Consolidated TPP Text – Chapter 9 – Investment

Section A

Article 9.1: Definitions

For the purposes of this Chapter:

Centre means the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) established by the ICSID Convention;

claimant means an investor of a Party that is a party to an investment dispute with another Party. If that investor is a natural person, who is a permanent resident of a Party and a national of another Party, that natural person may not submit a claim to arbitration against that latter Party;

covered investment means, with respect to a Party, an investment in its territory of an investor of another Party in existence as of the date of entry into force of this Agreement for those Parties or established, acquired, or expanded thereafter;

disputing parties means the claimant and the respondent;

disputing party means either the claimant or the respondent;

enterprise means an enterprise as defined in Article 1.3 (General Definitions), and a branch of an enterprise;

enterprise of a Party means an enterprise constituted or organised under the law of a Party, or a branch located in the territory of a Party and carrying out business activities there;Footnote 1

freely usable currency means “freely usable currency” as determined by the International Monetary Fund under its Articles of Agreement;

ICC Arbitration Rules means the arbitration rules of the International Chamber of Commerce;

ICSID Additional Facility Rules means the Rules Governing the Additional Facility for the Administration of Proceedings by the Secretariat of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes;

ICSID Convention means the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of other States, done at Washington, March 18, 1965;

Inter-American Convention means the Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration, done at Panama, January 30, 1975;

investment means every asset that an investor owns or controls, directly or indirectly, that has the characteristics of an investment, including such characteristics as the commitment of capital or other resources, the expectation of gain or profit, or the assumption of risk. Forms that an investment may take include:

but investment does not mean an order or judgment entered in a judicial or administrative action.

investment agreement means a written agreementFootnote 5 that is concluded and takes effect after the date of entry into force of this AgreementFootnote 6 between an authority at the central level of governmentFootnote 7 of a Party and a covered investment or an investor of another Party and that creates an exchange of rights and obligations, binding on both parties under the law applicable under Article 9.25.2 (Governing Law), on which the covered investment or the investor relies in establishing or acquiring a covered investment other than the written agreement itself, and that grants rights to the covered investment or investor:

investment authorisationFootnote 10 means an authorisation that the foreign investment authority of a PartyFootnote 11 grants to a covered investment or an investor of another Party;

investor of a non-Party means, with respect to a Party, an investor that attempts to make,Footnote 12 is making, or has made an investment in the territory of that Party, that is not an investor of a Party;

investor of a Party means a Party, or a national or an enterprise of a Party, that attempts to make, is making, or has made an investment in the territory of another Party;

LCIA Arbitration Rules means the arbitration rules of the London Court of International Arbitration;

negotiated restructuring means the restructuring or rescheduling of a debt instrument that has been effected through (a) a modification or amendment of that debt instrument, as provided for under its terms, or (b) a comprehensive debt exchange or other similar process in which the holders of no less than 75 per cent of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt under that debt instrument have consented to the debt exchange or other process;

New York Convention means the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, done at New York, June 10, 1958;

non-disputing Party means a Party that is not a party to an investment dispute;

protected information means confidential business information or information that is privileged or otherwise protected from disclosure under a Party’s law, including classified government information;

respondent means the Party that is a party to an investment dispute;

Secretary-General means the Secretary-General of ICSID; and

UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules means the arbitration rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.

Article 9.2: Scope

1. This Chapter shall apply to measures adopted or maintained by a Party relating to:

2.  A Party’s obligations under this Chapter shall apply to measures adopted or maintained by:

3. For greater certainty, this Chapter shall not bind a Party in relation to an act or fact that took place or a situation that ceased to exist before the date of entry into force of this Agreement for that Party.

Article 9.3: Relation to Other Chapters 

1. In the event of any inconsistency between this Chapter and another Chapter of this Agreement, the other Chapter shall prevail to the extent of the inconsistency.

2. A requirement of a Party that a service supplier of another Party post a bond or other form of financial security as a condition for the cross-border supply of a service does not of itself make this Chapter applicable to measures adopted or maintained by the Party relating to such cross-border supply of the service. This Chapter shall apply to measures adopted or maintained by the Party relating to the posted bond or financial security, to the extent that the bond or financial security is a covered investment.

3. This Chapter shall not apply to measures adopted or maintained by a Party to the extent that they are covered by Chapter 11 (Financial Services).

Article 9.4: National TreatmentFootnote 14

1. Each Party shall accord to investors of another Party treatment no less favourable than that it accords, in like circumstances, to its own investors with respect to the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation, and sale or other disposition of investments in its territory.

2. Each Party shall accord to covered investments treatment no less favourable than that it accords, in like circumstances, to investments in its territory of its own investors with respect to the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation, and sale or other disposition of investments.

3. For greater certainty, the treatment to be accorded by a Party under paragraphs 1 and 2 means, with respect to a regional level of government, treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment accorded, in like circumstances, by that regional level of government to investors, and to investments of investors, of the Party of which it forms a part.

Article 9.5: Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment

1. Each Party shall accord to investors of another Party treatment no less favourable than that it accords, in like circumstances, to investors of any other Party or of any non-Party with respect to the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation, and sale or other disposition of investments in its territory.

2. Each Party shall accord to covered investments treatment no less favourable than that it accords, in like circumstances, to investments in its territory of investors of any other Party or of any non-Party with respect to the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation, and sale or other disposition of investments. 

3. For greater certainty, the treatment referred to in this Article does not encompass international dispute resolution procedures or mechanisms, such as those included in Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement).

Article 9.6: Minimum Standard of TreatmentFootnote 15

1. Each Party shall accord to covered investments treatment in accordance with applicable customary international law principles, including fair and equitable treatment and full protection and security.

