Ref.: 17-3

Indicator: Indicator 17-3: Extent to which DND/Canadian Forces strategic direction or equivalent policy guidance for deployed Canadian police address in a meaningful way the importance of protecting women’s and girls' human rights on international operational deployments.

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

The RCMP continues to use the Concept of Operations (ConOps) approach to guide its engagement in peace operations, which could include the multinational organization’s strategic direction or ConOps documents with specific direction or guidance on the protection of human rights for women and girls.

Canada and its government institutions embrace a zero tolerance approach to infringements on the rights of women and girls. Canadian police officers are not only bound by duty to report such infringements to mission authorities, but are morally accountable to do so as well. Thus, it is expected for Canadian police officers to respond appropriately and within the limits of their authority on the international scene.

As noted in 17-2, pre-deployment training for police deploying to peace operations reinforces the importance of protecting women’s and girls' human rights. Moreover, the RCMP’s policy forbids fraternization of Canadian police with the local population due to the difference in real or perceived power and authority. Police deploying to peace operations are informed of this policy and consequences of misconduct, which range from disciplinary measures to repatriation, prior to and during pre-deployment training in Canada, and each must sign a letter agreeing to refrain from fraternizing with the local population of the site to which they are deployed.

Canadian police officers deployed to international peace operations must also obtain attestation letters from their Commanding Officers stating that the candidate has not been charged nor convicted of, and is not currently under investigation for, any criminal or disciplinary offence. The letter also certifies that he or she is not aware of any allegation against the candidate of committing or being involved in, by act or omission, any acts that may amount to violations of international human rights law or international humanitarian law. If the police peace operation is being conducted through the United Nations, a second attestation letter – specific to the United Nations – is also required.

Ref.: 18A

Indicator: Action 18: Integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights, in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls, in Government of Canada international security policy frameworks and projects for or in peace operations, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

At the Third Meeting of States Parties of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Canada advocated for the need to continue working to mainstream gender and diversity issues into the implementation of the Convention and encouraged States Parties and partners integrate gender considerations into all of their mine action and cluster munitions-related programming.

Throughout the year, and particularly in the weeks leading up to the April 5 Presidential and Provincial Council elections, KABUL engaged with female Members of Parliament to discuss obstacles to their meaningful political participation and opportunities for Canadian support, particularly with respect to their personal security.

KABUL advocated with the Ministry of Interior to develop a robust and impartial mechanism to investigate and prosecute allegations of harassment and abuse of female police officers by their male colleagues and supervisors.

KABUL met with female police generals to discuss ways to increase the Afghan police’s ability to respond to and investigate gender-based crimes.

Throughout the past year START identified gender focal points whose role it is to both promote and integrate the protection of women’s and girls' human rights with relation to START programming and policy work.

More broadly speaking, START continues to mainstream gender based assessments into project conception and initiation.

CFLI project approval requires that partners demonstrate consideration of gender impacts. Ongoing training continues to strengthen capacity of CFLI program staff to perform gender analysis.

IRP's WPS officers are consulted systematically on START programming guidelines and are included on the Project Team for related IRG projects. IRP's WPS officers are also consulted on projects and activities funded out of the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives and the Post Initiative Fund, when appropriate.

Ref.: 18B

Indicator: Action 18

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

DND continued to examine how the recognition of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls, as well as the promotion and protection of the human rights of women and girls, can be more clearly and explicitly reflected in departmental policy.

Ref.: 18-1

Indicator: Indicator 18-1: Number of departmental international security policy frameworks that integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details: No policy frameworks undertaken this year.

Ref.: 18-2

Indicator: Indicator 18-2: Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects that integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Projects with development-funded partners are assessed to determine their level of gender equality integration. For example, in 2013/14, the Global Issues and Development Branch funded 41 WPS-related projects. Of those, 6 projects, totalling $10.8 million*, focussed on supporting the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights.

All GPSF-funded partners must to assess the level of integration of women and girls into their project. In 2013/14, 49 projects were funded; of these, 18 were specifically focussed on women’s and girls’ rights. Funding levels were as follows:

*In some cases, only a component of the project may contribute to supporting the human rights of women and girls. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support women’s and girls’ human rights. These figures have been calculated manually, and therefore have not been verified by the Chief Financial Officer.

Ref.: 19A

Indicator: Action 19: Direct Government of Canada departments and agencies that deploy personnel on peace operations to provide deploying personnel with clear context-specific instructions on measures to protect and promote women’s and girls’ human rights, including measures to prevent sexual violence, and to respond appropriately if sexual violence occurs.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Civilians deployed through START during this period were primarily deployed bilaterally or to multilateral organizations and not directly into active peace operations. Personnel were provided with guidance and training as relevant to their deployments. For example, police offers deployed to the Philippines and Turkey/Syria in FY 13/14 received gender training as part of their pre-deployment training.

