2015-2016 Progress Report – Canada’s National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security

Table of Contents

Abbreviations and Acronyms

AIHRC
Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission
SAAT
All-Female Pre-Assessment for Mission Service Selection Assistance and Assessment Team (UN)
C-34
UN Special Committee on Peace Operations
C-NAP
Canada’s National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security
CAF
Canadian Armed Forces
CAR
Central African Republic
CEFM
Child, early and forced marriage
CDS
Chief of Defence Staff (CAF)
CFLI
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives
CICIG
International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala
CPA
Canadian Police Arrangement
CSC
The Correctional Service of Canada
DAESH
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
DFATD
Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (renamed Global Affairs Canada in November 2015)
DMTC
Directorate of Military Training and Cooperation (DND)
DND
Department of National Defence
DRC
Democratic Republic of Congo
EAPC
Euro Atlantic Partnership Council
ECCC
Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
ECOSOC
United Nations Economic and Social Council
FY
Fiscal year
GAC
Global Affairs Canada
GBA+
Gender-based analysis PLUS
GE
Gender equality
GPSF
Global Peace and Security Fund
HNC
Syrian Opposition High Negotiations Committee
HNP
Haitian National Police
IACP
International Association of Chiefs of Police
IASC
Inter-Agency Standing Committee
ICRC
International Committee of the Red Cross
IOM
International Organization for Migration
IPD
International Policing Development
IPF
International Partners Forum for Human Rights (Sudan)
JRR
Justice Rapid Response
MINUSTAH
United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
MTCP
Military Training and Cooperation Program (DND/CAF)
NAP
National Action Plan
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NCGP
NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives
NGO
Non-governmental organization
OCHA
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
PSEA
Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse
PRMNY
Permanent Mission of Canada to the UN (New York)
PSOPs
Peace and Stabilization Operations Support Program
PSTC
Peace Support Training Centre (DND/CAF)
RCMP
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
SAAT
All-Female Pre-Selection Assistance and Assessment Team (UN)
SEA
Sexual Exploitation and Abuse
SGBV
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence
SRSG
Special Representative of the Secretary-General
SRMC
Sexual Misconduct Support Centre
SVC
Sexual Violence in Conflict
START
Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (DFATD)
UN
United Nations
UNGA
United Nations General Assembly
UNHRC
United Nations Human Rights Council
UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund
UNPOL
UN Police Officer
UNSC
United Nations Security Council
UNSCR
United Nations Security Council Resolution
WPS
Women, Peace and Security

Executive Summary

Fiscal Year (FY) 2015–16 was an important year for the implementation of the international Women, Peace and Security agenda (WPS) as it included the 15th anniversary of the defining United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). Anticipating the anniversary, the UN Security Council called in late 2014 for a high-level review of WPS implementation. The findings of the UN Global Study on WPS Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice and Securing the Peace were taken under consideration.

In FY 2015-16, Canada supported international WPS efforts in several ways. It co-sponsored and co-chaired a new Group of Friends of the Global Study and submitted a paper to the UN Global Study on WPS on Canadian recommendations for future WPS implementation. In April 2015, Canada delivered a strong statement during the UN Security Council’s Open Debate on the prevention of sexual violence in conflict and announced $5 million of Canadian WPS-related programming.

In July 2015, Canada hosted a visit to Quebec City by Ms. Zainab Bangura, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Sexual Violence in Conflict, to brief the small group meeting of the Anti-Daesh Coalition on the results of her assessment mission on sexual violence in the Middle East. Ms. Bangura met with Canadian media; addressed a round table of civil society experts; and gave compelling testimony to senior officials of the Coalition, including the ministers of foreign affairs for Iraq and Canada, about sexual violence in the Middle East, including violence committed by Daesh. On this occasion, the Government of Canada announced some $8 million in programming in support of WPS, including a financial contribution to the work of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Sexual Violence in Conflict.

On November 25, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, Prime Minister Trudeau committed Canada to addressing the issue of violence against women and girls around the world. In February 2016, the Government of Canada announced $270 million over three years for capacity-building in response to the Middle East crisis; this funding will foster inclusive growth and governance; enhance women’s and youth employment; and advance gender equality in the region.

In 2015, the RCMP and its partner Canadian police services deployed approximately 24% female officers to international operations, surpassing the UN target of 20%. In February, 2016, the Chief of Defence Staff issued his Directive on Integrating WPS into the Canadian Armed Forces planning and operations. In March, on International Women’s Day 2016, Canada’s ministers of Foreign Affairs, International Development and International Trade committed to renewing Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (C-NAP), which was due to sunset at the end of the month. Finally, during the reporting period of FY 2015-16, total funding for humanitarian, development and security assistance in support of the WPS agenda was greater than in previous years.

The Government of Canada looks forward to building on its FY 2015–16 actions to further support the WPS agenda. The International Assistance Review and the Defence Policy Review included strong WPS components in their public consultations. In addition, the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development tabled the Government of Canada’s response to the Committee’s report on WPS. The early impacts of the new Office of Human Rights, Freedoms and Inclusion (created in May, 2016) and the $450 million Peace and Stabilization Operations Program (announced in August, 2016) will be seen. These are expected to include the increased empowerment of women in decision making for international peace and security. The results of all of these activities, along with consultations with civil-society experts, will inform the renewal of C-NAP. In the meantime, the Government of Canada’s commitment to WPS implementation, along with the associated policy, advocacy and programming initiatives, continues unabated.

Report

This fifth annual report on Canada's implementation of the National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (C-NAP) covers the period 1 April 2015– 31 March 2016. Annual reports are a central aspect of C-NAP’s accountability framework.

Section 1 features two parts. The first, Diplomatic Leadership and Policy Dialogue, sets out Canada's political, diplomatic and policy actions around the world to advance the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda. The second, Deployments, Programs and Projects, describes relevant Global Affairs Canada (GAC) programs and actions, including the training and deployment of personnel abroad. Section 2 presents lessons learned during the reporting year. Section 3 provides reflections on the C-NAP experience over its five-year life cycle. Section 4 lists the next steps. Section 5 provides details about specific C-NAP actions and indicators.

1. Canada's Implementation of C-NAP

C-NAP has national and international dimensions. At the national level, it includes obligations and expectations for C-NAP implementing partner departments and agencies. These include GAC, the Department of National Defence/Canadian Armed Forces (DND/CAF), the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) of Public Safety Canada. Actions and indicators encompass strategic direction and policy with respect to WPS, such as removing barriers to the participation of women; building capacity in areas relevant to WPS; and adopting measures to prevent violations of rights by Canadian organizations, such as the prohibition of sexual abuse and exploitation (SEA) by Canadians deployed abroad.

Canada's approach combines diplomatic leadership, policy dialogue, deployments and funding programs. The UN Global Study on WPS Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice and Securing the Peace lists Canada among the best-performing donors for incorporating the WPS agenda into funding decisions. The Study notes that “Canada reports the largest share of aid to fragile states and economies targeting gender equality as a principal objective (43 % in 2012-13).”

The Parliament of Canada plays an active role in Canada's WPS policy though the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development. During the reporting period, the Committee launched a review of Canada’s role in supporting the implementation of the WPS agenda to identify progress achieved and the challenges that remain. C-NAP partners, including the United Nations (UN), non-governmental organizations, academics and practitioners, testified to the Committee and provided briefs. Senior GAC officials also testified. In October, 2016, the Committee tabled its report, An Opportunity for Global Leadership: Canada and the Women, Peace and Security Agenda. The Government of Canada tabled its response in Parliament in February 2017.

Diplomatic leadership and policy dialogue are conducted through high-level political statements by ministers at the multilateral organizations such as the UN and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and through bilateral dialogue with specific country situations. Canada often works with like-minded countries to advance common WPS priorities.

The Government of Canada has several mechanisms to fund projects and provide training abroad that advance the WPS agenda. These include humanitarian assistance, international development assistance, the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) and the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI). All of these contributed to the implementation of C-NAP during the reporting period.

I. Diplomatic Leadership and Policy Dialogue

GAC is responsible for representing and advocating Canadian interests and foreign policy abroad. During FY 2015-16, Canada advanced the WPS agenda through the political engagement of ministers, multilateral and bilateral diplomacy. The reporting year saw important WPS achievements in the UN, NATO, the G7 and other organizations, as well as in significant initiatives in conflict-affected and post-conflict countries.

Political Engagement

The involvement of federal ministers anchors Canada's diplomatic leadership on the WPS agenda, signalling a high political priority. On April 15, 2015, the Minister of State for Foreign and Consular Affairs participated in the UN Security Council Open Debate on Sexual Violence in Conflict and delivered a statement that expressed concern over an increase in sexual violence against women and girls in conflict situations  and that read, in part, “Much remains to be done to support survivors and ensure that they can live in dignity with their families and participate fully economically and socially in their communities and countries.”

On November 25, 2015, on International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and International Development stated that “Canada is more than ever committed to eliminating all forms of violence against women and girls, as well as to promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls around the world.”

On International Women's Day 2016 (March 8), the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and of International Development committed to the renewal of C-NAP. The renewed C-NAP will continue to guide the Government of Canada’s efforts to increase the participation of women and girls in all peace and security activities; to protect their human rights, including freedom from sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV); and to ensure their equal access to humanitarian and development assistance.

Multilateral Diplomacy at the UN

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations in New York City is the primary channel of communications between Canada and the UN Secretariat, Security Council and General Assembly. At the UN, Canadian diplomats explain our national positions on global issues and learn the views of other member states. By negotiating the resolutions and international treaties that guide state behaviour, Canada helps to promote peaceful relations and a stable, prosperous world.

During FY 2015–16, Canada continued to play a leading advocacy role at the UN on all four pillars of the WPS agenda, and engaged with key UN agencies and a wide range of member states. Canada participated in key Security Council debates on WPS, sexual violence in conflict (SVC), children and armed conflict, and the protection of civilians. Canadian officials emphasized the impact of armed conflict on women and girls, and called for the full and timely implementation of WPS commitments. Canada also engaged the General Assembly and various committees, including the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, to bring greater attention to WPS-related issues. Canada advocated that WPS be included in the major reviews of UN policies on peace operations and peacebuilding. Canada co-chaired the Group of Friends of the Global Study on WPS.

Canada continues to be a leader in demanding structural reform and accountability for sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) through advocacy with the UN Secretariat, coordination with like-minded member states, and engagement of the Group of Friends of WPS, the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, and the Independent Review Panel on UN Response to Allegations of Sexual Abuse by Foreign Military Forces in Central African Republic.

Diplomatic achievements for FY 2015–16 include the following:

  1. describing Canada’s approach in the Global Study on WPS;
  2. co-chairing of a supporting Group of Friends of the Global Study on WPS; and
  3. co-sponsoring UN Security Council Resolution 2242.
Multilateral Diplomacy with International Organizations in Geneva

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the World Trade Organization, the UN and the Conference on Disarmament (in Geneva, Switzerland) advocates for Canada’s interests in UN entities located in Geneva, such as the High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR). Humanitarian policy and issues related to relief and recovery are key aspects of the work of the mission. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance and the International Committee of the Red Cross headquarters are also in Geneva, along with many other international and civil society organizations.

Whenever the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) considers country situations, Canada pushes for strong language on protecting the rights of women and of the most vulnerable; promoting women's full participation in peace and mediation processes; and eliminating of all forms of violence against women. During FY 2015–16, Canada again led the annual resolution on the elimination of violence against women, which focused on domestic violence, and Canada was a member of a core group of countries that led a resolution on child, early and forced marriage (CEFM). Rates of domestic violence and of CEFM are high during conflicts and may increase in their aftermath.

Canada is co-chair of an expert-level network on women's human rights made up of states, UN entities, NGOs and academics. The network reinforces Canada's leadership on eliminating violence against women, as well as CEFM. Canada is also a member of the Geneva-based Group of Friends on Children in Armed Conflict.

Canada was well represented among the core group of women ambassadors in Geneva that organized a high-level panel, the Power of Empowered Women, which discussed reducing obstacles to women’s participation and leadership in peace and security.

During the 16-day Campaign of Activism against Gender Violence, Canada organized events to raise awareness and understanding among governments, international organizations, NGOs and the general public. During this period, Canada promoted the white-ribbon campaign, a Canadian, grassroots initiative engaging men and boys to end violence against women and girls.

Canada, in partnership with the Netherlands and the International Organisation of La Francophonie, organized a program to train diplomats in practical ways to integrate a gender perspective into the work of UNHRC.

At the annual International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Canada advocated for significant new pledges on, and a resolution to, combat sexual and gender-based violence in natural disasters and situations of armed conflict. At the conference, Canada also co-sponsored a side event on joint action to prevent and respond to SGBV.

Women, Peace and Security at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NATO is committed to removing barriers to women's participation in the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, as well as to reducing the risk of conflict-related and gender-based violence.

Canada supported, and gave profile to, the WPS agenda at NATO with targeted initiatives. Together with Iceland, Canada co-hosted the first International Women's Day event organized by the allies (on March 8, 2016). The event included a high-level panel discussion including the NATO Secretary-General and Iceland’s foreign minister, and featured a frank discussion about engaging leadership on gender equality. The event helped to raise awareness and foster engagement at all levels of NATO – the audience included ambassadors to NATO, along with representatives of partner countries and their armed forces. Following the panel discussion, officials made strong statements in support of advancing gender equality and women's empowerment through NATO's work. There was significant interest in Canada's support for gender equality, its gender-balanced federal Cabinet and for the positive messages delivered about these issues, particularly those delivered by the Prime Minister.

NATO headquarters recognizes Canada's leadership in promoting gender equality. For instance, Canada worked with the allies to develop training packages to operationalize gender perspectives at NATO and to strengthen the WPS aspect of the NATO Policy for the Protection of Civilians. In February and March 2016, Canada and other allies held discussions with the NATO 1325 Office to establish the NATO Civil Society Advisory Panel on Women, Peace and Security. Canada provided substantive input and the Panel was established in April to facilitate dialogue and engagement with civil society on the WPS agenda. Specifically, Canada helped to develop the Panel’s terms of reference and nominated a Canadian civil-society expert to the Panel. The Panel will meet regularly with NATO’s Special Representative for Women, Peace and Security, as well as with NATO staff to provide feedback on, and input to, NATO's work to implement the WPS agenda.

Women, Peace and Security in the G7

In the leaders’ declaration for the 2015 G7 Summit in Scloss Elmau, Germany, Canada and its G7 allies condemned all forms of sexual violence in conflict and committed to enhancing the role of women in international peace and security. Sustainable solutions need to be inclusive in order to re-establish effective governance and achieve sustainable peace and stability. Canada also played a leadership role by drafting the G7 report on the Implementation of the G8 Declaration on Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict (2013), which was published by the German G7 Presidency in November 2015.

Policy Dialogue with Civil Society

In April 2016, GAC officials participated in the event “Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security: How Far Have We Come, and Where are We Going?” that was hosted by the Women, Peace and Security Network-Canada. GAC provided updates on its implementation of the WPS agenda and encouraged the network to continue to monitor and provide their comments and recommendations for improvement. Representatives of GAC, DND, the RCMP and the network discussed WPS issues in December 2015 and January 2016, and are committed to continued collaboration.

Policy Dialogue with Conflict-Affected and Post-Conflict Countries

Enabling direct policy dialogue at the country level is a critical aspect of Canada's approach to the WPS agenda. The following section provides selected examples of Canadian actions to advance the WPS agenda in conflict-affected states.

Syria: Canada consistently advocated for a strong role for women in the Syrian peace process, and urged that women have a decision-making role and be part of the negotiating team representing those opposing Syrian forces. The Special Representative of Canada to the Syrian Opposition pressed for women's empowerment in Syrian opposition bodies and among Syrian stakeholders. Some gains have been made, in part, as a result of Canada’s diplomatic efforts. For example, the Syrian Opposition Coalition (SOC) committed to triple the percentage of its women representatives from 5% to 15%. This is in stark contrast to the situation two years ago, when the former leadership of the SOC dismissed calls for a stronger voice for women. The High Negotiations' Committee (HNC) endorsed a call that all future political bodies in Syria be comprised of at least 30% women. The HNC gave women a more prominent role at the negotiating table, and might appoint a woman as chief negotiator.

Several armed opposition groups that participate in informal dialogue supported by Canada (the Special Representative of Canada to the Syrian Opposition also participated), signed on to a document endorsing UNSCR 1325, thereby acknowledging an important role for women in transitional and future Syrian governments.