2. For greater certainty, paragraph 1 prescribes the customary international law minimum standard of treatment of aliens as the standard of treatment to be afforded to covered investments. The concepts of “fair and equitable treatment” and “full protection and security” do not require treatment in addition to or beyond that which is required by that standard, and do not create additional substantive rights. The obligations in paragraph 1 to provide:

3. A determination that there has been a breach of another provision of this Agreement, or of a separate international agreement, does not establish that there has been a breach of this Article.

4. For greater certainty, the mere fact that a Party takes or fails to take an action that may be inconsistent with an investor’s expectations does not constitute a breach of this Article, even if there is loss or damage to the covered investment as a result.

5. For greater certainty, the mere fact that a subsidy or grant has not been issued, renewed or maintained, or has been modified or reduced, by a Party, does not constitute a breach of this Article, even if there is loss or damage to the covered investment as a result.

Article 9.7: Treatment in Case of Armed Conflict or Civil Strife 

1. Notwithstanding Article 9.12.6(b) (Non-Conforming Measures), each Party shall accord to investors of another Party and to covered investments non-discriminatory treatment with respect to measures it adopts or maintains relating to losses suffered by investments in its territory owing to armed conflict or civil strife.

2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, if an investor of a Party, in a situation referred to in paragraph 1, suffers a loss in the territory of another Party resulting from:

the latter Party shall provide the investor restitution, compensation or both, as appropriate, for that loss.

3. Paragraph 1 shall not apply to existing measures relating to subsidies or grants that would be inconsistent with Article 9.4 (National Treatment) but for Article 9.12.6(b) (Non-Conforming Measures).

Article 9.8: Expropriation and CompensationFootnote 16

1. No Party shall expropriate or nationalise a covered investment either directly or indirectly through measures equivalent to expropriation or nationalisation (expropriation), except:

2. Compensation shall:

3. If the fair market value is denominated in a freely usable currency, the compensation paid shall be no less than the fair market value on the date of expropriation, plus interest at a commercially reasonable rate for that currency, accrued from the date of expropriation until the date of payment.

4. If the fair market value is denominated in a currency that is not freely usable, the compensation paid, converted into the currency of payment at the market rate of exchange prevailing on the date of payment, shall be no less than:

5. This Article shall not apply to the issuance of compulsory licences granted in relation to intellectual property rights in accordance with the TRIPS Agreement, or to the revocation, limitation or creation of intellectual property rights, to the extent that the issuance, revocation, limitation or creation is consistent with Chapter 18 (Intellectual Property) and the TRIPS Agreement.Footnote 19

6. For greater certainty, a Party’s decision not to issue, renew or maintain a subsidy or grant, or decision to modify or reduce a subsidy or grant,

standing alone, does not constitute an expropriation.

Article 9.9: TransfersFootnote 20

1. Each Party shall permit all transfers relating to a covered investment to be made freely and without delay into and out of its territory. Such transfers include:

2. Each Party shall permit transfers relating to a covered investment to be made in a freely usable currency at the market rate of exchange prevailing at the time of transfer.

3. Each Party shall permit returns in kind relating to a covered investment to be made as authorised or specified in a written agreement between the Party and a covered investment or an investor of another Party.

4. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, a Party may prevent or delay a transfer through the equitable, non-discriminatory and good faith application of its lawsFootnote 22 relating to:

5. Notwithstanding paragraph 3, a Party may restrict transfers of returns in kind in circumstances where it could otherwise restrict such transfers under this Agreement, including as set out in paragraph 4.

Article 9.10: Performance Requirements

1.  No Party shall, in connection with the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation, or sale or other disposition of an investment of an investor of a Party or of a non-Party in its territory, impose or enforce any requirement, or enforce any commitment or undertaking:Footnote 23

2. No Party shall condition the receipt or continued receipt of an advantage, in connection with the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation, or sale or other disposition of an investment of an investor of a Party or of a non-Party in its territory, on compliance with any requirement:

3. 

4. For greater certainty, nothing in paragraph 1 shall be construed to prevent a Party, in connection with the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation, or sale or other disposition of an investment of an investor of a Party or of a non-Party in its territory, from imposing or enforcing a requirement, or enforcing a commitment or undertaking, to employ or train workers in its territory provided that the employment or training does not require the transfer of a particular technology, production process or other proprietary knowledge to a person in its territory.

5. For greater certainty, paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to any commitment, undertaking or requirement other than those set out in those paragraphs.

6. This Article does not preclude enforcement of any commitment, undertaking or requirement between private parties, if a Party did not impose or require the commitment, undertaking or requirement.

Article 9.11: Senior Management and Boards of Directors

1. No Party shall require that an enterprise of that Party that is a covered investment appoint to a senior management position a natural person of any particular nationality.

2. A Party may require that a majority of the board of directors, or any committee thereof, of an enterprise of that Party that is a covered investment, be of a particular nationality or resident in the territory of the Party, provided that the requirement does not materially impair the ability of the investor to exercise control over its investment.

Article 9.12: Non-Conforming Measures

1. Article 9.4 (National Treatment),Article 9.5 (Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment),Article 9.10 (Performance Requirements) and Article 9.11 (Senior Management and Boards of Directors) shall not apply to:

2. Article 9.4 (National Treatment), Article 9.5 (Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment), Article 9.10 (Performance Requirements) and Article 9.11 (Senior Management and Boards of Directors) shall not apply to any measure that a Party adopts or maintains with respect to sectors, subsectors or activities, as set out by that Party in its Schedule to Annex II.