Ref.: 19B

Indicator: Action 19

Reporting Department: DND

Details:

The CAF Code of Conduct's standards of treatment with respect to local civilian populations prohibit rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault, as well as discriminatory treatment based on sex.

The CAF also has policies in place on the prevention of sexual and gender-based violence, abuse, and exploitation that apply to CAF members at all times, including when deployed on international operations such as peace support operations.

CAF members are expected to report and take appropriate steps to stop observed incidences of breaches of the Law of Armed Conflict, including sexual and gender-based violence against women and girls.

Ref.: 19C

Indicator: Action 19

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Canadian police personnel normally deploy to a multilateral organization, usually a United Nations mission, which has its own mandate, Concept of Operations, and strategic direction regarding the protection of human rights for women and girls. During pre-deployment training, it is impressed upon members that they ensure women, peace, and security issues are promoted and that any abuses or signs of abuse are brought forward to appropriate authorities and chains of command. If they themselves do not have the legal authority to act, they are advised to identify the key players in their mission who can and to whom they could report such behaviours.

The RCMP and its police partners involved in international peace operations are committed to upholding the highest standards of police conduct in missions. Canadian police in peace operations are subject to the code of conduct of their police service and that of the host organization. The RCMP forbids fraternization of Canadian police with the local population, due to the difference in real or perceived power and authority. Police deploying to peace operations are informed of this policy, and the consequences of misconduct, which range from disciplinary measures to repatriation, prior to and during pre-deployment training in Canada. In addition, each police officer deploying to a peace operation must sign a letter agreeing to refrain from fraternizing with the local population of the site to which they are deployed.

Ref.: 19-1

Indicator: Indicator 19-1:Extent to which Government of Canada departmental guidance documents for specific peace operations explicitly address the protection and promotion of women's and girls' human rights, including measures to prevent sexual violence.

Reporting Department: RCMP

Details:

Canadian police often deploy through multilateral organizations, which have their own mandate, Concept of Operations, and strategic direction regarding the protection of human rights for women and girls. Canadian police follow the guidance provided by these organizations in this respect.

Ref.: 20A

Indicator: Action 20: In Government of Canada-funded projects for or in peace operations, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations, integrate support for women’s and girls’ human rights including protection from violence, including sexual violence, sexual exploitation, and abuse of women and girls, and trafficking in persons.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Canada integrated support for women’s and girls’ human rights into Canada-funded projects, including by providing funding for the Family Support Hotline – Afghanistan’s first national call centre providing legal advice and referrals, along with psychological and religious counselling to address issues including: sexual and gender-based violence; domestic disputes; and child, early, and forced marriage.

Afghanistan: Through its development assistance portfolio, DFATD supported a project implemented by the United Nations Population Fund in Afghanistan aimed at raising awareness and improving data information management on cases of gender-based violence amongst women and girls from displaced and returnee communities in Nangarhar province.

Burma: A critical first step in addressing sexual violence is documenting and exposing its occurrence. On 15 January 2014, the Women’s League of Burma (WLB), a partner of the Burma Border Assistance Program (which is funded by Canada), published a report documenting 104 cases of sexual violence committed by the Burma Army since the current government was elected in November 2010. The report analyzed the systematic nature of the sexual violence and called for constitutional reform to bring the Burmese military under civilian control. It was launched in Yangon, Chiang Mai, and New York, and received wide international media coverage.

In June 2013, the Burma Border Assistance Program supported Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT) to produce a report -Pushed to the Brink- documenting how conflict and displacement are fuelling human trafficking along the China-Burma border, and how the lack of refugee protection and shortage of humanitarian aid are exacerbating the problem. The report received widespread Burmese and international media coverage.

Ref.: 20-1

Indicator: Indicator 20-1: Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate support for women’s and girls’ human rights including protection from violence, sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls and trafficking in persons.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Number: Supports at least 13 Canadian Partners (in one or multiple countries)

WUSC-CECI Consortium: The first Tribunal of Conscience against sexual violence committed against women during the armed conflict was established in Guatemala. Guatemalan women shared their experiences, by correspondence and by video, with women of the Democratic Republic of Congo, who also suffered sexual violence during armed conflicts. The objective was to obtain civil and legal redress.

Ref.: 21

Indicator: Action 21: Support projects in or for peace operations, fragile states, and conflict situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts including but not limited to: humanitarian assistance; support to refugees, internally displaced persons, and returnees; disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration DDR); justice and security system reform (JSSR); stabilization, reconstruction, early recovery and peace and security; economic empowerment; and health and education programming.