Nonetheless, women continue to face challenges in having their voices heard in Syria, and certain dimensions of the conflict have disproportionately impacted women and girls. Syrian women who have sought political roles are particularly vulnerable to attacks on their character. Canada's Special Representative advocates for women's empowerment during all of her engagements with Syrian stakeholders.

Afghanistan: In keeping with its major contribution to Afghanistan, Canada conducts robust and broad WPS-policy dialogue on issues of security, political participation and development. Canada successfully lobbied the Government of Afghanistan to develop, announce and implement Afghanistan’s National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325. In recognition, the ambassador of Canada to Afghanistan spoke on behalf of the international community at the launch of the action plan in July, 2015.

Canada also developed and implemented a women's political participation strategy that involved funding the promotion of women's issues by Afghan NGOs. These issues included equality in justice, employment and security. Canada also worked with Afghan women who are parliamentarians and political leaders to strengthen the voice and role of women in politics, government and the peace process. These efforts contributed to greater participation by women in government, politics, business and social spheres. It also inspired greater awareness of, and actions focused on, issues related to advancement of the rights of women, girls and children.

Canada conducts regular policy dialogue with key development stakeholders both directly and in coordination with other donors to promote the human rights of Afghan women and girls. In this context, Canada facilitated a roundtable discussion among UN agencies about front-line services for the survivors of gender-based violence. The roundtable identified several improved responses to gender-based violence and led to an integrated gender-based violence framework for UN agencies.

Canadian Ambassador Honoured with Freedom House Prize for Advancing Democracy

Freedom House selected Deborah Lyons, Ambassador of Canada to Israel, as one of two recipients of the 2016 Mark Palmer Prize for her inspiring work to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote women’s rights and empowerment in Afghanistan. The award was presented during the September 22 meeting of the governing council of the Community of Democracies. During Ms. Lyons’ tenure as ambassador of Canada to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (2013–2016), she consistently displayed exceptional valour under difficult circumstances to assist civil society and advance democracy, notably with respect to Afghan women. In a country that provides women few opportunities to discuss policy, Ms. Lyons challenged the status quo and helped Afghan women to present policy positions to government. Her remarkable service, during a time that included the crucial 2014 Afghan presidential election, made a significant contribution to strengthening democracy in Afghanistan. The Mark Palmer Prize is awarded to diplomats or officials from international organizations who make exceptional achievements to advance democracy. The prize is named after a former U.S. ambassador who was deeply committed to the advancement of democracy and human rights, and was a tireless supporter of civil society.

Somalia: In February, 2016, Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs participated in the High-level Partnership Forum on Somalia in Istanbul. The Minister’s remarks highlighted the need to include Somali women in all aspects of political and public life, and to protect and advance the rights of women and girls.

During FY 2015–16, the ambassador of Canada to Somalia discussed with Somali government leaders democratic development, governance, federalism, security, counter-terrorism and the provision of basic services. These discussions routinely addressed the importance of human rights and equality for women in Somalia, particularly the prevention of sexual and gender-based violence, the improvement of health services for women, greater participation by women in government and ensuring women's access to humanitarian and development assistance.

South Sudan: During FY 2015–16, Canada's ambassador to South Sudan underscored Canadian support for human rights, particularly of women and girls. Canadian diplomatic efforts on the WPS agenda focused on influencing the Government of South Sudan to improve female representation in government and key ministerial posts, and to enhance the role of women in the decision-making and mediation processes that are essential to achieving long-term peace and stability in South Sudan.

Sudan: During FY 2015–16, the ambassador of Canada to Sudan, Eritrea and Chad regularly promoted the rights of women and girls – and their roles in peace and security processes – when working with the Government of Sudan, international representatives and NGOs. Discussions were held with the First Lady’s Office about its campaign for the abandonment of child marriage; afterwards, the ambassador met with diplomats interested in working together with the Government of Sudan to protect and promote the rights of girls and women in the country.

Canada co-chaired the International Partners Forum (IPF) on human rights in Sudan. Comprised of representatives of diplomatic missions to Sudan, the IPF aims to facilitate and enhance a constructive dialogue with the Government of Sudan on human rights issues, share information and define common positions within the IPF and with government.

Colombia: Canada continued to participate in Colombia’s International Cooperation Gender Coordination Group (Mesa de Género) that includes representatives of 43 organizations, including bilateral donors, UN agencies and international civil society organizations. In January, 2016, Canada became chair of the Group and added peace implementation as a priority. The Group continues to monitor progress made by the gender sub-commission of the peace-negotiation process underway in Havana, Cuba. Representatives of Colombian women’s groups are part of the negotiations to advocate for survivors’ rights to justice, reparation and non-repetition.

Guatemala: In 2015, thanks to sustained joint advocacy with local civil society organizations, Canada, and the international community, Guatemala's Congress voted to raise the legal age of marriage to 18 for both sexes (from 14 for girls and 16 for boys). Canadian projects in Guatemala allowed the mission to raise awareness about the new legislation and its importance in empowering women.

Mali: Canada is a strong advocate for women's participation in its multilateral and bilateral dialogues in Mali. Within the donor community, the gender working group (Groupe thématique genre) has a new work plan that emphasizes institutional support for a new national gender policy for Mali.

II. Deployments, programs and Projects

C-NAP calls for the active participation and representation of women in decision making and in deployments for peace operations, including by identifying and addressing barriers to women’s full participation. This section describes the gender policies and efforts of partner departments related to the participation of women. Programs and projects funded by Canada that aim to promote and advance the WPS agenda are described in the context of the issues that they address. The policies in place to ensure that programs and projects recognize the particular impacts of conflict on women and girls are highlighted.

Global Affairs Canada
Participation of Women

GAC operates at parity, or near parity, in terms of gender participation in its internal executive decision-making roles for peace operations and programs relevant to the WPS agenda. Indicators of female participation during FY 2015–2016 reporting period include (Data: August 15, 2016) the following:

Deployments

Canada provides in-kind and financial support though the GPSF, including the secondment of GAC officers to the Justice Rapid Response (JRR) office in Geneva. JRR is a multi-stakeholder standby facility that provides rapidly deployable experts in areas such as criminal justice. Its goal is to enable prompt, thorough, professional and impartial investigations of serious human rights violations and international crimes. JRR identified, trained and placed Canadian specialists and trainers with WPS expertise on a roster for deployment to relevant multilateral assignments. During FY 2015–16, GAC provided in-kind and financial support to JRR by filling the role of its executive director.

GAC also deployed Canadian personnel through JRR roster to combat sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). GAC funded the provision of three female, Canadian criminal investigators to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) from January to December 2015.

Deployment of Investigators to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

Thanks to JRR training on SGBV, the three female Canadian criminal investigators deployed to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) were able to mainstream gender considerations in each part of the investigation process, and according to the ECCC, “their work has been instrumental in advancing [the] team’s investigation.” In addition to conducting monthly field missions and researching new leads, the experts gathered testimonies about events with complex gender-related components, such as rape and forced marriage, and shone a spotlight on SGBV crimes that occurred in Cambodia. The three JRR experts also provided education and training workshops on SGBV issues to other team members. According to one investigator, prior to this the all-male investigation team had no training or experience in SGBV investigations. According to another investigator’s account, during their short deployment, the experts conducted more than double the amount of interviews previously completed. In addition, two experts separately conducted training for 61 national investigators, and for prosecutors and Cambodian police.

Programs and Projects

GAC manages Canada's international assistance that contributes to the WPS agenda. Each of these programs has policies and procedures to integrate the differential impact of conflict on women, men, girls and boys, as well as to identify and fund projects with the WPS objectives.

This section describes the role these programs played in C-NAP implementation during FY 2015-16 and highlights selected projects of particular significance.

Table A illustrates the number of WPS-related projects by program and the amount of funds disbursed in FY 2015–16. For most of these projects, WPS is not a principal focus of the project, but only a component. Moreover, most projects contribute, to a varying degree, to more than one C-NAP pillar. As a result, to avoid double counting, the total number of projects contributing to each pillar was not provided.

Table A
Programs and ProjectsHumanitarian AssistanceDevelopment AssistanceGPSFCFLITotal
# of WPS-related Projects43503578206
Funding Disbursed in FY 2015-16 ***approximate figures***$269M$123M$22M$2M$416M
Participation035929 
Prevention0382054 
Protection25342664 
Relief and Recovery1810143 
Advocacy029021 
Humanitarian Assistance43300 
Table B
Programs and ProjectsFY 2014-15FY 2015-16
Humanitarian Assistance$181 million$269 million
Development Assistance$73 million$123 million
GPSF$28 million$22.2 million
CFLI$3 million$2 million
Total$285 million$416 million

As demonstrated in Table B, funding for WPS-related projects increased by $131 million in FY 2015-16. This was partially due to an increase of $88 million in humanitarian assistance funding. This funding was provided to ICRC and UNHCR, which have a mandate for humanitarian protection that includes a responsibility to address sexual and gender-based violence. In addition, bilateral development funding for WPS-related projects also increased due to an overall increase in the number of projects in Haiti, Colombia and Guatemala. Bilateral development also increased funding for WPS-related projects in South Sudan, Mali, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Great Lakes.

GAC is aware that there may be potential inconsistencies in WPS-project reporting data due to various factors, including the subjective definition of what constitutes a WPS-related project. These factors hinder the year-over-year comparison of data. To address this problem, GAC aims to standardize project data reporting provided in subsequent progress reports under the renewed C-NAP.

International Humanitarian Assistance: Canada, through its International Humanitarian Assistance Program, aims to save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain the dignity of those affected by conflicts and natural disasters by providing appropriate, timely and effective responses.

At the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul in May 2015, Canada committed to improve internal capacity and the capacity of its partners to mainstream gender equality and address gender-based violence (GBV), including sexual violence, in humanitarian responses through strengthened guidance and tools. This will ensure that all humanitarian programming is gender-responsive, includes effective gender analysis, and monitors and reports on gender equality.

As part of Canada's commitments to the Call to Action on Protection from Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies, a multi-stakeholder initiative that aims to fundamentally transform the way gender-based violence is addressed in humanitarian emergencies, the Minister of International Development announced that Canada will provide dedicated, multi-year funding for gender-based violence prevention and response in humanitarian contexts from 2017–20.

Recognizing that GBV is a persistent feature of the Iraq and Syria crises, GAC continued to support organizations such as the UN Population Fund and the UN Refugee Agency to establish safe spaces in camps and host communities for conflict-affected women and girls, including survivors of GBV, to ensure they have access to emergency medical services, psychosocial support, counselling and legal assistance.

In 2016, Canada also announced renewed support to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Special Appeal on Strengthening the Response to Sexual Violence, with a contribution of $3 million. Through this initiative, the ICRC works to improve the humanitarian response to survivors of sexual violence, as well as to prevent such violations.

Development Assistance: Canada provides international assistance to help people living in poverty in specific countries or regions.

To help end impunity and support survivors of SGBV, GAC supports the UN Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (SRSG-SVC) with a $3 million grant (2015–18). With the objective to increase awareness regarding conflict-related sexual violence, the SRSG-SVC stepped up engagement with partners and member states. The SRSG-SVC briefs the Security Council on an ongoing basis; holds regular meetings with the UN Action Network against Sexual Violence in Conflict; and engages the media on key issues. The topics have included the use of sexual violence as a tactic of war; women and genocide; the vulnerabilities of children born of rape; and the need for health, psychosocial support, and legal services for survivors.

The SRSG-SVC conducted missions to Northern Africa and the Middle East to engage with national authorities and armed groups; raise awareness and address challenges related to conflict-related sexual violence; and to help fight against impunity. The SRSG-SVC also is active in strengthening the capacity of national institutions to ensure accountability for conflict-related sexual violence through providing ongoing technical assistance and support to local governance structures.

Violations of the human rights of women and girls are exacerbated in conflicts and emergencies, including elevated levels of child, early and forced marriage (CEFM). GAC continued to intensify programming on CEFM in 2015, including in fragile and conflict-affected states. For example, in July 2015, Canada announced a $20 million contribution to a project with the UN Population Fund to help end CEFM. The project aims to help adolescent girls gain better access to health information and services, education and life-skills training, and to generate valuable data that will be used for advocacy, training and project tracking. The UN Population Fund is implementing the project over two years in fragile states and conflict-affected countries, including Guatemala, Haiti, Niger, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.

Global Peace and Security Fund: Through the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF), Canada responded to the needs of emerging international crises, and peace and security challenges in a timely, effective and coherent manner. The Government of Canada announced in August 2016 that PSOPs would replace the Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) and GPSF.

The GPSF required proponents to provide a succinct overview of gender and WPS considerations during the project concept stage. Proponents were required to submit complete gender and WPS considerations at the full proposal review stage, which are evaluated by project officers, gender focal points and other project team members. When a project is accepted, the recipients are provided with feedback on how to strengthen gender and WPS considerations, if applicable. (For more information please refer to Indicator 3-1). Once the project agreement or arrangements are signed, project officers complete and document the gender equality and WPS assessments. These assessments record the GE and WPS elements of the projects for reporting purposes.

The gender-equality assessment uses the following scale:

In FY 2015–2016, a total of 104 projects were ongoing, in progress, completed or closed for a total of $120 million (up from $12 million in FY 2014–15). Of 104 GPSF projects, 20 were at GE 02 and 16 were at GE 03, representing 35% of all projects and 23% of all funding disbursed ($22 million).

The average WPS assessment scores for FY 2015–16 were strong (ranging from 45 to 84% per C-NAP pillar and 10-15% higher per indicator than in previous years). The WPS assessment requires analysis of the level of consultations with women’s groups in the design of the intervention, the level of control and access of women and girls to the resources and benefits of the intervention; the contribution to the prevention of all forms of violence against women, and to the protection of physical and mental well-being of women and girls.

Canada Fund for Local Initiatives: The Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) is used by Canadian diplomatic missions to fund small-scale, high-impact bilateral projects designed and implemented by local organizations and government institutions. Projects are delivered quickly, and targeted to locally identified needs. Canadian Embassies in 138 countries eligible for official development assistance deliver the projects. In FY 2015–16, Canadian missions distributed a total of $2 million in CFLI funding for 78 WPS-related projects. During this period, the CFLI had five thematic priorities related to WPS:

  1. Preventing Child and Early Forced Marriage;
  2. Preventing Sexual and Gender-Based Violence;
  3. Protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, including vulnerable groups such as sexual minorities;
  4. Supporting democratic transition and expanded democratic participation, particularly by women and minority groups;
  5. Strengthening economic governance, including building free markets and an effective enabling environment for business.

In conflict-affected states, 74 of the 78 projects (95%) had strong advocacy components that sought to create longer-term attitudinal change. Through workshops, local advocacy campaigns in print, radio and social media, and other outreach, implementing organizations raised awareness of, and provided education about, the prevention of SGBV and CEFM, as well as the importance of protecting human rights. Engaged stakeholders included women and girls, men and boys, community leaders, religious leaders, municipal representatives, teachers and police officers. CFLI funds supported 10 projects focused on increasing the democratic participation of women in countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia, Burkina- Faso and Libya. Project beneficiaries included female political candidates, politicians, activists, and community leaders. Projects included the Election Watch Organization of Afghanistan (EWA), which held a series of consultations across five provinces to discuss challenges to female political participation with 250 women, including candidates who ran in the 2014 election. A report was published and shared with the Government of Afghanistan, and NGOs made recommendations on how to decrease barriers to female political participation in Afghanistan. Another project focussed on the economic empowerment of women in Mozambique.

The CFLI: WPS-related Projects

Text version
The CFLI: WPS-related Projects
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) Thematic Priorities% of projects# of projects
Child and Early Forced Marriage (CEFM)49%38
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV)26%20
Protecting Human Rights of Woman and Girls11%8
Democratic Participation of Women13%10
Strengthening Economic Governance1%1

WPS-related Projects in Conflict-Affected and Fragile Countries

The following section provides examples of how Canada advances the WPS agenda in conflict-affected states.

Afghanistan: During the reporting year, Canada focused on expanding the gains made by Afghan women during the last decade and ensuring continued momentum in women's awareness of, and participation in, political processes. Canada worked with various stakeholders in Afghanistan to improve awareness and understanding of the rights of women and girls among police, prosecutors, judges, politicians, civil society, and community and religious leaders, and to increase the enforcement of laws designed to protect women and girls from SGBV. During FY 2015–16, Canada made a contribution of $83 million to the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces, including for projects aimed at strengthening the participation of women in the force.