3. If a Party considers that a non-conforming measure applied by a regional level of government of another Party, as referred to in paragraph 1(a)(ii), creates a material impediment to investment in relation to the former Party, it may request consultations with regard to that measure. These Parties shall enter into consultations with a view to exchanging information on the operation of the measure and to considering whether further steps are necessary and appropriate.Footnote 30

4. No Party shall, under any measure adopted after the date of entry into force of this Agreement for that Party and covered by its Schedule to Annex II, require an investor of another Party, by reason of its nationality, to sell or otherwise dispose of an investment existing at the time the measure becomes effective.

5. 

6. Article 9.4 (National Treatment), Article 9.5 (Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment) and Article 9.11 (Senior Management and Boards of Directors) shall not apply to:

7. For greater certainty, any amendments or modifications to a Party’s Schedules to Annex I or Annex II, pursuant to this Article, shall be made in accordance with Article 30.2 (Amendments).

Article 9.13: Subrogation

If a Party, or any agency, institution, statutory body or corporation designated by the Party, makes a payment to an investor of the Party under a guarantee, a contract of insurance or other form of indemnity that it has entered into with respect to a covered investment, the other Party in whose territory the covered investment was made shall recognise the subrogation or transfer of any rights the investor would have possessed under this Chapter with respect to the covered investment but for the subrogation, and the investor shall be precluded from pursuing these rights to the extent of the subrogation.

Article 9.14: Special Formalities and Information Requirements

1. Nothing in Article 9.4 (National Treatment) shall be construed to prevent a Party from adopting or maintaining a measure that prescribes special formalities in connection with a covered investment, such as a residency requirement for registration or a requirement that a covered investment be legally constituted under the laws or regulations of the Party, provided that these formalities do not materially impair the protections afforded by the Party to investors of another Party and covered investments pursuant to this Chapter.

2. Notwithstanding Article 9.4 (National Treatment) and Article 9.5 (Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment), a Party may require an investor of another Party or its covered investment to provide information concerning that investment solely for informational or statistical purposes. The Party shall protect such information that is confidential from any disclosure that would prejudice the competitive position of the investor or the covered investment. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prevent a Party from otherwise obtaining or disclosing information in connection with the equitable and good faith application of its law.

Article 9.15: Denial of Benefits

1. A Party may deny the benefits of this Chapter to an investor of another Party that is an enterprise of that other Party and to investments of that investor if the enterprise:

2. A Party may deny the benefits of this Chapter to an investor of another Party that is an enterprise of that other Party and to investments of that investor if persons of a non-Party own or control the enterprise and the denying Party adopts or maintains measures with respect to the non-Party or a person of the non-Party that prohibit transactions with the enterprise or that would be violated or circumvented if the benefits of this Chapter were accorded to the enterprise or to its investments.

Article 9.16: Investment and Environmental, Health and other Regulatory Objectives

Nothing in this Chapter shall be construed to prevent a Party from adopting, maintaining or enforcing any measure otherwise consistent with this Chapter that it considers appropriate to ensure that investment activity in its territory is undertaken in a manner sensitive to environmental, health or other regulatory objectives.

Article 9.17: Corporate Social Responsibility

The Parties reaffirm the importance of each Party encouraging enterprises operating within its territory or subject to its jurisdiction to voluntarily incorporate into their internal policies those internationally recognised standards, guidelines and principles of corporate social responsibility that have been endorsed or are supported by that Party. 

Section B: Investor-State Dispute Settlement

Article 9.18: Consultation and Negotiation

1. In the event of an investment dispute, the claimant and the respondent should initially seek to resolve the dispute through consultation and negotiation, which may include the use of non-binding, third party procedures, such as good offices, conciliation or mediation.

2. The claimant shall deliver to the respondent a written request for consultations setting out a brief description of facts regarding the measure or measures at issue.

3. For greater certainty, the initiation of consultations and negotiations shall not be construed as recognition of the jurisdiction of the tribunal.

Article 9.19: Submission of a Claim to Arbitration

1. If an investment dispute has not been resolved within six months of the receipt by the respondent of a written request for consultations pursuant to Article 9.18.2 (Consultation and Negotiation):

provided that a claimant may submit pursuant to subparagraph (a)(i)(C) or (b)(i)(C) a claim for breach of an investment agreement only if the subject matter of the claim and the claimed damages directly relate to the covered investment that was established or acquired, or sought to be established or acquired, in reliance on the relevant investment agreement.

2. When the claimant submits a claim pursuant to paragraph 1(a)(i)(B), 1(a)(i)(C), 1(b)(i)(B) or 1(b)(i)(C), the respondent may make a counterclaim in connection with the factual and legal basis of the claim or rely on a claim for the purpose of a set off against the claimant.Footnote 32

3. At least 90 days before submitting any claim to arbitration under this Section, the claimant shall deliver to the respondent a written notice of its intention to submit a claim to arbitration (notice of intent). The notice shall specify:

4. The claimant may submit a claim referred to in paragraph 1 under one of the following alternatives:

5. A claim shall be deemed submitted to arbitration under this Section when the claimant’s notice of or request for arbitration (notice of arbitration):

A claim asserted by the claimant for the first time after such notice of arbitration is submitted shall be deemed submitted to arbitration under this Section on the date of its receipt under the applicable arbitration rules.

6. The arbitration rules applicable under paragraph 4 that are in effect on the date the claim or claims were submitted to arbitration under this Section shall govern the arbitration except to the extent modified by this Agreement.