Action 21

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Canada has supported projects in fragile states and conflict situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts by:

Afghanistan: Through its development assistance portfolio, DFATD supported a project with the Canadian Red Cross to improve the capacity of the Afghan Red Crescent Society to implement relief and recovery efforts in conflict zones of Afghanistan and in response to disasters. The project is working to address the needs and capacities of women and girls through the establishment of a gender unit, gender focal points, and a gender equality assessment.

Burma: Activities supported through the Burma Border Assistance Program (funded by Canada) are a model of integrating and supporting activities relevant to Women, Peace, and Security. This initiative has supported women’s organizations to develop gender-sensitive community-based programs to address the vacuum of services in Burma’s conflict-affected areas, enabling women to take on community leadership roles. It has also engaged a broad range of ethnic organizations promoting greater inclusion of women and representation of women's rights issues. As a result, ethnic civil society organizations with which the program works have increase women's representation in leadership positions from 22% in 2009 to 41% by Dec. 2013. A notable achievement was the election of a woman (the former head of a partner organization) to the position of Secretary General of the Karen National Union.

Pakistan: The Pakistan country development program has women’s economic empowerment as a focus. In addition, the country strategy includes women’s empowerment and rights indicators, and highlights the importance of ensuring the well-being, economic security, and equality of women and girls.

Ref.: 21-1A

Indicator: Indicator 21-1: Number and percentage of departmental planning frameworks for fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Number: Not indicated

Percentage: Not indicated

DRC: DRC’s 2014-2019 Country Development Strategy integrates gender equality as a cross-cutting theme in its programming.

Mali: Canada developed a draft Country Development Strategy for Mali, which focuses on women, children and youth as the main beneficiaries.

Colombia: Departmental programming planning frameworks for 2009-2014 and 2014-2019 continue to underscore gender equality as a cross-cutting theme for Canada’s development cooperation in Colombia. Canada’s development programming in Colombia will support Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (C-NAP), gender equality, human rights, and child (including girls) protection.

Jordan: Jordan’s country program integrates gender equality, but does not have gender equality objectives related to the Women, Peace, and Security agenda. During 2013-14, new programming was initiated in response to the impact of the Syrian conflict on Jordanian communities (hosting refugees). These new projects- namely the Emergency Services and Social Resilience Project, Learning, Empowering and Play, Mitigating the Impact of the Syrian Crisis on Jordanian Host Communities, Addressing Water Needs of Jordan Hosting Communities, and Jordanian Communication Development and Support Program - integrate gender equality concerns in Jordanian areas most affected by the Syrian conflict.

West Bank and Gaza: The West Bank and Gaza development program results framework includes specific outcomes related to the application and upholding of women’s human rights to international women’s rights standards.

South Sudan: A program-level gender equality strategy was drafted for South Sudan in 2013, which promotes the health and economic security of vulnerable women and girls, through the thematic priorities.

Afghanistan: Through its development assistance programming in Afghanistan, DFATD began developing a country level planning framework and developed programming initiatives that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls, in support of the Government of Canada’s July 2012 announcement to empower women and girls and advance their human rights.

The International Planned Parenthood Federation's "Delivering the Muskoka Promise" project is delivering sexual and reproductive health services, and other Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) care, in three conflict-affected and fragile states: Afghanistan, Mali and Sudan. The project integrates the needs and capacities of women and adolescent girls by: increasing the availability and access of sexual and reproductive health services, and other MNCH care, in marginalized communities; specifically addressing the needs of high-risk communities such as sex workers: and advocating for increased public acceptance - critically including male acceptance - of women's right to plan and space childbearing. Note that the project is reaching refugees, internally displaced people, and returnees in Afghanistan, Mali and Sudan.

Ref.: 21-2

Indicator: Indicator 21-2: Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

Number of projects: 41

Funding disbursed: $148,425,000

Projects include all projects funded in 2013/14 through the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and the UN Population Fund, given their specific mandates regarding protection against sexual violence within the humanitarian realm. Specific projects which integrate activities related to women and girls and sexual violence in the Central African Republic, Chad, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, and South Sudan have also been included. Finally, support to ICRC for their 2014 Special Appeal on Sexual Violence was counted.