Canada's continued funding to the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission supported reconciliation efforts, particularly to address human rights violations and war crimes. The Commission, along with Canada and other members of the international community, also strongly advocated for the full implementation of laws that protect the rights of women and girls, such as the Law on Elimination of Violence against Women.

With Canadian funding to the National Democratic Institute, women provincial council members who were elected in 2014 received training and tools on constituency outreach, lobbying, media relations, public speaking and gender budgeting to build their capacity in fulfilling their political mandates. 83% of these women now report moderate or high confidence in their ability to fulfill their mandate. They are better equipped to take on leadership roles in their communities and work with male counterparts on major provincial issues, including promoting peace and security within communities.

Canada also continued to play a lead role in supporting improved access to safe, quality basic education for girls and women, by working with the Afghan government to reduce the distances between homes and schools, and to ensure that suitable infrastructure exists to facilitate girls' attendance and security. As a result, there was a dramatic increase in the number of girls enrolled in schools across the country. Reports from the Afghan Ministry of Education state that 8.4 million Afghan children, 39% percent of whom are girls, are enrolled in formal and community-based schools. Canada also directly supported more than 9,200 community-based schools across Afghanistan to provide education to over 271,000 students, 81% of whom were female.

Canada's maternal, newborn and child health programming in Afghanistan supported initiatives that facilitate safe access to health services for women and children, and that address the causes and consequences of gender-based violence through training for midwives and representatives of civil organizations, as well as through public awareness activities.

Haiti: Canada worked with Haitian authorities and civil society organizations at the national and regional levels to promote the human rights of women and girls and women’s empowerment, as well as to prevent and address SGBV.

In the Southwest and Artibonite regions, where Canada supports significant bilateral programming in areas including health, education, and resettlement services for women, newborns and children, behaviour change related to the status and role of women was observed. For instance, more women held leadership positions and participated in project partners' decision-making structures. An innovative approach was also introduced in the Artibonite region promoting responsible masculinity, which saw 5,000 men and fathers sensitized to the rights of women and girls. Furthermore, between September 2015 and March 2016, 1,564 families, including 750 women-headed households, living in displaced-persons camps were supported to relocate to the community of their choice. Special social-protection measures, including psychosocial support and follow-up visits, were provided. As of March 2016, 69% of relocated women-headed households have reported improvement in their living conditions.

Canada also fostered the professionalization of the Haitian National Police by supporting training and professional development for senior officers. Gender equality considerations, including SGBV, were integrated into the training curriculum. To date, 146 Haitian inspectors and commissioners, 13 of whom are women, have graduated from the National Police Academy.

Syria: As described on p.12, Canada is a strong advocate for the inclusion of women in the Syrian peace process. Canada funded Track II discussions that preceded the launch of the peace process. In the lead up to the UN-led peace negotiations, Canada supported an initiative that provided expert female advisers to assist the Syrian Opposition High Negotiations Committee (HNC), and supported the participation of women in the peace process through the provision of training and expert consultations to all three of the women on the negotiation delegation and to members of the HNC Women's Advisory Board.

Inside Syria, the Himaya project takes a community-based approach to addressing SGBV with the goal of changing community perceptions of SGBV, making it a tangible and shared community concern. Himaya engages community members, governance actors, and civil-society partners in identifying local SGBV risk factors, and subsequently supporting the design and implementation of prevention mechanisms to mitigate these risk factors. This helps women and girls feel safer and, over time, should reduce the level of violence against them. Examples of Himaya’s work include safe transportation networks for women and renovations to war-damaged schools to make them safe for girls.

Colombia: Several of Canada’s projects in Colombia support policy dialogue and development efforts on the WPS agenda, including essential services and better economic opportunities for displaced persons, mine action, children’s rights, protection and education, and support for youth as agents of change and entrepreneurs in their communities. For example, the Transitional Solutions Initiative implemented by the UNHCR contributed to 14 local development plans and territorial action plans to support survivors of conflict. As of March 2016, 177 households (50 %of which are female headed) have better economic opportunities and 5,809 households (44 % female headed) benefitted from better access to basic public services such as water, sanitation, education and health. Ten of the targeted communities implemented a gender-sensitive protection strategy for internally displaced-persons as part of their community-based plans.

Through the Assistance to Landmine Survivors project implemented by Handicap International, Canada helped train 416 new landmine survivors on their rights, and how to access Colombia’s legal system and apply for survivors’ assistance. An additional 508 public officials were trained in how to apply the survivors’ assistance process (ruta de atención). The project also supported the International Seminar on Gender and Psychosocial Assistance II, which focussed on survivors’ organizational networking with other countries and 500 stakeholders, including other civil society organizations in Latin America.

Con Paz Aprendemos Más: Protecting Education for Vulnerable Children and Youth in Colombia is a project implemented by Mercy Corps and War Child Holland. It supports the National Family Welfare Institute’s training sessions that promote equality in relationships and protection mechanisms to address sexual violence in the Putumayo department of Colombia. Working in isolated regions, the project provided 2,091 children with psychosocial services, academic support and extracurricular activities that address gender, age, risk level and ethnic diversity. The project also helped enhance a culture of child protection with 3,248 parents and caregivers.

Creciendo Juntos (Growing Together): Sustainable Development for Youth in Colombia.

Colombia is emerging from 50 years of internal armed conflict. One of the regions most affected by the conflict and by narco-trafficking is Nariño, on the west coast. Youth represent more than half of Nariño's population and are often recruited by guerrilla groups and criminal gangs. This exposes them to violence, exploitation, and abuse.

In 2010, the Government of Canada and the UN Development Program created a unique initiative. This five-year project trained 3,615 youth (2,067 women) between the ages of 15 and 26 in leadership, peacebuilding, gender equality and entrepreneurship. The project created safe spaces where young women and men could discuss their problems and concerns with parents, teachers, local authorities and community members, and provided training to caregivers and authorities in positive child-rearing techniques, prevention of violence—including gender-based violence—and protection of the rights of children and youth. Three youth leaders from this program were later elected to public office as community councillors.

Creciendo Juntos provided technical training and seed grants to help 1,837 conflict-affected youth (1,042 women) develop businesses in sectors such as agriculture, waste management, water purification and livestock. This provided alternatives to coca cultivation and recruitment by criminal groups. Fifty-seven youth-owned companies—all employing women in management positions—currently operate, and often employ multiple youth beneficiaries in extremely isolated areas.

Guatemala: Since 2008, Canada provided $18 million to the UN-backed International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (known by its Spanish acronym CICIG). CICIG continues to combat present-day impunity and criminal structures, including for violence and abuse against women, in cooperation with the Guatemalan justice system. Canada’s support helped CICIG deliver gender equality training for its staff and establish a gender equality working group in January 2015, which gathers investigative teams of men and women within the Commission to carry out gender-based analysis. They are now paying closer attention to the gender roles in criminal structures. In spring 2016, CICIG released the report Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation Purposes in Guatemala.

Canada also contributed to strengthening legal representation for strategic human rights litigation and the fight against impunity for violence against women and other serious human rights violations in Guatemala. Project work included support to the landmark case of Sepur Zarco, which resulted in the conviction of two former military officers for crimes against humanity—the sexual and domestic enslavement of 15 Maya Q'eqchi' women—as well as for several counts of homicide and forced disappearance.

Mali: Canada supports Mali’s justice sector with a gender-based approach to protect and advance women's rights. For instance, Canada supports a ten-year reform project to build the credibility, effectiveness and accessibility of Mali’s justice system, especially for women and children.

The project Justice, Prevention and Reconciliation for Women, Minors and Others Affected by the Crisis in Mali advances concrete responses to the effects of the crisis. The project fosters access to justice services for people affected by the crisis (especially women and youth) and ensures that victims of serious human rights violations or corruption receive legal representation. Another component of the project is reconciliation, using an inclusive process of dialogue within and between communities. In FY 2015–16, thanks to this project, Canada contributed to women's rights and improved women’s access to justice by ensuring legal representation before the national courts for 21 female survivors. In addition, the project’s reconciliation and conflict-prevention efforts have created eight peace committees comprised of community leaders (30% of whom are women) in northern regions. These leaders are spearheading efforts to prevent and resolve conflicts. Using a gender-based approach, the project also raised the awareness of 1,575 participants about large-scale community dialogues in the regions of Ségou, Mopti et Gao.

National Defence
Participation of Women

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) does not differentiate between women and men when selecting personnel for operations. Women participate actively and meaningfully in all aspects of international missions, including peace support operations. The CAF ensure that all deployed equipment is suitable for both women and men.

The CAF envision an institution comprised of members who reflect the rich diversity of Canada and who are recognized and encouraged to maintain and contribute their unique experiences, abilities and perspectives within a respectful and inclusive environment. The Canadian Forces Diversity Strategy has four goals: understanding diversity culture and requirements; inculcating a culture of diversity, inclusion and respect; modernizing policies to support and institutionalize diversity requirements; and generating and sustaining a CAF that reflects Canada's diversity.

As part of the Diversity Strategy, the CAF instituted special measures to attract greater numbers of qualified women from the Canadian workforce. In FY 2015–16, direction was given for initiatives to be developed within the CAF to recruit and retain women. The Chief of Defence Staff has directed that the CAF emphasize the recruitment of women for all trades with the aim of achieving Designated Group representation both in the recruiting cadres and applicants to the CAF within ten years. This would achieve CAF’s larger diversity objectives.

There are indicators for the participation of women in senior Department of National Defence (DND) positions for the reporting period (as of 31 March 2015):

Chief of the Defence Staff Directive for Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Related Resolutions into CAF Planning and Operations

The Chief of Defence Staff Directive for Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Related Resolutions into CAF Planning and Operations (CDS Directive) requires the integration of C-NAP and the WPS agenda into all CAF operations. The initial focus will be the integration of Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+, see text box) into the design and delivery of operational effect, enabled by establishing gender adviser positions within the Chief of the Defence Staff, Commander Joint Operations Command, and Commander Canadian Special Operations Forces Command in the summer of 2016. GBA+ has been also incorporated into CAF training and education for strategic and operational planning.

What is GBA+? (From Status of Women Canada)

Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+) is an analytical tool for examining the potential impacts of policies, programs and initiatives on diverse groups of women and men, girls and boys, taking into account gender and other identity factors. When applied to government work, GBA+ can help us understand how diverse groups of women and men experience public policy in Canada.

Identity factors include: gender, age, language, sexual orientation, education, ability, geography, culture, ethnicity and income.

The role of the Government of Canada: It is the duty of the Government of Canada to ensure that Canadian women and men, girls and boys are not adversely affected by public policy and that gender considerations enter in the decision-making process. The federal government expects GBA+ to be used as a key tool to inform and assess policies, programs, legislation, services and decision-making.

Prevention of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Misconduct

During the previous reporting period, the CAF developed and implemented the Action Plan on Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour to address the 10 recommendations of the External Review into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces. In August 2015, the CAF incorporated the Action Plan into a more comprehensive institutional plan to eliminate harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour under Operation HONOUR launched by the Chief of Defence Staff. The Operation goes beyond the recommendations and covers four lines of effort—understand, respond, support, and prevent—with corresponding changes to policies, programs, training and education, and a more robust performance-measurement framework.

One of Operation HONOUR's defining features is its focus on survivors as the starting point for the CAF's response to harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour. In September 2015, the CAF established the Sexual Misconduct Response Centre—the first dedicated independent support centre for CAF members affected by sexual harassment or assault. At present, the centre provides CAF members with support services that include counselling, referrals and assistance.

In February 2016, the CAF published the first progress report covering June-December 2015; the second report (for the period ending June 2016) stated, “the achievements to date are significant and are already leading to change on the ground.” However, as seen in the sobering Stats Canada report released in late 2016, these changes are tempered by the reality that despite early progress, incidents of harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour and sexual offences continue to occur. Operation HONOUR is off to a positive start in establishing the footings for sustained, long-term positive change. Changing culture will not happen overnight, and the focus on positive change must be relentless.

No incidents of SEA by deployed CAF personnel were reported during FY 2015–16.

Deployments

All 338 CAF personnel deployed to peace operations during FY 2015–16 received pre-deployment training that examines the differential impact of armed conflict on women, men, girls and boys.

CAF deployments in FY 2015–16 were as follows:

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Participation of Women

Increasing the number of female police officers deployed to peace operations is a priority and a challenge for the UN and the RCMP. The RCMP, together with its police partner agencies from across Canada, exceeded the UN’s goal of 20% female police participation in missions. Women accounted for approximately 24% of Canadian police deployed to peace operations in FY 2015-16. To continue increasing female deployments, the RCMP took a number of measures. All job bulletins for peace operations include specific text to encourage female candidates to apply for deployments. The RCMP also selects female candidates when an equally qualified man and woman are competing for a position.

During FY 2015–16, female Canadian police officers served in senior and/or strategic positions in peace operations, such as these examples:

The RCMP integrated its participation strategy into its external communications by featuring events and stories related to female and male Canadian police peacekeepers on the RCMP website, in social media and other communications collateral in an effort to increase awareness and promote female participation.

Prevention of Sexual Abuse and Exploitation

The RCMP and its police partners involved in international peace operations are committed to upholding the highest standards of police conduct in missions. Canadian police in peace operations are subject to the code of conduct of their police service and that of the host organization such as the UN or the EU. The RCMP strictly prohibits intimate or sexual relations with members of the local population. Mission participants sign letters agreeing to abide by this policy. Failure to abide by the policy will result in the immediate repatriation of the participant, who may be subject to disciplinary actions or conduct proceedings in Canada by his/her police service.

Deployments

The Canadian Police Arrangement (CPA) is the framework through which Canadian police are deployed to international police, peacekeeping and peace operations around the world. The CPA is a partnership between Public Safety Canada, GAC and the RCMP.

Under the CPA, the RCMP is responsible for all operational activities during deployments. The RCMP’s International Liaison and Deployment Centre manages every stage of deployments, including recruitment, screening, selection and pre-deployment training, ongoing health and specialized-equipment support, reintegration of returning personnel, as well as performance management and reporting for the CPA program.

During the reporting period, approximately 25 municipal or provincial police agencies from across Canada were involved in the program. Partner agencies generally account for approximately 65% of all deployed police personnel, with the RCMP accounting for the remaining 35%.

Canadian police participated in the following WPS-relevant operations in FY 2015–16:

Canadian police officers also work with the UN’s Selection Assistance and Assessment Team (SAAT). SAAT travels to police-contributing countries to evaluate applicants for UN missions in terms of language, shooting and driving skills, understanding of the UN context, and articulating what their competencies, skills, abilities and background could bring to a mission. In 2013, as part of its efforts to recruit more women for missions, the UN launched all-female pre-Assessment for Mission Service Selection Assistance and Assessment Team (AMS SAAT). After experiencing initially low pass rates during AMS SAAT testing, the UN asked Canada for instructors who could deliver a two-week pre-SAAT training course. The course would enable candidates to familiarize themselves with SAAT requirements and hone the required skills. During FY 2015–16, Canadian police officers worked with the UN to implement the AMS SAAT training project in Benin, Niger and Togo.

In Haiti, a Canadian police officer coordinated and trained all gender focal points in Haiti and served as technical adviser on gender to the police commissioner. The police officer also assisted the Haitian National Police (HNP) in:

  1. elaborating a gender policy;
  2. assisting the HNP Bureau de la Coordination des affaires feminine implement its directives; and
  3. promoting gender, the recruitment and retention of women in the HNP, and ensuring that gender perspectives were taken into account during boards of selection for positions of responsibility within the mission.

In Ukraine, two senior female Canadian police officers were deployed to EUAM Ukraine. One of these members worked as a gender adviser. She worked with the EUAM chief of staff on internal gender policy, which included the provision of gender training for new mission members during their mission-induction training. She also worked on the female recruitment policy of the National Police of Ukraine (NPU) and became a part of the government working group on Resolution 1325 National Action Plan and Policy. In November 2015, she was appointed as the strategic planning adviser to the Chief of the NPU.

Correctional Service of Canada
Deployments

Treatment of women prisoners is a critical issue when it comes to the WPS agenda and the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) plays a significant role. CSC supported the Government of Canada's foreign policy objectives by helping countries to operate safe and effective correctional systems in line with international standards.