7. The claimant shall provide with the notice of arbitration:

Article 9.20: Consent of Each Party to Arbitration

1. Each Party consents to the submission of a claim to arbitration under this Section in accordance with this Agreement.

2. The consent under paragraph 1 and the submission of a claim to arbitration under this Section shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of:

Article 9.21: Conditions and Limitations on Consent of Each Party

1. No claim shall be submitted to arbitration under this Section if more than three years and six months have elapsed from the date on which the claimant first acquired, or should have first acquired, knowledge of the breach alleged under Article 9.19.1 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration) and knowledge that the claimant (for claims brought under Article 9.19.1(a)) or the enterprise (for claims brought under Article 9.19.1(b)) has incurred loss or damage.

2. No claim shall be submitted to arbitration under this Section unless:

3. Notwithstanding paragraph 2(b), the claimant (for claims brought under Article 9.19.1(a) (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration)) and the claimant or the enterprise (for claims brought under Article 9.19.1(b)) may initiate or continue an action that seeks interim injunctive relief and does not involve the payment of monetary damages before a judicial or administrative tribunal of the respondent, provided that the action is brought for the sole purpose of preserving the claimant’s or the enterprise’s rights and interests during the pendency of the arbitration.

Article 9.22: Selection of Arbitrators

1. Unless the disputing parties agree otherwise, the tribunal shall comprise three arbitrators, one arbitrator appointed by each of the disputing parties and the third, who shall be the presiding arbitrator, appointed by agreement of the disputing parties.

2. The Secretary-General shall serve as appointing authority for an arbitration under this Section.

3. If a tribunal has not been constituted within a period of 75 days after the date that a claim is submitted to arbitration under this Section, the Secretary-General, on the request of a disputing party, shall appoint, in his or her discretion, the arbitrator or arbitrators not yet appointed. The Secretary-General shall not appoint a national of either the respondent or the Party of the claimant as the presiding arbitrator unless the disputing parties agree otherwise.

4. For the purposes of Article 39 of the ICSID Convention and Article 7 of Schedule C to the ICSID Additional Facility Rules, and without prejudice to an objection to an arbitrator on a ground other than nationality:

5. In the appointment of arbitrators to a tribunal for claims submitted under Article 9.19.1(a)(i)(B) (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration), Article 9.19.1(b)(i)(B), Article 9.19.1(a)(i)(C) or Article 9.19.1(b)(i)(C), each disputing party shall take into account the expertise or relevant experience of particular candidates with respect to the relevant governing law under Article 9.25.2 (Governing Law). If the parties fail to agree on the appointment of the presiding arbitrator, the Secretary-General shall also take into account the expertise or relevant experience of particular candidates with respect to the relevant governing law under Article 9.25.2.

6. The Parties shall, prior to the entry into force of this Agreement, provide guidance on the application of the Code of Conduct for Dispute Settlement Proceedings under Chapter 28 (Dispute Settlement) to arbitrators selected to serve on investor-State dispute settlement tribunals pursuant to this Article, including any necessary modifications to the Code of Conduct to conform to the context of investor-State dispute settlement. The Parties shall also provide guidance on the application of other relevant rules or guidelines on conflicts of interest in international arbitration. Arbitrators shall comply with that guidance in addition to the applicable arbitral rules regarding independence and impartiality of arbitrators.

Article 9.23: Conduct of the Arbitration

1. The disputing parties may agree on the legal place of any arbitration under the arbitration rules applicable under Article 9.19.4 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration). If the disputing parties fail to reach agreement, the tribunal shall determine the place in accordance with the applicable arbitration rules, provided that the place shall be in the territory of a State that is a party to the New York Convention.

2. A non-disputing Party may make oral and written submissions to the tribunal regarding the interpretation of this Agreement. 

3. After consultation with the disputing parties, the tribunal may accept and consider written amicus curiae submissions regarding a matter of fact or law within the scope of the dispute that may assist the tribunal in evaluating the submissions and arguments of the disputing parties from a person or entity that is not a disputing party but has a significant interest in the arbitral proceedings. Each submission shall identify the author; disclose any affiliation, direct or indirect, with any disputing party; and identify any person, government or other entity that has provided, or will provide, any financial or other assistance in preparing the submission. Each submission shall be in a language of the arbitration and comply with any page limits and deadlines set by the tribunal. The tribunal shall provide the disputing parties with an opportunity to respond to such submissions. The tribunal shall ensure that the submissions do not disrupt or unduly burden the arbitral proceedings, or unfairly prejudice any disputing party.

4. Without prejudice to a tribunal’s authority to address other objections as a preliminary question, such as an objection that a dispute is not within the competence of the tribunal, including an objection to the tribunal’s jurisdiction, a tribunal shall address and decide as a preliminary question any objection by the respondent that, as a matter of law, a claim submitted is not a claim for which an award in favour of the claimant may be made under Article 9.29 (Awards) or that a claim is manifestly without legal merit.

5. In the event that the respondent so requests within 45 days after the tribunal is constituted, the tribunal shall decide on an expedited basis an objection under paragraph 4 or any objection that the dispute is not within the tribunal’s competence, including an objection that the dispute is not within the tribunal’s jurisdiction. The tribunal shall suspend any proceedings on the merits and issue a decision or award on the objection, stating the grounds therefor, no later than 150 days after the date of the request. However, if a disputing party requests a hearing, the tribunal may take an additional 30 days to issue the decision or award. Regardless of whether a hearing is requested, a tribunal may, on a showing of extraordinary cause, delay issuing its decision or award by an additional brief period, which may not exceed 30 days.