Ref.: 22

Indicator: Action 22: Engage UN Member States and agencies in improving the comprehensiveness of their approach to the substantive equality of men and women and to the human rights of women and girls, with respect to the UN’s support to or participation in justice and security system reform.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

START continued through the past reporting period to support Justice Rapid Response (JRR), a multilateral agency that maintains rosters of experts, trains personnel, and can rapidly deploy highly qualified and experienced legal investigators, prosecutors, and witness protection experts in response to requests for this expertise. Part of JRR’s mandate is to ensure that these experts receive professional training to ensure their effectiveness. Through the Canadian Deployment Platform, Canada has deployed two Canadians to JRR and is a member of its Executive Board.

Ref.: 23

Indicator: Action 23: Continue to intervene actively with the International Criminal Court and other international courts and tribunals to promote the implementation of the relevant objectives of the SCRs on Women, Peace and Security in their activities, including in mechanisms such as truth and reconciliation commissions.

Reporting Department: -

Details: There was no activity for this Action.

Ref.: 24

Indicator: Action 24: Advocate, as appropriate, for the mandates of new international accountability and judiciary mechanisms such as international courts, special tribunals, and other transitional justice mechanisms, to integrate the SCRs on Women, Peace, and Security, and women’s and girls’ human rights.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

As a result of Canada’s leadership in 2013, the Human Rights Committee Resolution on rape and other forms of sexual violence (A/HRC/RES/23/25) calls on States to strengthen accountability for perpetrators, including by strengthening their criminal justice systems. The resolution includes a decision to ensure that Commission of Inquiry and Fact Finding Mission mandates require that specific attention be devoted to violence against women, where appropriate. It also invites the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to make expertise promptly available to investigate allegations of mass rape or systematic sexual violence, including by utilizing existing resources such as the joint UN Women/Justice Rapid Response Roster.

Ref.: 25

Indicator: Action 25: Advocate for UN agencies’ consideration of the differential impact that violent conflict and natural disasters have on women and girls, and their human rights, in all aspects of ongoing efforts to strengthen international humanitarian response capacity, including anti-human trafficking efforts.

Reporting Department: DFATD

Details:

In promoting humanitarian assistance and protection, GENEV supports the use of the Gender Marker and advocated for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies to improve disaggregated data on age, gender, and diversity, and to strengthen capacities of humanitarian actors in these areas.

Each year, DFATD advocates for the inclusion of language on the protection of women during negotiations on UN General Assembly resolutions and the annual humanitarian resolution of the Economic and Social Committee (ECOSOC).The final negotiated text in the 2013 ECOSOC resolution on "Strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations" included the following language:

Urges Member States to continue to prevent, investigate and prosecute acts of sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies, calls upon Member States and relevant organizations to strengthen support services to victims of such violence, and also calls for a more effective response in that regard;

Requests Member States, relevant United Nations organizations and other relevant actors to ensure that all aspects and stages of humanitarian response address the specific needs of women, girls, men and boys, on an equal basis, taking into consideration age and disability, including through improved collection, analysis and reporting of sex-, age- and disability-disaggregated data, taking into account, inter alia, the information provided by States, and emphasizes the importance of the full participation of women in decision-making processes related to humanitarian response;

In November 2013 a High Level event on protecting women and girls in humanitarian emergencies, entitled "Keep Her Safe", was hosted by the UK Department for International Development in London. The main aim of the event was to secure political commitment from key donors, UN agencies, and NGOs through signature to a communiqué, and to prioritise the protection of women and girls when they respond to emergencies. To date the communiqué has been endorsed by 13 countries (including Canada), 8 UN agencies, 21 NGOs, and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

Canada’s statement delivered at the event outlined our commitments to: prioritize the protection of vulnerable populations and the prevention of violence against women and girls in humanitarian contexts in our engagement with multilateral and non-governmental partners; build on our existing investments in the international humanitarian system’s capacity to respond quickly and effectively to violence against women and girls from the onset of an emergency; support innovative approaches to protecting women and girls who have been affected by crises; and intensify efforts to eliminate the practice of child, early, and forced marriage.

PRMNY advocated for robust references in the “Gender equality and the empowerment of women in natural disasters” resolution at the Commission on the Status of Women (March 2014) to ensure that the differential impact of natural disasters on women and girls was recognized and addressed.

PRMNY has also consistently offered language and advocated in negotiations for the leadership role of women in the humanitarian response (in the resolutions of theSocial, Humanitarian, and Cultural and the Special Political and Decolonization Committees) and for women's and girls’ full participation throughout every phase of humanitarian response, as well as to ensure that the Gender Marker is implemented more comprehensively by all UN agencies and that donor tracking of its use is improved.

PRMNY engaged actively in the drafting of the UN-Women Humanitarian Strategy developed in 2014, with a view to ensure that the differentiated impacts of disasters and conflicts are duly taken into account and addressed through specific recommended actions in the Strategy.