CSC makes conscious decisions for gender parity when developing projects. Gender representation is also taken into consideration when choosing candidates for CSC's international activities. A female correctional expert was among three staff deployed to Haiti for six months to work with the country’s national prison administration. In Chad, Niger and Cameroon, a female warden is one of two CSC staff participating in the Lake Chad Basin Countering Violent Extremism Project,alongside members of the United States Department of Justice's International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program. In each country, they will assess a prison, facilitate a workshop with senior officials and conduct a follow-up visit.

International Capacity Building

CSC worked with the Swedish Prison and Probation Service in response to a request from the UN for a standardized, modular training manual. The UN accredited the manual in 2013 as the new UN Peacekeeping Pre-deployment Training Standards for Corrections Officers.

In addition to the UN Prison and Probations Officers Course held in Sweden, pre-deployment training is regularly held in a regional setting with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Since 2014, these sessions have included Canadian facilitators and CSC strives for gender parity of trainers for each session. The training is offered to an international group of corrections officers selected for deployment to a UN peace operation. Among other topics, these sessions covered the UN Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders,which areminimum standards rules. The CSC is also developing the Effective Practices for Gender Responsive Treatment of Women Prisoners training curriculum on the practical application of these rules. This will build the skills and knowledge required of deployed corrections officers to intervene effectively with women offenders while respecting international standards.

2. Lessons Learned from the previous year - FY 2014-15

Engaging Traditional Religious and Community Authorities: Canada’s work in Afghanistan demonstrated that governments alone cannot advance the WPS agenda. Gender equality and the realization of women and girls' rights also require working with local, traditional community authorities to discuss policy and implement projects.

Youth Participation: Canada's development work in Colombia demonstrates that, with the right training, support, and leadership opportunities, youth can lead peaceful dialogue and change attitudes to unequal gender relations in conflict-affected environments. Economic independence also gives young women and men a real opportunity to lead and become agents of change, inspiring community members to do things right.

Addressing Conflict and Security Issues through Human Rights Training: In Pakistan, the Baluchistan Responsive Fund project shows the importance of working on human rights issues to address conflict and insecurity. Over the life of the project, specific human rights training was provided to targeted groups. Training for police, for instance, focused on prisoners and youth detainees. Training for teachers emphasized violence against women. Training for journalists covered religious and minority rights, while training for community leaders, including religious leaders, addressed child, early and forced marriage. At a broader governance level, the project worked with university students by providing forums for democratic discussion on political rights and responsibilities. Projects focusing on human rights were planned very carefully to prevent conflict and the erosion of trust among representatives of community, NGO and donor organizations.

3. Next Steps

Renewal of C-NAP

On March 8, 2016, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and International Development issued a joint statement announcing that C-NAP will be renewed. They reaffirmed Canada’s commitment to gender equality, the empowerment of women and girls, including their economic empowerment, and the promotion and protection of their rights in all parts of the world. The renewed C-NAP will continue to take a whole-of-government approach and guide the Government of Canada’s efforts to implement the WPS agenda. Canada’s work in this area will continue to take a gender-based approach and promote women’s and girls’ voices, protect their human rights, and empower them as agents of change.

Diplomatic Leadership and Policy Dialogue

There are a number of opportunities ahead for Canadian diplomatic leadership and policy dialogue. These include the launch of the Security Council’s 2242 Informal Expert Group on WPS; the Global Acceleration Instrument on Women, Peace, Security and Humanitarian Action to improve financing for the WPS agenda; Canada's growing involvement in UN peace operations; ongoing development in the UN system of policies intended to counter sexual exploitation and abuse; the potential emergence of a UNSCR 1325 Military Network group among military advisers at the UN; and the launch of the WPS National Focal Points Network.

Programs and Projects

The International Assistance Review will significantly contribute to C-NAP implementation through various programs and projects. It included extensive consultations with staff of GAC, other government departments and NGOs, and with youth. The review will determine how to focus Canada's international assistance to help the poorest and most vulnerable populations, and support fragile states through development, adoption of best practices, and application of lessons learned.

Deployments

The CAF will develop a framework to fully integrate GBA + into operations and institutions to the extent that such considerations are a routine part of all activities, policies and programs. Fully integrating C-NAP and the WPS agenda will contribute to operational excellence on the part of the CAF. This effort is also the gateway to developing CAF capability to address a range of challenges in the operational environment. These include the prevention of SGBV and SEA, and the protection of civilians.

As part of Operation HONOUR, a comprehensive audit of CAF training and education content was completed, and the modernization of all related curriculum is underway with the objective of delivering more modern, pertinent and resonant training on harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour to all CAF members throughout their careers. Among the most important elements are performance measurement tools for regular, structured assessment of outcomes. Statistics Canada conducted a prevalence survey of Regular Force and Primary Reserve CAF members between April and June 2016. Further performance measurement and environment tools will be implemented in the next six to twelve months.

The RCMP will conduct a national survey of female police officers to identify factors that may limit female participation in international peace operations. Mission-specific, pre-deployment training will be continuously improved to effectively include the differential impacts of conflict on women, men, girls and boys, and continuing efforts will be made to integrate gender and WPS considerations into deployments to peace operations. JRR training opportunities will be monitored for potential participation of Canadian police officers that relate to the investigation of SGBV. The RCMP will continue to assess participation in upcoming UN SAAT training projects, as well as explore other deployments that align with WPS priorities.

4. A Look Back on the 2011-2016 C-NAP

Overall, looking back at the 2011-2016 C-NAP, we realize that in the renewal there are opportunities for a deeper and more sustained engagement with civil society. We also learned a lot with regard to performance measurement and target setting. We learned lessons on how best to attribute activities to WPS and on how to report on those activities. It became clear that there is scope for the involvement of other parts of government. We responded to the call for Canada to take on a more ambitious gender agenda, which was clearly visible in the increase in WPS activities in the year covered by this report but is also features centrally in C-NAP renewal.

Relations with Canadian Civil Society Organizations (CSO).

In 2010, C-NAP was drafted in close cooperation with CSOs, primarily through the then-Gender and Peacebuilding Working Group of the Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee, later Peacebuild Canada. C-NAP mandates the government to maintain close contact with civil society, and after the closure of Peacebuild in 2011, the government did so primarily through Women, Peace and Security Network Canada (WPSN-C), a volunteer organization of NGO’s and individual WPS experts. Meetings with the Network were at first ad hoc and infrequent but on the recommendation of the independent evaluation undertaken as part of the C-NAP mid-term review of 2014, itself undertaken in consultation with civil society, the consultations were formalized and scheduled on a more regular basis.

The Government very much appreciates the constructive approach which WPSN-C and other civil society actors have taken in their commentary on the government’s C-NAP implementation.  This appreciation includes the efforts which WPSN-C put into its testimony and submissions in 2016 to the hearings on WPS issues for the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development, the International Assistance Review and the Defence Policy Review, all of which had strong gender equality and WPS aspects. It also extends to the several reports on C-NAP implementation which the Network has published.

The Government has been pleased to cooperate with WPSN-C internationally in the form of joint government-civil society delegations to international workshops on WPS. We also cooperated on the selection of a WPSN-C member to participate in a leadership position on the NATO Civil Society Advisory Panel. For its part, the Network and its members have organized several sessions and workshops that provided valuable information to the government on the global state of play for WPS implementation as well as an opportunity to exchange information with outside and foreign actors on WPS issues.

Going Forward

That close coordination between the government and WPSN-C and other interested civil society actors continue for the design and implementation of a renewed C-NAP, including with regular and formal consultation sessions.

Baseline, Targets, Actions and Indicators.

To implement a program, one must know where one is starting from (the baseline); know what one is trying to accomplish (the target); know what is required to move from the baseline to the target (the actions), and have a means of measuring progress (the indicators). C-NAP had 28 actions and 24 indicators, but no baseline or targets. The absence of the latter two elements has had several consequences. First, real performance measurement was not possible. While the government could report on the actions it was taking in accordance with the indicators, it could not say where it was heading or whether it was getting there.

Second, the absence of a baseline meant that Canada’s already leading global role in implementing the WPS resolutions was not apparent – such activities as our chairing since 2000 of the UN-based WPS Group of Friends, the strong gender-based approach in the Human Security Program, leadership at the Human Rights Council on the elimination of violence against women, the strong thrust for gender equality, women’s empowerment, and response to sexual violence in development and humanitarian programs, the already full integration of women in Canadian police deployments, and the opening of all military occupations and foreign deployments to both women and men without discrimination by the Canadian Forces.  A description of this baseline would have made for more realistic expectations as to what C-NAP was designed to accomplish.

Finally, without a baseline to work from, and targets to work towards, the 28 actions, while good in and of themselves, were unfocused.  There were too many of them on too broad an array of issues which meant that, while good work was accomplished, the transformative progress which some expected of C-NAP could not be demonstrated or realized.

Going Forward

The renewed C-NAP have a strong baseline and realistic targets with a limited number of actions which are clearly focused on moving from one to the other and for which performance can be measured through appropriate indicators.

C-NAP Structure for Implementation and Reporting.

C-NAP calls for implementation to be undertaken on what has been termed “a distributed basis”, that is, each partner department or agency is responsible for implementation within their respective mandates, authorities, resources and accountability frameworks. This worked well as it respects the structure of Canada’s government. C-NAP also calls for partners to submit an annual report to GAC which, in turn, is to coordinate the preparation of a consolidated, annual report for public release.

As is reflected in the above discussion, C-NAP also contained government-wide actions and indicators and it was quickly found that it was difficult to capture the diverse activities of all partners in the common reporting template. This structure didn’t provide readers with the ability to track trends and performance from one year to the next, or across the government. The reporting of financial data which could reasonably be tracked from year to year also proved problematic. The Inter-departmental WPS Working Group worked diligently to resolve the issue but concluded that it could not be done. The working group has discussed with civil society colleagues whether it might not be better for the next C-NAP to have each partner define its baseline, targets, actions and indicators in its own C-NAP annex, under an overarching high-level, government-wide strategy. The annual report would be similarly structured to give a realistic picture of implementation progress by each partner, and how that progress is helping achieve the government-wide, strategic objectives.

Going Forward

The renewed C-NAP be bi-structural with an overarching strategic framework covering individual implementation plans for each partner department and/or program. The annual public C-NAP report be similarly bi-structural with narrative and data which reflects the progress being made by each C-NAP partner and how its work contributes to the realization of the overall strategic objective.

The Attribution of Activities as WPS.

Common to many WPS and NAP implementing countries the government found that the four WPS pillars – Prevention, Protection, Participation, and Relief and Recovery - while a useful conceptual construct in that it demonstrates the inter-relationship among the pillars and how they work to reinforce each other, is not useful for organizing NAP reporting. For example, a post-conflict Recovery activity can often equally be considered as a Prevention activity with respect to the potential for renewed violence. And Participation and Protection activities can apply to Prevention and to Recovery. Further, while countries which are in violent conflict, as well as immediate post-conflict countries, are reasonably readily identifiable, defining fragile states, or states in potential conflict can be problematic from the perspective of the analysis itself, as well as from political and diplomatic concerns such as Canada indicating that a state is fragile which might not consider itself to be so. And some active conflicts are localized within otherwise reasonably stable states which raises issues of how much of a country-wide program can be attributed to WPS.

There is also the question of whether an activity is solely WPS, or partly so and how to track WPS activities, including in relation to activities with GE coding. Key to this is how to better develop indicators in order to measure performance and progress over time. Finally, the attribution of activities to WPS assumes a consistent and relatively high level of gender expertise across the government. The above-described issues made consistent monitoring and reporting across the government and from year to year very challenging, and was a challenge compounded by the impact of a rotational workforce.

Going Forward

C-NAP partners devise a simple and focused approach to the issue of how to attribute activities as WPS including through enhancing gender-based analysis skills among officers through training; establishing and staffing of gender expert positions where needed; harmonizing an approach to gender-marking of projects; and fostering a gender-based culture in all peace and security work.

To Conclude

An overall lesson learned over the past five reporting cycles is the importance of making C-NAP goals and reporting central to the partner department’s core processes. This would include ensuring that WPS is a central consideration which is integrated in all phases of policy development and programming, and not a parallel or separate process.

5. Detailed Reporting: Updated Actions and Indicators

Action 1: Ensure that all organizations receiving Government of Canada funding have organizational codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse.

GAC

All organizations receiving funding from the Government of Canada for projects in response to humanitarian appeals are required to have codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse. GAC’s pre-screening of humanitarian NGOs includes a question on whether the organization has a code of conduct that is consistent with the core principles of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s Plan of Action and Core Principles of Codes of Conduct on Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation in Humanitarian Crises. Grant agreements with NGOs include a clause stating that the NGO must have a code of conduct consistent with these core principles. UN agencies, the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement and the IOM all have either a code of conduct or relevant policies related to the protection from sexual exploitation and abuse. In addition, they are members of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s Task Force on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse By Our Own Staff, which undertakes reviews of the implementation of these codes of conduct.

Number of humanitarian-assistance partners: 59

Number of humanitarian-assistance partners with codes of conduct consistent with the Plan of Action and Core Principles of Codes of Conduct on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse: 59

GAC manages the CFLI and GPSF, which fund programming in fragile and conflict-affected states. The next two paragraphs explain why these do not require that recipient organizations maintain codes of conduct related to SEA.

CFLI works with several hundred local organizations, some of which lack the capacity and resources needed to create SEA-related organizational codes of conduct. Missions do not require recipient organizations to have these codes to improve access CFLI funds; furthermore, the amount of available funding is relatively small. Missions are careful to vet individual organizations during the application process and closely monitor progress during the program cycle. If a mission receives complaints about a recipient organization, it can investigate through further monitoring or contact the Investigations Division at GAC.

GPSF provides funding to small, medium and large NGOs, multilateral organizations, and foreign governments to carry out projects in conflict-affected states. Large organizations often have policies and organizational codes of conduct to prevent SEA, while many small organizations lack the capacity to draft codes of their own. As a result, GPSF does not require recipient organizations to have SEA-related organizational codes of conduct. However, GPSF collects them from organizations if they are available.

Indicator 1-1: Number and percentage of organizations receiving Government of Canada funding that have organizational codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse.

GAC

Humanitarian Assistance: (note there may be overlap with other divisions funding some of the same organizations)

Number: 59

Percentage: 100%

Indicator 2-1: Do departments/agencies offer (or offer access to) pre-deployment or general training courses, including courses taken while deployed on mission, for peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations that reflect the content of the UNSCRs on WPS? (For example, do they examine the differential impact of armed conflict on women, men, girls and boys, and address key issues such as codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, SGBV, and Canadian and international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights?)

GAC

In 2015, GAC hired a full-time resource within the Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START), which manages GPSF, dedicated to learning and training, and assigned a clear mandate to strengthen and update training on WPS and gender. Thus, during FY 2015–2016, efforts to address training gaps in gender and WPS focused on assessing needs within START, promoting existing gender-analysis training, and enriching the treatment of gender in other peace- and security-related courses for staff of GAC and partner departments. Staff deployed to crisis situations are specifically required to complete online Gender-Based Analysis Plus course and this requirement was highlighted during recent recruitment efforts. Also, courses introducing policy frameworks and responses, formal and informal mediation, Canadian natural-disaster response and protection of civilians in armed conflict were reviewed for the treatment of gender and WPS issues. As a result of this review, greater prominence was given to raising awareness of the importance of a gender perspective, and to highlighting key issues and resources in support of C-NAP implementation.

On the programming side, START staff attended the introductory gender-awareness training, as well as information sessions on mediation, SGBV, CEFM, and WPS/C-NAP as it relates to current programming. Designated gender focal points were urged to attend five days of training on gender equality and results-based management with some success.

DND/CAF
RCMP

All Canadian police officers deploying to peace operations attend RCMP pre-deployment training to ensure the integration of gender perspectives in their missions. The training program supplements mission-specific training generally provided by the UN or other multilateral organization to which police are deployed.

During FY 2015-16, all police officers deployed to peace operations received an in-class session on ethics and code of conduct, as well as a minimum one-day cultural-awareness session with gender-related content. Since the adoption of the C-NAP, the RCMP also began including mission-specific sessions on the differential impact of conflict on women, men, girls and boys. The RCMP provided country-specific WPS training to officers deployed to Haiti, the West Bank, Ukraine and Cambodia.