6. When the tribunal decides a respondent’s objection under paragraph 4 or 5, it may, if warranted, award to the prevailing disputing party reasonable costs and attorney’s fees incurred in submitting or opposing the objection. In determining whether such an award is warranted, the tribunal shall consider whether either the claimant’s claim or the respondent’s objection was frivolous, and shall provide the disputing parties a reasonable opportunity to comment.

7. For greater certainty, if an investor of a Party submits a claim under this Section, including a claim alleging that a Party breached Article 9.6 (Minimum Standard of Treatment), the investor has the burden of proving all elements of its claims, consistent with general principles of international law applicable to international arbitration.

8. A respondent may not assert as a defence, counterclaim, right of set-off or for any other reason, that the claimant has received or will receive indemnification or other compensation for all or part of the alleged damages pursuant to an insurance or guarantee contract.

9. A tribunal may order an interim measure of protection to preserve the rights of a disputing party, or to ensure that the tribunal’s jurisdiction is made fully effective, including an order to preserve evidence in the possession or control of a disputing party or to protect the tribunal’s jurisdiction.  A tribunal may not order attachment or enjoin the application of a measure alleged to constitute a breach referred to in Article 9.19 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration).  For the purposes of this paragraph, an order includes a recommendation.

10. In any arbitration conducted under this Section, at the request of a disputing party, a tribunal shall, before issuing a decision or award on liability, transmit its proposed decision or award to the disputing parties. Within 60 days after the tribunal transmits its proposed decision or award, the disputing parties may submit written comments to the tribunal concerning any aspect of its proposed decision or award. The tribunal shall consider any comments and issue its decision or award no later than 45 days after the expiration of the 60 day comment period.

11. In the event that an appellate mechanism for reviewing awards rendered by investor-State dispute settlement tribunals is developed in the future under other institutional arrangements, the Parties shall consider whether awards rendered under Article 9.29 (Awards) should be subject to that appellate mechanism. The Parties shall strive to ensure that any such appellate mechanism they consider adopting provides for transparency of proceedings similar to the transparency provisions established in Article 9.24 (Transparency of Arbitral Proceedings).

Article 9.24: Transparency of Arbitral Proceedings

1. Subject to paragraphs 2 and 4, the respondent shall, after receiving the following documents, promptly transmit them to the non-disputing Parties and make them available to the public: 

2. The tribunal shall conduct hearings open to the public and shall determine, in consultation with the disputing parties, the appropriate logistical arrangements. If a disputing party intends to use information in a hearing that is designated as protected information or otherwise subject to paragraph 3 it shall so advise the tribunal. The tribunal shall make appropriate arrangements to protect such information from disclosure which may include closing the hearing for the duration of the discussion of that information.

3. Nothing in this Section, including paragraph 4(d), requires a respondent to make available to the public or otherwise disclose during or after the arbitral proceedings, including the hearing, protected information, or to furnish or allow access to information that it may withhold in accordance with Article 29.2 (Security Exceptions) or Article 29.7 (Disclosure of Information).Footnote 33

4. Any protected information that is submitted to the tribunal shall be protected from disclosure in accordance with the following procedures:

5. Nothing in this Section requires a respondent to withhold from the public information required to be disclosed by its laws. The respondent should endeavour to apply those laws in a manner sensitive to protecting from disclosure information that has been designated as protected information.

Article 9.25: Governing Law

1. Subject to paragraph 3, when a claim is submitted under Article 9.19.1(a)(i)(A) (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration) or Article 9.19.1(b)(i)(A), the tribunal shall decide the issues in dispute in accordance with this Agreement and applicable rules of international law.Footnote 34

2. Subject to paragraph 3 and the other provisions of this Section, when a claim is submitted under Article 9.19.1(a)(i)(B) (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration), Article 9.19.1(a)(i)(C), Article 9.19.1(b)(i)(B) or Article 9.19.1(b)(i)(C), the tribunal shall apply:

3. A decision of the Commission on the interpretation of a provision of this Agreement under Article 27.2.2(f) (Functions of the Commission) shall be binding on a tribunal, and any decision or award issued by a tribunal must be consistent with that decision.

Article 9.26: Interpretation of Annexes

1. If a respondent asserts as a defence that the measure alleged to be a breach is within the scope of a non-conforming measure set out in Annex I or Annex II, the tribunal shall, on request of the respondent, request the interpretation of the Commission on the issue. The Commission shall submit in writing any decision on its interpretation under Article 27.2.2(f) (Functions of the Commission) to the tribunal within 90 days of delivery of the request.

2. A decision issued by the Commission under paragraph 1 shall be binding on the tribunal, and any decision or award issued by the tribunal must be consistent with that decision. If the Commission fails to issue such a decision within 90 days, the tribunal shall decide the issue.

Article 9.27: Expert Reports

Without prejudice to the appointment of other kinds of experts when authorised by the applicable arbitration rules, a tribunal, on request of a disputing party or, unless the disputing parties disapprove, on its own initiative, may appoint one or more experts to report to it in writing on any factual issue concerning scientific matters raised by a disputing party in a proceeding, subject to any terms and conditions that the disputing parties may agree. 

Article 9.28: Consolidation

1. If two or more claims have been submitted separately to arbitration under Article 9.19.1 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration) and the claims have a question of law or fact in common and arise out of the same events or circumstances, any disputing party may seek a consolidation order in accordance with the agreement of all the disputing parties sought to be covered by the order or the terms of paragraphs 2 through 10.

2. A disputing party that seeks a consolidation order under this Article shall deliver, in writing, a request to the Secretary-General and to all the disputing parties sought to be covered by the order and shall specify in the request:

3. Unless the Secretary-General finds within a period of 30 days after the date of receiving a request under paragraph 2 that the request is manifestly unfounded, a tribunal shall be established under this Article.