Ref.: 26

Indicator: Action 26: Continue to employ a variety of remedies to promote accountability and justice in situations where a perpetrator of a war crime or a crime against humanity (including genocide) is in Canada or wants to come to Canada, including extradition, prosecution in Canada under the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act, surrender to an international court or tribunal, revocation of citizenship obtained by fraud, denial of visas, and where applicable under Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, denial of access to the refugee determination system, and removal from Canada.

Reporting Department: -

Details: There was no activity for this Action.

Ref.: 27

Indicator: Action 27: Continue efforts to prevent, investigate and prosecute cases involving Canadian citizens or permanent residents in the sexual exploitation or abuse of children which occur in fragile states and conflict-affected situations, including child sex tourism and trafficking in persons.

Reporting Department: Public Safety

Details:

Canada is committed to combatting sexual exploitation in all its forms, including child sex tourism. The Government of Canada is aware that a number of fragile states have been identified as particularly vulnerable to child sex tourism and has taken a multi-pronged approach to combatting this despicable crime. Canadian criminal law comprehensively prohibits all child sexual exploitation, including where Canadians or permanent residents of Canada engage in such criminal conduct while abroad, consular guidelines have been developed for Canadian officers at missions abroad on the issue of sexual exploitation of children by Canadians abroad, and the RCMP’s National Child Exploitation Coordination Centre coordinates intelligence and provides investigational support and expertise to enable Canadian and international law enforcement to investigate these offences. Additionally, in order to advance police and justice system responses to this emerging issue of concern, a federal working group was established in 2010, co-led by the RCMP and Public Safety Canada, to provide a forum for information-sharing and coordination on the issue of travelling child sex offenders and continues to meet and serve as a key forum for information-sharing among a growing number of partners.

In March 2012 Canada hosted the first-ever workshop on travelling child sex offenders, which brought together law enforcement and border officials from across Canada, as well as prosecutors and other key experts, in order to share information, clarify roles and responsibilities, examine case studies, and explore opportunities for enhanced collaboration. A final “handbook” document was produced using information presented at this event, which will serve as a resource guide for police and other officials in the interdiction and prosecution of travelling child sex offenders in Canada and abroad.

International cooperation is also critical to effectively investigate cases of online sexual exploitation and to better identify and prosecute offenders. That is why Canada joined the Global Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Online (the Global Alliance) on June 17, 2013. The goal of the Global Alliance is to strengthen international resolve to fight internet predators and online images of child abuse. It focuses on identifying and helping victims, prosecuting offenders, increasing public awareness, and reducing the availability of child pornography online. By working together through this international initiative, Canada and its partners will be able to secure the progress required to bring criminals to justice and get exploited children to safety. This includes not only the exchange of intelligence in the tracking of online predators, but also the sharing of best practices and lessons learned in combatting child exploitation on the ever-changing terrain of the internet.

In December 2013, Public Safety Canada coordinated the interdepartmental response to the “Reporting Form – Announcement of Actions” with the RCMP, Department of Justice Canada, and the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade, and Development, outlining Canada’s Actions already undertaken and those to be taken with respect to each of the policy targets. The Government of Canada will be reporting back to the Global Alliance on the status of these commitments in 2014 and will be gathering with the European Union and member states on September 29-30, 2014 in Washington D.C.to highlight notable accomplishments since the launch of the Global Alliance in December 2012, and to draw on collective best practices to expand the continued fight against the global proliferation of child sexual abuse online.

Ref.: 28.

Indicator: Action 28: Advocate internationally for equal access by female ex-combatants, and by women and girls associated with armed forces or groups, to appropriate benefits and resources from disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs.

Reporting Department: -

Details: There was no activity for this Action.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security. 2010.

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Footnote 2

Gender Assessment Criteria for project based programming using a project’s logic model:

Gender identifier code 0 = None, there are no gender equality results; Gender identifier code 1 = Limited integration, there are gender equality results at the immediate outcome level; Gender identifier code 2 = Integrated, there are gender equality results at the intermediate outcome level (creates systemic, institutional, or normative change); Gender identifier code 3 = Specific, gender equality is the principal objective and result of the initiative (i.e. the initiative was designed specifically to address gender inequalities and would not otherwise be undertaken).

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Footnote 3

Arria meetings take place when Security Council members meet outside of the Council chambers to be briefed by civil society and the UN on matters of concern to the Council.

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Footnote 4

Women account for 20% of all police officers across Canada.

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Footnote 5

The IASC Gender Standby Capacity (GenCap) project seeks to build the capacity of humanitarian actors at country level to mainstream gender equality programming, including prevention and response to gender-based violence, in all sectors of humanitarian response.

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