The RCMP International Liaison and Deployment Centre (ILDC) offers two- to three-week pre-deployment training courses for police deploying to peace operations. The courses include sessions on cultural awareness, code of conduct and ethics, and, as applicable, mission-specific gender, WPS- and SGBV-focused session.

CSC

In January 2015, Canada commenced its two-year term as Chair of the Group of Friends of Corrections in Peace Operations (GoF). The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), with support from GAC, leads this effort. The GoF is driven by UN member states, and provides expert advice and support on correctional issues to the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The GoF supported the UN Department in the development of specialized training to address the unique needs of women offenders in host countries of UN peace operations, thereby promoting transformational leadership in correctional services in post-conflict countries. The CSC led the development of this innovative training, which was based on international research, and created the training curriculum Effective Practices for Gender Responsive Treatment of Women Prisoners. The curriculum focuses on the practical application of the UN Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules—standard minimal human rights rules for women’s prisons). It will contribute to building leadership and engagement internationally by equipping corrections personnel with the skills and knowledge required to intervene effectively with women offenders, while respecting international standards.

Since 2005, the Swedish Prison and Probation Service delivered the UN Prison and Probation Officers Course on an annual basis. The Service, responding to a request by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations and in close collaboration with the CSC, developed a standardized modular manual, which was formally accredited by the UN in 2013 as the new UN Peacekeeping Pre-deployment Training Standards for Corrections Officers. Furthermore, the pre-deployment training is regularly held in regional settings in collaboration with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations and members of the GoF, such as Kenya, Ghana, Rwanda, Uganda, Senegal, Canada and Zimbabwe. Since 2015, these sessions have always included Canadian facilitators and the training is offered to corrections officers selected for deployment to UN peace operations. These sessions include important modules that cover the Bangkok Rules and UNSCR 1325.

Indicator 2-2: Number and percentage of Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations, fragile states, or conflict-affected situations who receive pre-deployment training or training while deployed on mission that examines the differential impact of armed conflict on women, men, girls and boys, and addresses key issues such as: a) codes of conduct; b) cultural awareness; c) HIV/AIDS; d) trafficking in persons; e) protection; and/or f) Canadian and international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

GAC

Five of the seven GAC personnel deployed as part of START’s rapid-response capability to a fragile or conflict-affected situation had all received prior gender- and conflict-analysis training that integrates gender considerations.

DND/CAF

Number:

RCMP

Number and percentage: All 75 personnel completed the RCMP ILDC pre-deployment training and/or online training covering these issues. The required two- to three-week pre-deployment training course and/or mandatory online-training modules for police deploying to peace operations addressed the relevant issues in the indicator. The content of these sessions is described fully in 2-1 and 2-3.

Indicator 2-3: Extent to which relevant region- or mission-specific pre-deployment or field training modules for Government of Canada personnel on protection issues address in a meaningful way the differential impact of the conflict on women, men, girls and boys.

GAC

GAC’s pre-deployment training in Afghanistan includes extensive discussions about Afghan history and culture, noting the uniquely challenging impact that the legacy of the Taliban regime and the ongoing conflict had on Afghan women and girls. It also includes a significant focus on Canadian objectives in Afghanistan, of which the protection of women and girls is a top priority.

DND

Training on human rights and the law of armed conflict is mandatory for CAF personnel deployed to peace support operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations. This training addresses the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.

DND’s Peace Support Training Centre, in collaboration with GAC, delivers country-specific cultural programs and awareness training for those deployed to, and/or in support of, operations to raise awareness of gender and cultural differences. The Centre enables the CAF to prepare personnel to effectively deal with the cultural and gender aspects of their deployment.

CAF personnel receive training on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the law of armed conflict, ethics, individual conduct and responsibilities, and the appropriate rules of engagement. The WPS agenda is embedded within CAF training. For instance, the training covers various types of human rights violations (including trafficking in persons, child soldiers, sexual violence and abuse of women), the impact of conflict on vulnerable groups, including women, children, the elderly, minorities, refugees and displaced persons, gender and culture differences, gender and conflict, and how these affect the armed forces operationally and morally.

Individual pre-deployment training provides specific instruction on the protection of women and other vulnerable populations.

The curriculum’s baseline standard remains consistent, but is tailored to each training so that current and relevant material is delivered based on the mission to which the personnel are deploying and the situation on the ground.

RCMP

The RCMP continued to include mission-specific sessions on the differential impact of conflict on women, men, girls and boys, including protection issues, in its pre-deployment training, as applicable. Subject-matter experts delivered lectures during these sessions to reinforce the tenets of the WPS agenda. During FY 2015-16, the RCMP ILDC continued to update and improve the session.

Examples of these mission-specific sessions held during FY 2015-16 include the following:

In March 2016, the RCMP conducted its first full-day Women, Peace and Security Workshop during Haiti pre-deployment training. The purpose of the workshop was to enhance the capacity of Canadian police officers to address gender equality and WPS issues as part of their everyday roles and responsibilities under the MINUSTAH mission. Two civilian WPS experts conducted the training, and utilized an adult-learning, scenario-based methodology that featured case studies.

The RCMP continued to include mission-specific training sessions for Operation PROTEUS and the European Union Police and Rule of Law Mission for the Occupied Palestinian Territory in the West Bank. The sessions featured an assistant professor and published author with extensive firsthand knowledge of the West Bank, who discussed the relevant gender and human rights challenges facing Palestinian women and girls. Additionally, a half-day WPS briefing was provided to participants deploying to the European Union Assistance Mission to Ukraine, and plans to provide future mission-specific sessions on SEA have been finalized.

Indicator 3-1: Extent to which programming delivered under the Military Training and Cooperation Programme (MTCP), Anti-Crime Capacity-Building Program (ACCBP), Counter-Terrorism Capacity-Building Program (CTCBP), and the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) and similar Government of Canada international programs in the justice and security sector operationalizes an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women, men, girls and boys.

GAC

The GAC capacity-building programs ACCBP and CTCBP embed a gender analysis and human rights section in all of their project development and implementation tools. For example, the programs reviewed their logic model and performance measurement frameworks to ensure that sex-disaggregated data is gathered at the program and project level. This enables the Programs to better track the impacts of programming on men and women, and to better adapt programming to the different needs of men and women.

GPSF requires proponent organizations to outline initial gender and WPS considerations during the project-concept-note stage and full gender and WPS considerations during the proposal stage, when GPSF project officers and gender focal points evaluate them. Gender focal points evaluate and provide feedback on the proponent’s analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women, men, girls and boys, as well as the level of participation of women in the initiative, and the women’s and girls’ management control and/or access to the resources and benefits of the intervention. Any potential risk to women and girls as a result of the initiative are also evaluated, and the proponent’s mitigation strategies are assessed. This evaluation helps to guide project design. Furthermore, when the project data are entered into the project management/documentation system, the system’s WPS-assessment section captures how the project addresses one or more C-NAP pillars. The system enables GPSF officers to document, track and further evaluate the incorporation of WPS principles.

DND

The mandate of DND’s Military Training and Cooperation Program is to establish and maintain reciprocal relations with developing, NATO and non-NATO countries through cooperative training and military professional-development projects. Activities conducted under the Program, in Canada and around the world, actively raise awareness of gender issues including by:

During FY 2015–16, the Directorate of Military Training and Cooperation continued to look for opportunities to raise awareness of gender issues as part of the Military Training and Cooperation Program activities.

CSC

Through the Group of Friends of Corrections in Peace Operations (GoF), the CSC leads the development the Effective Practices for Gender Responsive Treatment of Women Prisoners training curriculum that incorporates the UN Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-Custodial Measures for Women Offenders (Bangkok Rules) and the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (Nelson Mandela Rules). The training aims to increase knowledge of female-prisoner issues and the understanding of gender-responsive approaches, while demonstrating how to respond to the needs of female prisoners through the operationalization of the Bangkok Rules and the Nelson Mandela Rules. The target audience is individuals who work with female prisoners within a UN peace operation, including national correctional personnel, UN personnel, and corrections personnel from UN member states.

Action 4: Continue to engage in policy dialogue with multilateral partners—including through the UN and its various bodies, funds and programs; the World Bank and other international financial institutions; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; NATO; the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe; the International Organization for Migration; the Organization of American States; the Commonwealth; and La Francophonie—to encourage the strengthening of their capacities to plan for, implement and report on issues of Women, Peace and Security in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

GAC

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the UN (PRMNY) engages in regular policy dialogue with UN bodies, funds and programs to discuss strengthened implementation of, and accountability for, the WPS agenda. This dialogue takes place within the Group of Friends of WPS, which Canada chairs, through bilateral discussions with the UN Secretariat, and through formal statements delivered in various UN fora, including the Security Council, the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations and various committees of the UN General Assembly. Canada also co-chaired the Group of Friends of the Global Study on 1325, which met several times to provide support and input into the Study.

Examples of GAC’s advocacy work are the visit of the Minister of State (Foreign Affairs and Consular) to the UN to deliver Canada’s statement to the Security Council Open Debate on Sexual Violence in Conflict and the statement by the Deputy Permanent Representative of Canada to the Security Council High-level Review on WPS on October 14, 2015.

To address the impact of conflict on women and girls, including the prevention and response to sexual violence and harmful practices, GAC continues to engage with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (SRSG-SVC). GAC provides direct support of $3M to the office of the SRSG-SVC over three years (2015–18).

During November and December 2015, GAC leveraged the 16-day campaign of activism against gender violence to reinforce Canada’s leadership in combatting violence against women through the organization of activities that engaged governments, UN agencies and other international organizations, civil society as well as the general public, on efforts to strengthen action in combatting this scourge.

In December, 2015, GAC, the Netherlands and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, organized an executive-training program for diplomatic staff that focused on practical ways to integrate a gender perspective into the work of the UN Human Rights Council.

GAC drafted the G7 Report on the Implementation of the G8 Declaration on Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict, which was published by the German G8 Presidency in November, 2015.

DND/CAF

DND/CAF remains an active proponent of the role of women in international peace and security within international organizations, including NATO. A member of the CAF continued to be a Deputy Chair of the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives, which focuses on the effective implementation of the WPS agenda.

DND hosted a round-table discussion with the NATO Special Representative for the Secretary-General for Women, Peace and Security for senior leaders and personnel responsible for WPS in the CAF. The discussion led to a better understanding of NATO’s way ahead for gender integration in NATO headquarters and in operations, and enabled an exchange of ideas on how NATO and the CAF can support each other in this area.

DND contributes to the development of NATO guidelines for military commanders about the protection of civilians. The goal is to ensure that the guidelines are consistent with the policies and practices of the UN and other international organizations, offer practical guidance to commanders and troops in the field, and that effective training is developed.

DND was a major contributor to the review of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)/NATO 1325 Action Plan, ensuring that it contained a strong focus on guidance to national militaries and direction to NATO military headquarters to further implementation in operations and in our organizations. The revised NATO Action Plan was endorsed during the Warsaw Summit in July, 2016.

Action 5: Continue to work with partners, including in Canada’s role as Chair of the Working Group of the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations (C-34), the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security, and the Group of Friends on Children and Armed Conflict, as well as through relationships with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the African Union, the League of Arab States and others, to fully implement zero-tolerance policies on sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations and to promote the implementation of international human rights, crime-prevention and criminal-justice standards relevant to protecting the rights of women and girls.

GAC

PRMNY is particularly active in addressing the issue of SEA at the UN and held regular discussions with civil-society groups such as the NGO Working Group on WPS, Human Rights Watch and Code Blue, to develop approaches to better address SEA. Canada leveraged its role as Chair of the Group of Friends of WPS to discuss the issue of SEA. For instance, on May 14, 2015, GAC hosted a meeting of the Group of Friends of WPS to discuss the UN Secretary-General’s report on measures to address SEA and to advocate for more robust action to address the issue. On May 26, Canada, as co-chair of the Group of Friends of the Global Study on WPS, co-hosted an open consultation on the Study, which raised the issue of SEA.

Since June, 2015, PRMNY officials have participated in a series of ambassador-level meetings with like-minded UN member states to push the UN Secretariat to better address allegations of SEA in UN-mandated missions and examine unacceptable delays in investigating such allegations.

On July 16, 2015, PRMNY hosted a meeting with the members of the External Independent Panel on SEA in the Central African Republic (CAR) to discuss how best to address SEA at the UN. Following up on this meeting, PRMNY provided a submission to the Panel on August 14, 2015.

During the deliberations of the UN’s Fifth Committee in May-June, PRMNY pushed for greater accountability in cases of SEA and support for the UN Secretary-General’s new measures to address SEA. During the Security Council Open Debate on Children and Armed Conflict on June 19, 2015, PRMNY condemned in the strongest terms all forms of SEA of children.

GAC continues to play a key role in addressing the broader problem of sexual violence in conflict. GAC is in close contact with the SRSG for Sexual Violence in Conflict, Ms. Zainab Bangura, and provides financial support to her office. In July, 2015, GAC hosted the visit of the UN Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, Ms. Zainab Bangura, at the Anti- Daesh Coalition meeting in Quebec City, who briefed the Coalition on how Deash uses sexual violence as a tactic of terror against religious/ethnic minorities and LGBT persons in Syria and Iraq.

During the Security Council Open Debate on SVC on April, 15 2015, Canada called for the investigation and documentation of sexual violence, and to hold those responsible and their leaders to account. During the Security Council Open Debate on WPS on October 13, 2015, GAC specifically condemned the deliberate and systematic campaign of sexual violence undertaken by violent extremist groups.

The Embassy of Canada to Afghanistan consistently advocated in favour of these policies during regular meetings of the UN and NATO bodies operating in Afghanistan, as well as in bilateral discussions with the Afghan government.

DND/CAF

The CAF assigned a military lawyer to the UN Panel on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse for four months, with the option to extend to 12 months.

Action 6: Advocate for improved accountability mechanisms on the part of the UN and reporting by member states on progress made to implement Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (UNSCRs 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889).

GAC

PRMNY met with representatives of Spain, the U.K., and PeaceWomen to discuss how UN member states will be held to account for implementation pledges made during the High-level Review on WPS in October, 2015. PRMNY officials at the UN also engage regularly with the newly formed UN Security Council Informal Experts Group on WPS to ensure that the concerns and the views of women are incorporated in a systematic manner into issues discussed by the Security Council.

The Embassy of Canada to Afghanistan also continued to strongly advocate for an implementation plan for the Government of Afghanistan’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security to be able to track progress on implementation of the WPS agenda. On multiple occasions following the election of the new government, GAC officials in Afghanistan met with their counterparts from Afghanistan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Women’s Affairs, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of the Interior, and with both President Ghani and Chief Executive Abdullah, to discuss Afghanistan’s development of its 1325 National Action Plan. When a draft National Action Plan was developed, GAC urged Afghan senior leaders for the Plan to be publicly announced and published, a process that was finally completed in July, 2015.

Action 7: Advocate for Women, Peace and Security issues to be included in the mandates of all UN missions for peace operations, and throughout the work of the UN Peacebuilding Commission, while encouraging the creation and work of appropriately resourced and influential specialist teams on Women, Peace and Security issues within new peacekeeping operations.

GAC

PRMNY participates in monthly meetings with like-minded members of the UN Security Council and key civil-society organizations to plan and coordinate WPS input into UN Security Council activities. PRMNY also pushed for adequately resourced Women Protection Advisors in discussions with the UN Secretariat and in the context of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations. Moreover, PRMNY worked with the UN Peacebuilding Support Office to develop a gender strategy.

Action 8: Promote evidence-based research and analysis, and engage in policy dialogue and development on the Women, Peace and Security agenda, including discussions with Canadian, international and local civil society organizations.

GAC

PRMNY engages regularly with civil-society organizations active at UN Headquarters, in particular with the NGO Working Group on WPS, Human Rights Watch, Code Blue, PeaceWomen, and others. Canada hosted briefings by civil-society groups as the Chair of the Group of Friends of WPS to inform policy dialogue, and regularly circulates relevant research and analysis to the Group. Canada also hosted briefings at the UN by Human Rights Watch and Justice Rapid Response.

GAC, DND and RCMP officials met with civil-society members of the Women, Peace and Security Network Canada (WPSN-C) to discuss WPS issues in December, 2015 and January, 2016. The January meeting was the third formal meeting with the Network. Two previous meetings were held in the spring and summer of 2015, as part of the overall commitment to strengthen the relationship with civil society and other government departments.