4. Unless all the disputing parties sought to be covered by the order agree otherwise, a tribunal established under this Article shall comprise three arbitrators:

5. If, within a period of 60 days after the date when the Secretary-General receives a request made under paragraph 2, the respondent fails or the claimants fail to appoint an arbitrator in accordance with paragraph 4, the Secretary-General, on request of any disputing party sought to be covered by the order, shall appoint, in his or her discretion, the arbitrator or arbitrators not yet appointed.

6. If a tribunal established under this Article is satisfied that two or more claims that have been submitted to arbitration under Article 9.19.1 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration) have a question of law or fact in common, and arise out of the same events or circumstances, the tribunal may, in the interest of fair and efficient resolution of the claims, and after hearing the disputing parties, by order:

7. If a tribunal has been established under this Article, a claimant that has submitted a claim to arbitration under Article 9.19.1 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration) and that has not been named in a request made under paragraph 2 may make a written request to the tribunal that it be included in any order made under paragraph 6. The request shall specify:

The claimant shall deliver a copy of its request to the Secretary-General.

8. A tribunal established under this Article shall conduct its proceedings in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules, except as modified by this Section.

9. A tribunal established under Article 9.22 (Selection of Arbitrators) shall not have jurisdiction to decide a claim, or a part of a claim, over which a tribunal established or instructed under this Article has assumed jurisdiction.

10. On the application of a disputing party, a tribunal established under this Article, pending its decision under paragraph 6, may order that the proceedings of a tribunal established under Article 9.22 (Selection of Arbitrators) be stayed, unless the latter tribunal has already adjourned its proceedings.

Article 9.29: Awards

1. When a tribunal makes a final award, the tribunal may award, separately or in combination, only:

2. For greater certainty, if an investor of a Party submits a claim to arbitration under Article 9.19.1(a) (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration), it may recover only for loss or damage that it has incurred in its capacity as an investor of a Party.

3. A tribunal may also award costs and attorney’s fees incurred by the disputing parties in connection with the arbitral proceeding, and shall determine how and by whom those costs and attorney’s fees shall be paid, in accordance with this Section and the applicable arbitration rules.

4.  For greater certainty, for claims alleging the breach of an obligation under Section A with respect to an attempt to make an investment, when an award is made in favour of the claimant, the only damages that may be awarded are those that the claimant has proven were sustained in the attempt to make the investment, provided that the claimant also proves that the breach was the proximate cause of those damages. If the tribunal determines such claims to be frivolous, the tribunal may award to the respondent reasonable costs and attorney’s fees.

5. Subject to paragraph 1, if a claim is submitted to arbitration under Article 9.19.1(b) (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration) and an award is made in favour of the enterprise:

6. A tribunal shall not award punitive damages.

7. An award made by a tribunal shall have no binding force except between the disputing parties and in respect of the particular case.

8. Subject to paragraph 9 and the applicable review procedure for an interim award, a disputing party shall abide by and comply with an award without delay.

9. A disputing party shall not seek enforcement of a final award until:

10. Each Party shall provide for the enforcement of an award in its territory.

11. If the respondent fails to abide by or comply with a final award, on delivery of a request by the Party of the claimant, a panel shall be established under Article 28.7 (Establishment of a Panel). The requesting Party may seek in those proceedings:

12. A disputing party may seek enforcement of an arbitration award under the ICSID Convention, the New York Convention or the Inter-American Convention regardless of whether proceedings have been taken under paragraph 11.

13. A claim that is submitted to arbitration under this Section shall be considered to arise out of a commercial relationship or transaction for the purposes of Article I of the New York Convention and Article I of the Inter-American Convention.

Article 9.30: Service of Documents

Delivery of notice and other documents to a Party shall be made to the place named for that Party in Annex 9-D (Service of Documents on a Party Under Section B). A Party shall promptly make publicly available and notify the other Parties of any change to the place referred to in that Annex.

Annex 9-A

Customary International Law

The Parties confirm their shared understanding that “customary international law” generally and as specifically referenced in Article 9.6 (Minimum Standard of Treatment) results from a general and consistent practice of States that they follow from a sense of legal obligation. The customary international law minimum standard of treatment of aliens refers to all customary international law principles that protect the investments of aliens.

Annex 9-B

Expropriation

The Parties confirm their shared understanding that:

1. An action or a series of actions by a Party cannot constitute an expropriation unless it interferes with a tangible or intangible property right or property interest in an investment.

2. Article 9.8.1 (Expropriation and Compensation) addresses two situations.  The first is direct expropriation, in which an investment is nationalised or otherwise directly expropriated through formal transfer of title or outright seizure.

3. The second situation addressed by Article 9.8.1 (Expropriation and Compensation) is indirect expropriation, in which an action or series of actions by a Party has an effect equivalent to direct expropriation without formal transfer of title or outright seizure.

Annex 9-C

Expropriation Relating to Land

1. Notwithstanding the obligations under Article 9.8 (Expropriation and Compensation), where Singapore is the expropriating Party, any measure of direct expropriation relating to land shall be for a purpose and upon payment of compensation at market value, in accordance with the applicable domestic legislationFootnote 38 and any subsequent amendments thereto relating to the amount of compensation where such amendments provide for the method of determination of the compensation which is no less favourable to the investor for its expropriated investment than such method of determination in the applicable domestic legislation as at the time of entry into force of this Agreement for Singapore.

2. Notwithstanding the obligations under Article 9.8 (Expropriation and Compensation), where Viet Nam is the expropriating Party, any measure of direct expropriation relating to land shall be: (i) for a purpose in accordance with the applicable domestic legislation;Footnote 39 and (ii) upon payment of compensation equivalent to the market value, while recognising the applicable domestic legislation.

Annex 9-D

Service of Documents on a Party Under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement)

Australia

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Australia by delivery to:

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
R.G. Casey Building
John McEwen Crescent
Barton ACT 0221
Australia

Brunei Darussalam

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Brunei Darussalam by delivery to:

The Permanent Secretary (Trade)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Jalan Subok
Bandar Seri Begawan, BD 2710
Brunei Darussalam

Canada

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Canada by delivery to:

Office of the Deputy Attorney General of Canada
Justice Building
239 Wellington Street
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0H8
Canada

Chile

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Chile by delivery to:

Dirección de Asuntos Jurídicos del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la República de Chile
Teatinos 180
Santiago
Chile

Japan

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Japan by delivery to:

Economic Affairs Bureau
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo
Japan

Malaysia

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Malaysia by delivery to:

Attorney General’s Chambers
Level 16, No. 45 Persiaran Perdana
Precint 4
Federal Government Administrative Centre
62100 Putrajaya
Malaysia

Mexico

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Mexico by delivery to:

Dirección General de Consultoría Jurídica de Comercio Internacional
Secretaría de Economía
Alfonso Reyes #30, piso 17
Col. Hipódromo Condesa
Del. Cuauhtémoc
México D.F.
C.P. 06140

New Zealand

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on New Zealand by delivery to:

The Secretary
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
195 Lambton Quay
Wellington 6011
New Zealand

Peru

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Peru by delivery to:

Dirección General de Asuntos de Economía Internacional,
Competencia y Productividad
Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas
Jirón Lampa 277, piso 5
Lima, Perú

Singapore

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Singapore by delivery to:

Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Trade & Industry
100 High Street #09-01
Singapore 179434
Singapore

United States

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on the United States by delivery to:

Executive Director (L/EX)
Office of the Legal Adviser
Department of State
Washington, D.C.20520
United States of America

Viet Nam

Notices and other documents in disputes under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) shall be served on Viet Nam by delivery to: 

General Director
Department of International Law
Ministry of Justice
60 Tran Phu Street
Ba Dinh District
Ha Noi
Viet Nam

Annex 9-EFootnote 40

Transfers

Chile

1. Notwithstanding Article 9.9 (Transfers), Chile reserves the right of the Central Bank of Chile (Banco Central de Chile) to maintain or adopt measures in conformity with Law 18.840, Constitutional Organic Law of the Central Bank of Chile (Ley 18.840, Ley Orgánica Constitucional del Banco Central de Chile), and Decreto con Fuerza de Ley No3 de 1997, Ley General de Bancos (General Banking Act) and Ley 18.045, Ley de Mercado de Valores (Securities Market Law), in order to ensure currency stability and the normal operation of domestic and foreign payments. Such measures include, inter alia, the establishment of restrictions or limitations on current payments and transfers (capital movements) to or from Chile, as well as transactions related to them, such as requiring that deposits, investments or credits from or to a foreign country, be subject to a reserve requirement (encaje)

2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, the reserve requirements that the Central Bank of Chile can apply pursuant to Article 49 No. 2 of Law 18.840, shall not exceed 30 per cent of the amount transferred and shall not be imposed for a period which exceeds two years.

Annex 9-F

DL 600

Chile

1. The obligations and commitments contained in this Chapter do not apply to Decree Law 600, Foreign Investment Statute (Decreto Ley 600, Estatuto de la Inversión Extranjera) (hereinafter referred to in this Annex as “DL 600”), or its successors, and to Law 18.657, Foreign Capital Investment Fund Law (Ley 18.657, Ley de Fondos de Inversión de Capital Extranjero), with respect to:

2. For greater certainty, except to the extent that paragraph 1(b) or (c) provides an exception to Article 9.9 (Transfers), the investment entered through an investment contract under DL 600, through Law 18.657 or through any future special voluntary investment programme, will be subject to the obligations and commitments of this Chapter, to the extent that the investment is a covered investment under Chapter 9 (Investment).

Annex 9-G

Public Debt

1. The Parties recognise that the purchase of debt issued by a Party entails commercial risk. For greater certainty, no award shall be made in favour of a claimant for a claim under Article 9.19.1(a)(i)(A) (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration) or Article 9.19.1(b)(i)(A) with respect to default or non-payment of debt issued by a Party unless the claimant meets its burden of proving that such default or non-payment constitutes a breach of an obligation under Section A, including an uncompensated expropriation pursuant to Article 9.8 (Expropriation and Compensation).

2. No claim that a restructuring of debt issued by a Party breaches an obligation under Section A shall be submitted to, or if already submitted continue in, arbitration under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) if the restructuring is a negotiated restructuring at the time of submission, or becomes a negotiated restructuring after that submission, except for a claim that the restructuring violates Article 9.4 (National Treatment) or Article 9.5 (Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment).

3. Notwithstanding Article 9.19.4 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration), and subject to paragraph 2, an investor of another Party shall not submit a claim under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) that a restructuring of debt issued by a Party breaches an obligation under Section A, other than Article 9.4 (National Treatment) or Article 9.5 (Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment), unless 270 days have elapsed from the date of receipt by the respondent of the written request for consultations pursuant to Article 9.18.2 (Consultation and Negotiation).Footnote 43

Annex 9-H

1. A decision under Australia’s foreign investment policy, which consists of the Foreign Acquisitions and Takeovers Act 1975, Foreign Acquisitions and Takeovers Regulations 1989, Financial Sector (Shareholdings) Act 1998 and associated Ministerial Statements by the Treasurer of the Commonwealth of Australia or a minister acting on his or her behalf, on whether or not to approve a foreign investment proposal, shall not be subject to the dispute settlement provisions under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) or Chapter 28 (Dispute Settlement).