In April, 2016, the GAC, DND and RCMP officials participated in a workshop entitled “Canada's National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security: How Far Have We Come, and Where are We Going?” hosted by the Women, Peace and Security Network-Canada. GAC provided updates on its implementation of the WPS agenda and encouraged the Network to continue to monitor and provide comments and recommendations for improvement.

Through the CFLI, GAC regularly engages in policy dialogue with local organizations when soliciting project proposals and monitoring their progress throughout the program cycle. To qualify for CFLI funding, proponents must demonstrate how projects align with ministerial priorities and advance Canada’ foreign-policy objectives.

DND/CAF

DND’s Defence Engagement Program in the Policy Group provided a total of $38,773 in grant funding.

The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) sponsors an internal study into the impacts of operational stress, including social behaviour and its correlation with incidents of misconduct. The deliverable will be a technical paper investigating the correlation between operational stress, social behaviour and personal misconduct among navy members.

The Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis conducts research across the personnel cycle to address the unique and common experiences of diverse women and men in the CAF, including an analysis of sex-disaggregated data in relation to recruitment, retention, health and well-being, career development, promotion and release. It also collaborates with international organizations such as NATO to leverage scientific expertise as it relates to women and men, and frequently addresses challenges specific to gender and diversity in the military.

Examples of ongoing or initiated research include:

The Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis scientists have:

It also collaborated directly with Status of Women Canada (SWC) on GBA+ and gender and diversity issues to increase the rigour of scientific approaches to integrating gender perspectives into research that supports leadership and policy and program development in the CAF. For example, a multi-year research plan developed in 2015 to address concerns raised by the External Review on Sexual Harassment and Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces, integrates a GBA+ lens into all phases of project design, and data collection and analysis.

Finally, research was conducted on processes related to the representation and experience of women and men in the CAF, including gender in civil-military operations. Recent gender publications include:

Action 9: Advocate internationally for the strengthening of crime prevention, in particular with regard to women and girls, in a manner consistent with international standards and norms on crime prevention, including the UN Guidelines on Crime Prevention and the prevention components of existing conventions and other relevant standards and norms.

GAC

The Embassy of Canada to Afghanistan participates in discussions with the allies and the Afghan government on the sustainment of the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces, notably through meetings of the Afghan National Army Trust Fund and the Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan. GAC also participates in regular rule-of-law meetings held at the Canadian Embassy involving alongside Afghan and International partners, with increased crime prevention against women and girls as an enduring focus. During all of these discussions, GAC advocates that greater attention be paid to the rights of women and girls.

Action 10: Do Departments/agencies encourage the active and meaningful participation of women in decision making and in deployments for peace operations, including by identifying and addressing barriers to full participation?

GAC

Canada actively encouraged the meaningful participation of women in decision-making in many international resolutions and/or policies, such as those of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the UN Human Rights Council, the International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, UNGA and NATO.

DND/CAF

In accordance with policy, CAF members are selected for training, promotions, postings and career opportunities based on rank, qualifications and merit. For combat occupations, all CAF members must meet the same requirements, such as completing pre-deployment training. There is a single physical-fitness standard for all CAF members, regardless of gender and age.

The CAF does not differentiate between women and men when selecting personnel for operations. Women participated actively and meaningfully in all aspects of international missions, including peace support operations. The CAF also ensures that all equipment deployed for operations is suitable for both women and men.

The Directorate of Human Rights and Diversity is responsible for ensuring that CAF policies and programs are implemented in accordance with applicable legislation to eliminate employment barriers, provide a better work environment for all members and achieve the CAF’s representation goals. The CAF consults with its Defence Women's Advisory Organization, and with networks of military and civilian members at both the national and local levels, to obtain advice on issues related to women in the military, as well as on the implementation of employment-equity policies and best practices.

RCMP

The RCMP made continuous efforts to encourage the active and meaningful participation of women in peace operations. During FY 2015–16, the RCMP included additional text in all job bulletins to specifically encourage female candidates to apply for international peace operations deployments. The RCMP continued to select female candidates when an equally qualified man and woman are competing for a position.

During FY 2015–16, RCMP communication materials regularly promoted the program via public communications and events, and published stories about Canadian female and male police participants in international peace-operation deployments:

Indicator 10-1: Do Departments/agencies have strategic-level national and international security policy directives or guiding documents that address: a) the participation of women in decision making and/or b) the deployment of women to peace operations, to fragile states, and to conflict-affected states?

CAF

Local CAF Defence Women’s Advisory Organization groups are positioned and mandated to provide input into the national CAF Defence Women’s Advisory Organization. Defence Advisory Groups at both the national and local levels consult with designated group members, and provide advice and insight to leadership on issues relevant to their membership and to the full implementation of employment equity.

Indicator 10-3: Number and percentage of female Canadian Forces personnel, police officers and civilian Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations (FY 2015-16)

CAF

Female CAF members deployed on peace operations comprised 14.5 PYs out of a total 146 PYs (9.9%).

RCMP

18 of 75 (24%) of Canadian police officers deployed to peace operations by the RCMP were women. As deployments overlap reporting periods, it should be noted that the number above reflects the number of police officers who began their tour of duty in 2015–16 and does not include short-term training deployments, such as the UN SAAT training project. Over the course of FY 2015–16, at any given time, the average rate of female police participation in deployments to peace operations through ILDC was 27%.

CSC

GPSF funded a project that deployed three senior correctional experts from CSC to Haiti to build leadership capacity within the Direction de l’Administration Pénitentiaire. One expert was a woman (one out of three, or 33.3%).

Indicator 10-4: Do Departmental/Agency policies identify and address barriers to women’s participation in peace operations and deployment to fragile and conflict-affected states in their voluntary selection processes?

CAF

The CAF conducts ongoing research to determine whether barriers exist that may prevent women from choosing to deploy, as described under Action 8 above.

RCMP

Please refer to Action 10.

Indicator 10-5: Number and percentage of women in executive-level roles in Government of Canada departments and agencies involved in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations

GAC

Many GAC executives directly or indirectly oversee work related to peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations (Data on August 15, 2016).

DND/CAF

The DND Policy Group’s International Security Policy Division and its Directorate of Peacekeeping Policy develop defence policy related to peace support and humanitarian operations, including policies related to the WPS agenda. All women in executive-level positions, both civilian and military, are critical to carrying out DND and CAF’s role in contributing to international peace and security, including peace support operations and missions involving fragile and conflict-affected states (data as of March 31, 2015):

Public Safety Canada

Public Safety Canada’s International Affairs Division, Portfolio Affairs and Communications Branch, leads the department’s work related to the International Police Peacekeeping and Peace Operations (IPP) Program. The IPP Program, managed by Public Safety, GAC and RCMP, deploys Canadian police to international peace support operations, mainly through the UN and the EU. Deployments made through the IPP Program advance foreign policy, international security and development objectives; align with implementing the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; and support engagement in fragile states. Under the Program, Public Safety ensures that IPP deployments are consistent with Canadian domestic policing policy and seeks to advance domestic-security interests during mission selection.

RCMP

Three women served the RCMP in executive roles and oversee work involving peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CSC

Five of seven (71%) executive positions were held by women during the reporting period. The DG, Executive Secretariat, CSC, who oversees the Intergovernmental Relations Division and its international activities, such as peace operations, is a woman. The director, Intergovernmental Relations, CSC, responsible for CSC international activities, such as peace operations, is a woman. Both the DG and director are internal positions to CSC. In addition, three women at the executive level were chosen for deployment or assignment on peace operations. These projects included:

Action 11: Identify Canadian specialists and trainers from various backgrounds with expertise in women, peace and security issues, and assist where practicable their professional development, placement on international-deployment rosters or nomination for relevant multilateral assignments. These specialists can also be a source of policy and program advice for Government of Canada departments and agencies.

RCMP

Two additional police officers were trained for the roster of Justice Rapid Response - UN Women Special Sexual and Gender Based Violence (JRR-SGBV). Canadian police officers on this roster can be called upon by the international community for rapid deployment to assist in investigating human rights or international criminal violations, including gender-based violence offences.

CSC

CSC undertakes the identification of Canadian specialists and trainers with WPS backgrounds. When opportunities arise for international missions or other multilateral assignments, the assistant and regional commissioners at CSC nominate staff. Selected candidates are subsequently either sent on short-term assignments based on their area(s) of expertise or put through additional training for long-term deployments to strengthen their knowledge of WPS issues.

Indicator 12-1: Do Government of Canada departmental international-security policy frameworks integrate the participation and representation of women and girls?

DND/CAF

As directed by the Chief of Defence Staff Directive for Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Related Resolutions into CAF Planning and Operations (CDS Directive), Line of Effort (LoE) 1 addresses the integration of gender perspectives into CAF operations. An essential element of LoE 1 is analyzing, clarifying and issuing CAF legal and DND policy guidance related to SGBV, SEA and protection of civilians and to support future operations.

Indicator 12-2: Amount of funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects in or for peace operations, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations that: a) integrate the participation and involvement of women and girls; b) work with key stakeholders, including men and boys, to promote increased participation and representation of women and girls; c) integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women, men, girls and boys; d) integrate support for women’s and girls’ human rights including protection from violence, sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls and trafficking in persons; and/or e) integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts.

GAC

Funding Disbursed in FY 2015–16 for WPS-related projects:

Humanitarian Affairs $269M

Development $123M

GPSF $22M

CFLI $2M

Action 13: Encourage troop- and police-contributing countries to foster the participation of women in peace operations and in training relevant to peace operations.

DND/CAF

Women play an important role in building peace and protecting women’s rights. Active and meaningful participation of women at all stages of international interventions increases the effectiveness of peace programs.

A key component of the Directorate of Military Training and Cooperation is the advancement of gender, peace and security. The Directorate is committed to improving the capacity of military personnel to help prevent violence and to contribute to protecting the human rights of women and girls in peace operations. An important part of this commitment is the encouragement of female participation in peace operations. The Directorate is also responsible for the management of the Military Training and Cooperation Program. The Program provides training in member countries that raises and addresses gender concerns. Its Peace Support Operations course, for example, incorporates a gender perspective and discusses women in peace-building and the protection of civilians. The Program’s training and education activities help raise gender awareness. As part of its ongoing commitment to promoting increased awareness of gender, peace and security issues, it actively encourages the participation of women from national-security forces in its training activities. The Program further promotes the integration of gender perspectives in capacity building and staff officer-development training, in accordance with the WPS agenda.

RCMP

During FY 2015–16, Canadian police officers worked with the UN to implement the AMS SAAT training project, which aims to increase the number of female police officers serving in UN peacekeeping missions. Before being tested by the UN Candidate Selection Team, a group of Canadian police officers and UN SAAT counterparts travelled to Benin, Niger and Togo. There, they oversaw the training of local female police officers in skills such as communication, firearms and driving. Canadian police also provided SAAT training to both men and women in Colombia.

Indicator 13-1: Number of Canadian interventions in the United Nations Security Council, General Assembly, Special Committee on Peacekeeping, or other relevant international fora that explicitly encourage troop- and police-contributing countries to address the participation of women in peace operations and in training for peace operations.

GAC

GAC made three interventions during the reporting period:

Action 14: Actively encourage UN and other multilateral efforts to involve women, including Indigenous women, in peace agreements and mediation processes, and ensure that such agreements take into account the differential experiences of women, men, girls and boys, as well as the human rights of women, girls and children.

GAC

During the Security Council Open Debate on WPS on October 13, 2015, GAC, through PRMNY, highlighted the vital role meaningful participation of women and girls plays in furthering international peace and security. GAC, representing Canada, also co-sponsored UN Security Council Resolution 2242, which called for the participation of women in peace agreements. GAC called for greater participation of women in peace meetings of the Group of Friends of WPS, as part of the consultation process for the UN Global Study on WPS. GAC officials engage regularly with the newly formed Security Council’s 2242 Informal Expert Group on WPS to ensure that WPS concerns and the views of women are incorporated in a systematic manner on issues before the Security Council.

During a December 21, 2015 Security Council meeting on Afghanistan, GAC officials called upon the Government of Afghanistan to make every effort to guarantee the participation of women in all facets of Afghan life. During a March 14, 2016 Security Council meeting on Afghanistan, GAC officials stressed the importance of ensuring an inclusive peace process that enables the voices of Afghan women to be heard.

In the context of the UN Human Rights Council resolutions on the situation of human rights in countries, GAC works to ensure the inclusion of strong language related to the need to protect women’s rights, to take measures to protect the most vulnerable, to promote women’s full participation in peace and mediation processes, and to take steps to eliminate all forms of violence against women. This contributed to the integration of relevant language in several HRC resolutions.

GAC officials have worked with UNAMA and Afghan civil society to encourage the inclusion of women in peace talks with the Taliban. While formal peace talks have yet to be held, there have been some Track II and quadrilateral (Afghanistan, Pakistan, US and China) dialogues initiatives that have included women participants.

Action 15: Support UN human resources reform processes, particularly with regard to recruitment, to increase the number of women in decision-making positions relating to peace and security and, where appropriate, identify strong Canadian candidates for such positions.

GAC

GAC, through PRMNY, repeatedly called for an increase in the number of women in decision-making positions related to peace and security in meetings of the Group of Friends of WPS, the Group of Friends of the Global Study on WPS, in policy discussion with UN bodies, funds and programs, and in events hosted with Human Rights Watch, and the Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace, and Security. During the peacekeeping debate of the Fourth Committee on November 3, 2015, Canada, along with Australia and New Zealand, called for greater recognition of the contribution that women make and to include women in all levels of decision-making and operations.

Indicator 16-1: Extent to which Canadian diplomatic offices and deployed Canadian Forces or police personnel include information on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women’s and girls’ human rights in their periodic reporting to competent mission authorities on peace operations.

GAC

GAC, through PRMNY, receives informally from NGOs and other sources unsubstantiated information about suspected abuses and shares such information with Canadian embassies in relevant countries and with competent Canadian authorities.

The Permanent Mission of Canada in Geneva cooperates with missions to prepare for Universal Periodic Review sessions to ensure that recommendations made by Canada are based on accurate information concerning violations of women’s and girls’ rights.

CAF

Deployed CAF personnel are obliged to report observed incidences of serious violations of women's and girls’ human rights to competent mission authorities while on international operations, including peace support operations.

RCMP

Through the deployment of Canadian police to peace operations, the RCMP takes a principled stance on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women's and girls' human rights and gender-based violence in all its forms. Canadian police are trained to recognize, and mandated to report, human rights violations to the appropriate authorities.

The RCMP requires all Canadian police deployed to peace operations to complete an individual report on a quarterly basis, which includes a variety of questions, including those directly aligned with this indicator.

Indicator 16-2: Number of reported cases of sexual exploitation or abuse in peace operations, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations, allegedly perpetrated by Canadian military personnel, police, or civilian Government officials, and the percentage that are: a) referred to a competent Canadian authority, b) addressed in a timely, appropriate and transparent manner.

GAC: 0

CAF: 0

RCMP: 0

Police Partners: 0

Indicator 17-3: Do Government of Canada departments/agencies provide direction or equivalent policy guidance for Canadian personnel on international operational deployments that address the importance of protecting and promoting women’s and girls' human rights in a meaningful way which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women, men, girls and boys?

GAC

GAC’s Policy on Gender Equality states that Department policies, programs and projects should contribute to gender equality and that gender-equality results should be incorporated in all of Canada’s international-cooperation initiatives.

CAF

The CDS Directive was issued in January, 2016 and highlights CAF’s responsibility to integrate the guidance provided from the WPS agenda, C-NAP and Government of Canada direction on GBA+ into operational planning, the conduct of missions, and across the organization. By August, 2016, GBA+ will be incorporated into strategic and operational-level orders and plans.

RCMP

Canadian police personnel deploying to peace operations normally deploy through a multilateral organization, usually the UN, which has its own mandate, concept of operations and strategic direction regarding the protection and promotion of human rights for women and girls. Nevertheless, Canadian police personnel deployed to international peace operations complete pre-deployment training, which covers subjects such as WPS and international human rights and human rights protection, as appropriate.

Indicator 19-1: Do Government of Canada departments/agencies provide direction or equivalent policy guidance for Canadian personnel on international operational deployments on measures to prevent sexual violence?

CAF

The CAF Code of Conduct's standards of treatment with respect to local civilian populations prohibits rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault, as well as discriminatory treatment based on sex.

The CAF Defence Administrative Order and Directive (DAOD) on Personal Relationships and Fraternization, defines fraternization as “Any relationship between […] a CAF member and a local inhabitant within a theatre of operations where CAF members are deployed.” Pursuant to this DAOD, Task Force Commanders “shall issue orders and guidance on fraternization appropriate to the situation in their area of operations.” Task Force Commanders can therefore issue orders specifically prohibiting conduct that may constitute SEA.

Where authorized by rules of engagement or other orders, CAF members may be either expected or required to intervene in breaches of the law of armed conflict, including SGBV against women and girls.

The Royal Canadian Navy Code of Conduct was signed by the Navy’s Commander on December 17, 2015. The Code compels members to conduct themselves to the highest standards at all times, on and off duty, in and out of uniform, at sea and ashore, at home and abroad. The Code condemns unprofessional, reckless, deliberate or negligent behaviour that breaches established standards of conduct or ethics, and which may bring the reputation of any individual or their organization into discredit; sexual misconduct is explicitly identified as an unacceptable behaviour.

RCMP

Canadian police personnel deployed to international peace operations complete pre-deployment training, which covers subjects such as WPS and international human rights and human rights protection, as appropriate.

The RCMP embraces a zero-tolerance approach to infringements on the rights of women and girls, including sexual violence. Canadian police officers deployed to peace operations are bound by duty to report such infringements to mission authorities. Thus, it is expected for Canadian police officers to respond appropriately and within the limits of their authority on the international scene.

The RCMP and its police partners involved in international peace operations are committed to upholding the highest standards of police conduct in missions. Canadian police in peace operations are subject to the code of conduct of their police service and that of the host organization.

Canadian police officers deployed to international peace operations must also obtain attestation letters from their Commanding Officers stating that the candidate has not been charged or convicted of, and is not currently under investigation for, any criminal or disciplinary offence. The letter also certifies that he or she is not aware of any allegation against the candidate of committing or being involved in, by act or omission, any acts that may amount to violations of international human rights law or international humanitarian law. If the police peace operation is being conducted through the UN, a second attestation letter—specific to the UN—is also required.

Indicator 21-1: Do Government of Canada departmental planning frameworks for fragile states and conflict-affected situations integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls?

Nothing to report for FY 2015–2016.

Action 22: Engage UN member states and agencies in improving the comprehensiveness of their approach to the substantive equality of men and women and to the human rights of women and girls, with respect to the UN’s support to or participation in justice and security system reform.

GAC

During the December 21, 2015 Security Council meeting devoted to Afghanistan, GAC called upon the Government of Afghanistan to fully implement the Law on Elimination of Violence Against Women, and to make every effort to guarantee the participation of women in all facets of Afghan life. GAC officials also encouraged the Afghan government to fully implement its National Action Plan on WPS.

GAC also sponsored a briefing by Justice Rapid Response to develop a roster of experts to support investigations into sexual violence in conflict.

Action 23: Continue to intervene actively with the International Criminal Court and other international courts and tribunals to promote the implementation of the relevant objectives of the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security in their activities, including in mechanisms such as truth and reconciliation commissions.

RCMP

Three female Canadian criminal investigators deployed to assist the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) from January 2015 until early 2016 after completing the Justice Rapid Response (JRR) course Investigating Cases of SGBV in International Crimes. The Canadian women brought extensive value to the ECCC, and helped investigate crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide allegedly committed in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979 during the Khmer Rouge regime. Two additional Canadian investigators trained to deploy to the ECCC during FY 2016–17. For more information, please refer to the narrative report above.

Action 24: Advocate, as appropriate, for the mandates of new international accountability and judiciary mechanisms such as international courts, special tribunals and other transitional-justice mechanisms, to integrate the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security, and women’s and girls’ human rights.

GAC

During FY 2015–16, the CFLI provided a total of $63,196 in funding for two projects that addressed transitional-justice mechanisms and the needs of women and girls—one in Mali and one in Libya.

Action 25: Advocate for UN agencies’ consideration of the differential impacts that violent conflict and natural disasters have on women, men, girls and boys, and their human rights, in all aspects of ongoing efforts to strengthen international humanitarian-response capacity, including anti-human trafficking.

GAC

At the 32nd International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (December, 2015), GAC officials worked to secure a robust and comprehensive document addressing SGBV and the inclusion of survivors. During the Conference, GAC also co-sponsored a side-event entitled: Action to combat impunity and improve accountability for victims and survivors of sexual and gender-based violence: practical tools and experiences.

At the Conference, Canada pledged support for:

During the UNSC Open Debate on the Protection of Civilians (January, 2016), Canada urged the Security Council to integrate a gender-based approach to addressing conflict in resolutions related to the protection of civilians, stressing that considering the differing impacts of conflict on women, men and children, as well as the differing contributions these individuals can make to conflict prevention and resolution, affords one of the best means of ensuring their protection.

GAC actively participates in the monthly donor meetings of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) and consistently advocates that gender-equality considerations be part of OCHA’s coordination of partners.

Action 26: Continue to employ a variety of remedies to promote accountability and justice in situations where a perpetrator of a war crime or a crime against humanity (including genocide) is in Canada or wants to come to Canada, including extradition, prosecution in Canada under the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act, surrender to an international court or tribunal, revocation of citizenship obtained by fraud, denial of visas, and where applicable under Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, denial of access to the refugee-determination system, and removal from Canada.

Nothing to report for FY 2015–16.

Action 27: Continue efforts to prevent, investigate and prosecute cases involving Canadian citizens or permanent residents and the sexual exploitation or abuse of children occurring in fragile states and conflict-affected situations, including child-sex tourism and trafficking in persons.

Nothing to report for FY 2015–16.

Action 28: Advocate internationally for equal access by female ex-combatants, and by women and girls associated with armed forces or groups, to appropriate benefits and resources from disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs.

Nothing to report in FY 2015-2016.

Annex: Project Data 2015-2016

Please note: The projects in this table do not necessarily have Women, Peace and Security as the principal objective/theme. The majority of the projects only have WPS components. Development and humanitarian assistance projects were chosen based on meeting the requirements for GE02 and GE03 codes or because the organizations have a mandate for humanitarian protection that includes a responsibility to address sexual and gender-based violence.

Project Data 2015-2016
Project NameActions/IndicatorsAmount Disbursed in FY 2015-16ParticipationPreventionProtectionRelief & RecoveryAdvocacyHumanitarian AssistanceNotes
DND
Defence Engagement Program - Outside Research Support8$38,773.00----- 
Humanitarian Assistance
Afghanistan - Nutrition Assistance in Balkh Province - Action Against Hunger 201512-2$500,000.00---- 
DRC - Emergency livelihood, water and sanitation assistance - Oxfam Québec 201512-2$750,000.00---- 
Ethiopia – Humanitarian Response for South Sudanese Refugees – Oxfam Canada 201512-2$500,000.00---- 
Niger - Emergency Assistance to Refugees and Host Communities –– CARE Canada 201512-2$600,000.00---- 
Nigeria - Emergency Assistance for Populations in North-Eastern Nigeria - Action Against Hunger 201512-2$700,000.00---- 
Philippines - Humanitarian Assistance for Conflict-Affected and Displaced People – ACF 201512-2$250,000.00---- 
South Sudan – Emergency Livelihoods Assistance - Save the Children Canada 201512-2$1,000,000.00---- 
Yemen - Emergency Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Protection - 201512-2$500,000.00---- 
Central African Republic - Emergency Nutrition and Protection - Action Against Hunger 201612-2$1,600,000.00---- 
DRC - Emergency Assistance for Conflict-Affected People - Action Against Hunger 201612-2$1,500,000.00---- 
Emergency Food Security, Water, Sanitation, and Protection Assistance - Oxfam Québec 201612-2$750,000.00---- 
Burma - Humanitarian Assistance for Conflict-Affected and Displaced People - ADRA Canada 201612-2$1,200,000.00---- 
Burma - Improved access to safe shelter, safe water, sanitation and hygiene - HOPE 201612-2$500,000.00---- 
Afghanistan - WASH, NFI & Shelter and Livelihood Assistance in Afghanistan - CARE Canada 201612-2$2,000,000.00---- 
Mali - OXFAM Quebec - 201612-2$500,000.00---- 
Niger - Humanitarian Assistance - CARE Canada 201612-2$1,200,000.00---- 
WFP School Feeding Program 2014-2016 *Funding disbursed in FY 2015-201612-2$25,000,000.00---- 
Reducing sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian crises - UNFPA 2014 *Funding disbursed in FY 2015-201612-2$1,500,000.00---- 
International Committee of the Red Cross - Long-term Institutional Support 2014*Funding disbursed in FY 2015-201612-2$5,400,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Protection and Emergency Assistance in Jordan, Lebanon and Europe- UNHCR 201512-2$4,500,000.00---- 
Emergency Assistance – Lebanon and Jordan - ICRC 201512-2$2,000,000.00---- 
Emergency Assistance - Asia12-2$2,000,000.00---- 
UNHCR Institutional Support 201612-2$12,600,000.00---- 
Burundi crisis - Emergency assistance for refugees - UNHCR 201512-2$2,500,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Emergency Assistance for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon - UNHCR12-2$30,000,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Emergency Assistance for People Affected by the Conflict in Syria - UNHCR12-2$13,000,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Emergency Assistance for Syrian Refugees in Jordan - UNHCR12-2$22,000,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Emergency Assistance for Syrian Refugees in Turkey - UNHCR12-2$15,000,000.00---- 
 Syria Crisis - Emergency Assistance for Syrian Refugees in Iraq - UNHCR12-2$5,000,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Emergency Assistance for Syrian Refugees in Egypt - UNHCR12-2$3,000,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Emergency Assistance for Syrian Refugees in Europe - UNHCR12-2$2,000,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Support for the Resettlement of Syrian Refugees in Canada - UNHCR12-2$10,000,000.00---- 
Syria Crisis - Emergency Assistance in Syria - Humanitarian Response 201512-2$3,000,000.00---- 
Burma Floods 2015 - Emergency Response - ICRC12-2$500,000.00---- 
Nigeria - Emergency Response - ICRC 201512-2$2,000,000.00---- 
Emergency - Country-Specific Funding - ICRC Appeals 201612-2$41,700,000.00---- 
Emergency Regional Funding for Africa and the Middle East - ICRC Appeals 201612-2$4,200,000.00---- 
Emergency- Regional Funding for Asia and the Americas - ICRC Appeals 201612-2$2,850,000.00---- 
Prevention and Reduction of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict Situations - ICRC 201612-2$3,000,000.00---- 
Emergency Assistance - Country-Level Funding - UNHCR 201612-2$32,600,000.00---- 
Emergency Assistance - Regional-Level Funding for Asia and the Americas - UNHCR 201612-2$4,500,000.00---- 
Emergency Assistance - Sub-regional Funding in Africa and the Middle East - UNHCR 201612-2$4,800,000.00---- 
Multilateral Development
Support to the Office of the SRSG on Sexual Violence in Conflict12-2$1,000,000.00---Institutional support
Action for Adolescent Girls: Accelerating Action to End Child Marriage in Nigeria, Niger and Sierra Leone12-2$15,600,000.00---- 
Preventing Early and Forced Marriage in High Prevalence Areas Mali12-2$677,013.00---- 
Preventing Child, Early and Forced Marriage in Nigeria12-2$630,978.00---- 
Born On Time: A Public-Private Partnership for the Prevention of Preterm Birth12-2$4,000,000.00-----Works to reduce of preterm birth rates through an integrated approach addressing lifestyle, infection, nutrition and contraception factors
Bilateral Development
Africa
Regional Support to Combat Violence Against Girls and Young Women in the Great Lakes Region1$3,050,000.00- 
Youth Leadership, Entrepreneurship and Development (Cuso International) Nigeria1$3,518,000.00--By targeting youth entrepreneurship, this project hopes to reduce the involvement of young people in conflict.
Protecting Adolescent Health and Rights in Nigeria12-2$153,432.00--- 
DRC Working Together for Poverty Eradication12-2$365,017.00-- 
Responsible Mineral Supply Chains EXCEED8; 12-2$1,124,349.00---Implementation PAC gender equality strategy represents 6% of total project value.
Deploying Midwives, South Sudan8$2,981,000.00-- 
Strengthening Midwifery Services, South Sudan8, 12-2$13,500,000.00-- 
Fortifying Equality and Economic Diversion, South Sudan8$7,313,427.00-- 
Upgrading the Fisheries Sector, South Sudan12-2$3,000,000.00-----* Noted activities represent a small percentage of project budget (2015-16).
Support to the Ten-Year Program for the Development of Justice Mali12-2$80,000.00---- 
Justice, Prevention and Reconciliation Project in Mali (JUPREC)12-2$4,475,572.00--- 
Development of the new action plan of the National Gender Policy of Mali12-2$25,000.00----- 
Child Protection Project in Mali12-2$875,000.00---- 
Colombia
Protection and Education of Vulnerable Children and Youth in Colombia12-2$2,200,000.00---Supportsfor National Family Welfare institute in promotion of equality in relationships
Protecting Children's Education in Southwest Colombia12-2$3,863,428.00--Strenghtens education system to improve sexual and reproductive health practices, prevent recruitment into gangs
Assistance to Civilian Landmine Survivors in Colombia12-2$554,100.00Provides training on rights, accessing legal assistance, international seminar on gender and psychosocial assistance
Improving Economic Performance of Agricultural Cooperatives (IMPACT), Colombia12-2$2,205,535.00-----Developed gender strategy focused on rural women farmers
Train-the-trainer workshop for women leaders, Bogota, Colombia12-2$39,600.00--12 workshops for 150 women to prepare public policy proposals related to gender issues in a post-conflict scenario for the municipal development plans
Colombia Working Together for Poverty Eradication12-2$445,909.00-- 
Assistance for Bogota’s Victims Assistance Centres, Colombia12-2$42,000.00----320 women from 7 municipalities  received training and helped prepare public policy proposals on gender issues for the municipal development plans
Guatemala
Institutional support to the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG III), including GBA8, 12-2$1,250,000.00-----Refer to the narrative report for more details.
Haiti
Integrated Management of Maternal and Child Health in Artibonite (PRISMA), Haiti12-2$1,886,987.00--Teaching responsible masculinity approach to men
Initial training and professional development of the Haitian National Police12-2$1,841,550.00--Training to senior police officers included a gender equality training module that addresses SGBV.
Electoral transition support - training and responsive fund component Haiti12-2$4,174,805.00---Includes focus on strengthening  women's political participation as voters, candidates, journalists, and civic educators.
Strengthening of public management in Haiti12-2$174,831.00--Technical support to  Ministry of Women’s Affairs on National GE policy
Technical support to Ministry of Women’s Affairs Haiti for Gender Equality Action Plan12-2$1,446,925.00--- 
Volunteer Cooperation Support in Haïti Phase II12-2$2,559,216.00--Included support to women's organisations, particularly regarding rights, political participation and VAW.
Electoral Support Haiti12-2$5,000,000.00--Inlcudes focus on strengthening  women's political participation as voters, candidates, journalists, and civic educators.
Relocation of displaced people Haiti12-2$10,000,000.00Relocation of displaced persons living in camps since 2010 earthquake. Targets and supports women-headed households.
Election Observation Mission to Haïti12-2$3,113,435.00---Promotion of women political participation
Electoral Observation Mission to Haiti12-2$1,000,000.00-----Promotion of women political participation
Haiti Working Together for Poverty Eradication12-2$678,685.00-- 
Afghanistan
Afghanistan Working Together for Poverty Eradication12-2$557,165.00-- 
Afghanistan Essay Competition on CEFM and girls' rights12-2$783.00---- 
Expert Panel Discussion on Elimination of Violence Against Women, Afghanistan12-2$2,636.00--- 
Women's Engagement Strategy Implementation, Afghanistan12-2$0.00---The Strategy outlines options for Canada's ongoing engagement in the promotion and protection of women’s rights in Afghanistan
Support to the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission8, 9, 12-2$3,467,000.00--Institutional funding support to the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission that works to promote women's rights
Strengthening Emergency Relief and Disaster Management Capacity of the Afghan Red Crescent Society8, 12-2$5,000,000.00----Institutional capacity building support to the Afghan Red Crescent Society  to help them prepare for and respond to disasters in a gender sensitive manner
Promoting Women’s Political Participation in Afghanistan8, 12-2$2,100,000.00-- 
Girls' Education Support Program, Afghanistan8, 12-2$1,442,857.00----- 
Community-based Girls Education Project GEP II, Afghanistan8, 12-2$3,950,000.00---- 
Family Health Houses, Afghanistan8, 12-2$1,875,000.00----Improves women's access to safe health services
Conference on Women in the Peace Process, Afghanistan12-2$5,000.00--- 
Human Rights Week -Promote the importance of women's rights and support Afghan women activists, Afghanistan12-2$5,000.00---- 
Student Debate on Women in the Peace Process, Afghanistan12-2$3,000.00--- 
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives
Promoting awareness of women's rights and reducing CEFM in 6 municipalities of Solola, Guatemala through training and accompaniment in the development of municipal advocacy, action plans and media campaigns12-2, 20-1$24,998.03--- 
Contributing to elimination of early forced marriage in Guatemala through secondary school education and work-oriented skills training12-2, 20-1$50,000.00---- 
Supporting community policing model in Sololá, Guatemala  through capacity building of police and an awareness campaign on preventing gender based violence12-2, 20-1$18,000.00---- 
Strengthening young girls' self esteem of through integrated education on human rights and prevention of early marriages in Maputo City12-2, 20-1$18,000.00---- 
Strenthening the leadership, mediation and communication skills of female electoral candidates in Burkina Faso12-2$22,500.00----- 
Preparing young businesswomen to be leaders in Mozambique in order to improve female access to markets and economic opportunities12-2$25,000.00----- 
Empowering and promoting the rights of widows and vulnerable women in MBANZA LEMBA/Kinshasa.12-2, 20-1$15,000.00----- 
Opposing dowry perversion and the dehumanization of widowhood rites in the rural area of LUOZI, KONGO CENTRAL and RC border departments12-2, 20-1$25,000.00----- 
Strengthening social protection of the girl child in Nigeria through a National Conference on Social Protection of the Girl Child12-2, 20-1$34,618.00--- 
Promoting awareness of women's rights and working against unlawful traditional practices, specifically sexual and gender-based violence and child, early and forced marriage, through capacity-building workshops and publicity campaigns in Afghanistan12-2, 20-1$47,989.00--- 
Engaging youth in ending violence against women and girls, and preventing child, early and forced marriage, through advocacy and workshops in Afghanistan12-2, 20-1$49,520.00--- 
Addressing the negative aspects of child, early and forced marriage through the training of government officials and school girls, community consultations, and a public awareness campaign in Afghanistan12-2, 20-1$45,790.00--- 
Raising awareness among men and women on child, early and forced marriage through capacity building, local advocacy and awareness campaigns in Afghanistan12-2$38,810.00--- 
Preventing early childhood marriage and gender-based violence through community theatre in remote areas across Timor-Leste12-2$33,195.00--- 
Collecting data on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) to improve documentation advocacy and civic engaement  and programing related to SGBV in South Sudan12-2; 20-1$16,500.00----- 
Strenghtening the political rights of Afghan women through consultations and workshops with female political candidates, civil society organizations and political experts12-2; 20-1$46,095.00---- 
Training community leaders on women's rights through women's protection programs, radio shows, and social media in South Sudan12-2/I20-1$16,690.94---- 
Developing skills of women with disabilities in the targeted region of Parwan in Afghanistan in an effort to provide economic empowerment and employment12-2$27,250.00----- 
Empowering Afghan students, particularly girls, grade 6 to 11, through access to communication technologies and free offline education resources12-2$49,410.00----- 
Enhancing visibility and understanding around lives of queer women in Nigeria through collection and dissemination of life stories12-2$36,331.00---- 
Reducing the incidence of child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation through the provision of girls' education, advocacy and awareness raising, and establishment of women's rights groups12-2; 20-1$18,088.00-- 
Preventing CEFM through communty awareness raising in Abbasie 2 IDP Camp, Melliet, North Darfur12-2$26,398.00---- 
Delaying and preventing child, early and forced marriage through training community leaders in Alsalam village, White Nile12-2; 20-1$18,500.00---- 
Increasing awareness of the harms of child, early and forced marriage and lack of education for girls through training sessions for community leaders in Swakin, Red Sea12-2; 20-1$24,786.00---- 
Increasing community awareness through workships to prevent sexual violence and child, early and forced marriage in South and West Kordofan12-2; 20-1$26,800.00---- 
Preventing CEFM through raising awareness for teachers, women leaders and CBOs in Kassala with workshops, communication awareness campaigns, and development of educational material12-2; 20-1$26,044.00-- 
Combating SGBV through training of paralegals and raising community awareness in El-obeid, North Kordofan12-2; 20-1$27,569.00---- 
Raising awareness on the law against domestic violence and childrens rights in Timor-Leste through targeted trainings for students and community members and the dissemination of information to the public12-2; 20-1$22,009.00--- 
Preventing child and early marriage through education of youth in two rural regions of Timor-Leste regarding sexual health, human rights, gender equality and SGBV prevention12-2; 20-1$17,980.30---- 
Reducing the vulnerability of secondary school girls to child marriage through empowerment training, advocacy, mentoring, and the establishment of safe spaces12-2; 20-1$31,053.00--- 
Girls and Families Awareness Campaign on Fighting Early Marriages Using Communication Technologies for Behavior Change in the DRC and the mission established clubs for the promotion of child rights12-2; 20-1$19,715.00--- 
Sensitization of parents and young girls on early marriages in 5 parishes in the district of Mont-Amba, in the City of Kinshasa, through seanas and workshops12-2; 20-1$15,829.00---- 
Awareness-raising to prevent  the compulsory early marriages of girls in the peripheral districts of East Kinshasa through the distribution of awareness-raising kits, information, and contact with judicial and police bodies12-2; 20-1$19,885.00---- 
Awareness-raising to prevent  early marriage of girls in the peripheral neighborhoods of Kimbaseke12-2; 20-1$19,667.00---- 
Sensitization of the authorities, community leaders, parents and young girls regarding the fight against early marriages and the promotion of women's rights through communal meetings and workshops12-2; 20-1$15,883.00---- 
Preventing child, early and forced marriage for domestic workers and young women through workshops, home visits to susceptible women, and a local media campaign in Rwanda12-2; 20-1$19,900.00-- 
Training on the prevention of child, early and forced marriage in Rulindo district through meetings with 12 communities12-2; 20-1$20,000.00---- 
Preventing child, early and forced marriage in the Batwa potters community through training to parents and children, as well as community representatives, and distribution of pamphlets about laws and rights12-2; 20-1$15,500.00-- 
Raising awareness and advocacy against CEFM in Yousoufia- Baghdad through research activity, legal awareness sessions, and the production of educational materials including a short cartoon film12-2; 20-1$25,210.00--- 
Reducing CEFM and other forms of SGBV through capacity building and training for social workers to conduct research, and use research results in advocating for protection of girls against CEFM and other forms of SGBV12-2; 20-1$16,836.00--- 
Combatting CEFM and SGBV in rural areas in Babel, Iraq through building the capacity of women activists, public sessions, workshops and art competition12-2; 20-1$24,929.00--- 
Promoting awareness on CEFM and the negative impacts of child labour among adolescents of refugee, IDPs, and host community through digital storytelling and social media in Iraq12-2; 20-1$37,530.00--- 
Promoting CEFM prevention in Kurdistan through capacity building of social workers and awareness education to religious and community leaders, school community, and the general public12-2; 20-1$39,600.00---- 
Protecting against CEFM through research, awareness, and advocacy and providing legal services to women victims of CEFM and SGBV in Iraq12-2; 20-1$24,714.00--- 
Reducing workplace exploitation in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in particular of women, by enhancing stakeholders' understanding of labour rights principles and legislation, and increasing their access to protection mechanisms12-2; 20-1$25,860.72----- 
Preventing SGBV in primary schools in Bosnia-Herzegovina through training and empowering children and teachers to understand drivers and implement effective responses12-2; 20-1$20,623.00---- 
Building women's capacity and creating a women's network towards strengthening women's role and participation in the decision making process in the local government in Najaf, Iraq12-2; 20-1$25,848.00----- 
Combating SGBV in Mamilyan Camp- Iraq through awareness raising with special focus on boys and men and providing them with various services to reduce risk of victimization and offending12-2; 20-1$37,553.00---- 
Undertaking a baseline study on the prevalence of CEFM in an indigenous community in South-Eastern Colombia and working with indigenous authorities to address the issue12-2; 20-1$37,042.00----- 
Strengthening the capacity of women and youth in Mali for their implication to transitional justice through training workshops12-2$33,254.00----- 
Strengthening the democratic participation of women in local, legislative and presidential elections in Niger12-2$22,643.00----- 
Contribution to the consolidation of good political governance through the democratic participation of women and young people in electoral consultations through community meetings12-2$29,625.52----- 
Increasing Somali women's political participation through forums, an awareness-raising campaign, and a TV debate12-2$10,500.00---- 
Supporting democratic transition and civic participation by women in Libya through development of recommendations by local female councillors, political activists, and community leaders12-2$29,942.00----- 
Combating child and forced marriage among IDPs and in rural areas of Iraqi Kurdistan via education, community involvement in monitoring and reporting, and online and offline public media campaigns12-2; 20-1$30,180.00--- 
Raising awareness for the prevention of sexual harassment in public spaces in Libya through workshops with legal experts, dialogue sessions, and a public awareness campaign12-2; 20-1$25,000.00--- 
Protection of vulnerable girls and married adolescents in Mali against the risks of early marriage through information sessions and workshops12-2; 20-1$30,023.00---- 
Fostering economic independence of women within local society by increasing their democratic participation as well as breaking the psychological boundaries between men and women specific to women in leadership positions12-2$17,860.00----- 
Life History Initiative: Testimonies of Sexual Violence by Guatemalan Indigenous Women12-2$49,938.00--- 
Supporting single mothers and their children through the provision of essential supplies to a women's shelter in Khartoum, Sudan12-2; 21-1$7,100.00----- 
Strengthening women’s participation in Sri Lanka’s electoral and constitutional reform process through consultations on the drafting of the new constitution12-2$9,419.00----- 
Engaging women and girls through community dialogue towards accelerated action in prevention of child, early and forced marriage, HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence12-2; 20-1$18,394.00--- 
Preventing child, early and forced marriage through training to church leaders, police, teachers, judges and young women on child, early and forced marriage prevention12-2; 20-1$22,991.00---- 
Preventing sexual and gender based violence through crowdsourced mobile application to report cases of sexual harassment in computer technology workshops with young women12-2; 20-1$22,991.00--- 
Contributing to preventing sexual and gender-based violence in Palestine through radio shows and workshop12-2; 20-1$15,000.00---- 
Preventing gender-based violence by providing assistance and leading advocacy and lobbying actions at social, legal, judicial and political/institutional levels12-2; 20-1$20,022.00---- 
Raising awareness among girls from rural areas of Kosovo with respect to their rights to refuse early and forced marriage through education sessions and roundtables with local authorities12-2; 20-1$11,407.00---- 
Empowering young girls and women in Palestinian refugee camps about their right to choose when to marry through capacity building workshops12-2; 20-1$22,656.00---- 
Prevention of CEFM through  education and community awareness of the “Paternity, Maternity and Offspring” Act12-2; 20-1$28,263.00--- 
Prevention of SGBV in the districts of Morne Hercule village through education, information and awareness-raising12-2; 20-1$19,900.00--- 
Strengthening the capacities of young leaders, especially girls to advocate for active participation in the fight against HIV and sexual violence12-2; 20-1$29,950.00--- 
Strengthen the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms of vulnerable groups in Haiti, women and minors in prolonged preventive detention, through better access to justice12-2; 20-1$29,850.00---- 
Securing Emergency Protection to Female Victims of Violence in Palestine12-2$12,812.00---- 
Raising Awareness on the Harms of Early Marriage in Palestine among Children and Parents12-2; 20-1$17,199.00---- 
Strengthening the protection of vulnerable populations in IDP settlements and host communities through access to sexual and gender-based violence services12-2; 20-1$16,765.00---- 
Raising awareness of SGBV in Nigeria through theatre performances in urban centres aimed at a broad audience, including lawmakers and community leaders12-2; 20-1$34,240.00--- 
Building the capacity of SGBV victims  through the provison of psychosocial support and strengthening of the victims referral network in Khartoum and Al-Fashir, North Darfur12-2; 20-1$26,800.00---- 
Providing training for the prevention of child, early and forced marriage through sensitization workshops for community leaders and awareness campaigns12-2; 20-1$24,456.00---- 
Global Peace and Security Fund
The fight against impunity for violence against women and other serious human rights violations in Guatemala20-1$771,302.70---- 
Assistance to Civilians injured by Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War in Lao PDR21-2$54,591.08---- 
UXO Lao survey and clearance operations21-2$192,394.04---- 
Strengthening Sri Lanka’s post-war democratic potential18-2$613,647.00----- 
Countering Sexual and Gender - Based Violence (OHCHR) in Syria/Iraq20-1$1,218,455.08--- 
Strengthening protective mechanisms and response to child, early and forced marriage during conflict and displacement20-1$149,805.83---- 
The Prevention of Sexual Violence amongst Refugees and IDPs in the region of  Kurdistan (WEO)18-2$16,407.00---- 
OAS Mission to Support the Peace Process in Colombia (OAS-MAPP) Phase V12-2$1,000,000.00---- 
Preventing Sexual Violence and Early Marriage in Kenya18-2$146,956.00----- 
Community Policing and Police Professionalization in Kinshasa, Mbuji-Mayi and Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)18-2$2,387,692.43---- 
Explosive Remnants of War Clearance in Vietnam20-1$990,039.00----- 
Prevention of human trafficking through women’s empowerment and assistance to victims of trafficking in Zinder Region in Niger18-2$800,000.00--- 
Prevention of SGBV among IDPs and host populations in the Central African Republic18-2$1,024,359.00--- 
Police Transformation focused on Citizen Security Colombia20-1$429,798.00---- 
Prevention of Child, Early and Forced Marriage in Somalia18-2$1,500,000.00-- 
Protection and Recovery for Displaced Iraqi Women and Girls of Gender-Based Violence (IRC)21-2$511,138.00--- 
Election Observation Mission for Sri Lankan Parliamentary Elections12-2$359,795.00----- 
Dangi Xaniman; Creating a free independent media platform for women in Kurdistan Region (Bo Peshewa)18-2$201,051.00---- 
Providing legal and health social services to survivors of SGBV (WRO) Iraq20-1$249,999.07---- 
Support for Decentralisation in Tunisia - Phase III12-2$567,635.00----- 
Support to victims of sexual violence in situations of armed conflict and guarantee of access to justice Colombia20-1$849,852.00--- 
Strengthening Regional Security and Border Control in Egypt20-1$105,967.00----- 
Strengthening Democratic Governance in Burma, Phase III12-2$147,464.20----- 
Investigating Breaches of International Criminal Law in Syria and Iraq20-1$728,147.00---- 
Supporting local community efforts to counter sexual and gender-based violence in Syria21-2$1,286,821.78--- 
Supporting Mine Action Completion in Mannar District, Sri Lanka20-1$677,084.00----- 
Capacity Building within Ukraine's Ministry of Defence Medical System12-2$1,077,376.00----- 
Inter-communal dialogue and conflict mediation in central Nigeria: Support to local community groups in Kaduna and Plateau States18-2$418,369.00---- 
Parliamentary Campaign to Prevent & Eliminate Child, Early and Forced Marriage with a focus in Tanzania and Ghana18-2$197,898.54---- 
Har Bacha Mahfooz Campaign (Safe Secure and Protected) Pakistan18-2$234,674.00---- 
Advancing Gender Equality and Empowering Women and Girls in Pakistan18-2$379,444.00---- 
Preparing for a Post-Conflict Environment in Colombia12-2$300,015.84----- 
Seeking Care, Support and Justice for Survivors of Conflict Related Sexual Violence in BiH20-1$565,650.00---- 
Strengthening accountability for SGBV crimes: providing an integrated response II Jordan20-1$1,441,752.00---- 
The Expansion of the Family Hotline Afghanistan20-1$450,000.00---- 
Negotiation Assistance to Syrian Opposition Delegation to Geneva Peace Talks12-2$194,480.19----- 
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