2. A decision by Canada following a review under the Investment Canada Act (R.S.C. 1985, c.28 (1st Supp.)), with respect to whether or not to permit an investment that is subject to review, shall not be subject to the dispute settlement provisions under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) or Chapter 28 (Dispute Settlement).

3. A decision by the National Commission on Foreign Investment (Comisión Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras) following a review pursuant to the entry at Annex I – Mexico – 6 with respect to whether or not to permit an acquisition that is subject to review, shall not be subject to the dispute settlement provisions of Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) or Chapter 28 (Dispute Settlement).

4. A decision under New Zealand’s Overseas Investment Act 2005 to grant consent, or to decline to grant consent, to an overseas investment transaction that requires prior consent under that Act shall not be subject to the dispute settlement provisions under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) or Chapter 28 (Dispute Settlement).

Annex 9-I

Non-Conforming Measures Ratchet Mechanism

Notwithstanding Article 9.12.1(c) (Non-Conforming Measures), for Viet Nam for three years after the date of entry into force of this Agreement for it:

Annex 9-J

Submission of a Claim to Arbitration

1. An investor of a Party may not submit to arbitration under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement) a claim that Chile, Mexico, Peru or Viet Nam has breached an obligation under Section A either:

if the investor or the enterprise, respectively, has alleged that breach of an obligation under Section A in proceedings before a court or administrative tribunal of Chile, Mexico, Peru or Viet Nam.

2. For greater certainty, if an investor of a Party elects to submit a claim of the type described in paragraph 1 to a court or administrative tribunal of Chile, Mexico, Peru or Viet Nam, that election shall be definitive and exclusive, and the investor may not thereafter submit the claim to arbitration under Section B (Investor-State Dispute Settlement).

Annex 9-K

Submission of Certain Claims for Three Years After Entry into Force

Malaysia

Without prejudice to a claimant’s right to submit other claims to arbitration pursuant to Article 9.19 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration), Malaysia does not consent to the submission of a claim that Malaysia has breached a government procurement contract with a covered investment, below the specified contract value, for a period of three years after the date of entry into force of this Agreement for Malaysia.  The specified contract values are: (a) for goods, SDR 1,500,000; (b) for services, SDR 2,000,000; and (c) for construction, SDR 63,000,000.

Annex 9-L

Investment Agreements

A. Agreements with selected international arbitration clauses

1. An investor of a Party may not submit to arbitration a claim for breach of an investment agreement under Article 9.19.1(a)(i)(C) (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration) or Article 9.19.1(b)(i)(C) if the investment agreement provides the respondent’s consent for the investor to arbitrate the alleged breach of the investment agreement and further provides that:

2. Notwithstanding Article 9.21.2(b) (Conditions and Limitations on Consent of Each Party), if a claimant submits to arbitration a claim that the respondent has breached:

the claimant’s submission of a written waiver shall not preclude its right to initiate or continue an arbitration under an investment agreement, if that investment agreement meets the criteria in paragraph 1, with respect to any measure alleged to constitute a breach referred to in Article 9.19 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration).

3. If a claimant:

any disputing party may seek a consolidation order in accordance with the agreement of all the disputing parties sought to be covered by the order or the terms of paragraphs 2 through 10 of Article 9.28 (Consolidation).

B. Certain agreements between Peru and covered investments or investorsFootnote 45

1. Pursuant to Legislative Decrees 662 and 757, Peru may enter into agreements known as “stability agreements” with covered investments or investors of another Party.

2. As part of a stability agreement referred to in paragraph 1, Peru accords certain benefits to the covered investment or the investor that is a party to the agreement. These benefits typically include a commitment to maintain the existing income tax regime applicable to such covered investment or investor during a specified period of time.

3. A stability agreement referred to in paragraph 1 may constitute one of multiple written instruments that make up an “investment agreement”, as defined in Article 9.1 (Definitions).Footnote 46 If that is the case, a breach of such a stability agreement by Peru may constitute a breach of the investment agreement of which it is a part.

4. If a stability agreement does not constitute one of multiple instruments that make up an “investment agreement”, as defined in Article 9.1 (Definitions), a breach of such a stability agreement by Peru shall not constitute a breach of an investment agreement.

C. Limitation of Mexico’s consent to arbitration

1. Without prejudice to a claimant’s right to submit other claims pursuant to Article 9.19 (Submission of a Claim to Arbitration), Mexico does not consent to the submission of any claim to arbitration under Article 9.19.1(a)(i)(C) or 9.19.1(b)(i)(C) if the submission to arbitration of that claim would be inconsistent with the following laws with respect to the relevant acts of authorityFootnote 47:

provided, however, that the application of the provisions referred to in subparagraphs (a) through (i) shall not be used as a disguised means to repudiate or breach the investment agreement.

2. If any law referred to in paragraph 1 is amended to permit the submission to arbitration of such a claim after the entry into force of this Agreement for Mexico, the limitation of Mexico’s consent specified in paragraph 1 shall not apply with respect to that law.Footnote 48

D. Specific Canadian entities under subpart (c) of definition

For Canada, authority at the central level of government includes entities listed under Schedule III of the Financial Administration Act (R.S.C. 1985, c. F-11), and port or bridge authorities, that have concluded an investment agreement under subpart (c) of the definition of “investment agreement” only if the government directs or controls the day to day operations or activities of the entity or authority in carrying out its obligations under the investment agreement.

Date Modified: